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Results 451 - 500 of 1000
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Yokouchi Y - - 1996
During limb development, the mesenchymal cells in restricted areas of limb bud, anterior necrotic zone, posterior necrotic zone, opaque zone and interdigital necrotic zones, are eliminated by programmed cell death. The transcripts of bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp)-2 and -4 were first detected in the areas where cell death was observed, ...
Pagan S M - - 1996
Using Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) as a marker for polarizing region cells we have repeated the experiments of MacCabe et al. (1973) and Fallon and Crosby (1975) in an attempt to reexamine the question of a continuous role for the polarizing region during limb development. We report that the earlier experiments ...
Stringa E - - 1996
The embryonic skull bone, the calvarium, develops via intramembranous ossification, whereby mesenchymal cells differentiate directly into osteoblasts. However, under certain conditions, such as systemic calcium deficiency, regions of cartilage-like tissue are observed in the chick embryonic calvarium, suggesting the presence of pre-cartilage cells. We have recently identified and isolated a ...
Koide M - - 1996
The developing embryonic heart has been reported to contain significant levels of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). In this study, the role of ANP in cardiac development was evaluated using cultured cardiomyocytes isolated from chick embryos. We analyzed the effect of ANP on cell number, DNA synthesis, total RNA level, the ...
Zenjari C - - 1996
During regeneration, blastema cell proliferation depends on several different factors which are, as yet, not fully understood. Previous studies showing the presence of FGF-1 and FGF receptors in the limb blastema make FGF-1 a potentially important molecule for limb regeneration but they do not demonstrate that this factor is active ...
Huang M H - - 1996
We have identified a previously undescribed intrinsic cardiac adrenergic (ICA) cell type in rodent and human heart. Northern and Western blot analyses demonstrated that ICA cell isolates contain mRNA and protein of enzymes involved in catecholamine biosynthesis. Radioenzymatic catecholamine assays also revealed that the catecholamine profile of adult rat ICA ...
Catala M - - 1996
The spinal cord of thoracic, lumbar and caudal levels is derived from a region designated as the sinus rhomboidalis in the 6-somite-stage embryo. Using quail/chick grafts performed in ovo, we show the following. (1) The floor plate and notochord derive from a common population of cells, located in Hensen's node, ...
Szabat E - - 1996
HB-GAM (heparin-binding growth-associated molecule) is a secretory, extracellular matrix-associated protein that was isolated by screening for proteins that enhance neurite outgrowth in perinatal rat brain neurons. In the present study we have investigated the possible role of HB-GAM in cell proliferation in the developing rat limb. Exogenously added recombinant HB-GAM ...
Mescher A L - - 1996
Formation of a regeneration blastema on the amputated urodele limb involves changes in the gene activity of differentiated cells resulting in their histological dedifferentiation and their return to a proliferative state. This review summarizes studies in limb regeneration and in the related fields of tissue repair and limb development that ...
Stocum D L - - 1996
This review describes what we have learned about mechanisms of patterning in regenerating urodele limbs. Experimental evidence for three concepts is presented. First, the regeneration blastema is a self-organizing system based on positional memories inherited from parent limb cells. Second, the autonomous patterning mechanism involves local cell interactions that determine ...
Cohen-Gould L - - 1996
In gastrulation stage embryos of birds and mammals, the heart field is established as mesodermal crescents flanking the area rostrolateral to Hensen's node. Subsequent fusion of the bilateral heart primordia gives rise to a single tubular heart consisting of two epithelial layers: an outer myocardium and an inner endocardium. To ...
Webb S - - 1996
Murine trisomy 16 (Ts16) is a model for Down's syndrome and has close to a 100% incidence of atrioventricular septal defects (AVSDs). These have been proposed to result from abnormal development of the endocardial cushions, but the mechanisms are unknown. We aim to identify the initial defects in Ts16 hearts, ...
Fucci L - - 1996
The possibility that the minor embryonic chick hemoglobins might be present in a particular subgroup of primitive erythroid cells has been investigated by in situ hybridization. Probe to detect the mRNA for the alpha A globin chain of the minor embryonic hemoglobin was used, and the results of the hybridization ...
Wei X - - 1996
Caudal dysgenesis/sirenomelia is a malformation complex for which the pathogenesis is controversial. This report describes the particular vulnerability of specific caudal structures to Ochratoxin A (OA), a fungal toxin, as the basis for caudal dysgenesis in an avian model. The experimental procedure involved injection of 1 microgram of OA into ...
Maleski M P - - 1996
Cell condensations are the initial structures in the formation of proper cartilage and skeletal patterning in the developing vertebrate limb. Chondrogenic differentiation is dependent upon the cell-cell and/or cell-matrix interactions which take place during the condensation process. Coincident with the onset of condensation is the expression by limb mesenchyme of ...
Bellomo D - - 1996
During gastrulation, the node of the mammalian embryo appears to be an organising centre, homologous to Hensen's node in the chick and the dorsal lip of the amphibian blastopore. In addition, the node serves as a precursor population for the head process, notochord and foregut endoderm. We have studied node ...
Wilson V - - 1996
A prospective fate map of the late gastrulation mouse primitive streak has been charted in 8.5 dpc mouse embryos developed in culture, using the lineage marker DiI to label groups of cells. As at earlier stages, the fate of cells in the 8.5 dpc primitive streak is regionalised such that ...
Boskey A L - - 1996
It is a common belief that chondrocyte death must precede calcification in the growth plate. To challenge this dogma, cell devitalization was induced in an in vitro model that mimics in situ cartilage calcification. Chick limb-bud mesenchymal cells, plated in micromass culture, differentiate to form a cartilaginous matrix which mineralizes ...
Kanatsu M - - 1996
In murine embryogenesis, all cells that will constitute the embryonic structures originate from the epiblast (primitive ectoderm) tissue, the epithelial cell sheet of the gastrulating embryo. The cells of this tissue are totipotent at the beginning of gastrulation, but at the end of this period are specified to particular cell ...
Li S - - 1996
FGF-2 is proposed to be an important ectodermal signal directing limb outgrowth and patterning. Consistent with this hypothesis we show that ectopic application of FGF-2 can maintain the apical ectodermal ridge (AER)-dependent expression of Sonic hedgehog (Shh), and AER-dependent zone of polarizing activity (ZPA) signaling. We also find that ectopic ...
Selleck M A - - 1996
It is well established that Hensen's nodes can induce the formation of supernumerary digits after grafting into the anterior margin of the developing limb bud. The recent finding that distinct mesodermal cell populations are segregated within the node has made it possible to isolate different prospective cell types in an ...
Mérida-Velasco J A - - 1996
The parathyroid glands have been classically considered derivatives of the third and fourth pharyngeal pouches in most species, including humans. The presence of neural crest-derived cells in parathyroid glands connective tissue has apparently been established. However, our previous studies have provided a new hypothesis on the origin of these glands ...
Huang R - - 1996
We have studied the distribution of thoracic somite and somitocoele-derived cells using homotopical grafting between quail and chicken embryos and reincubation periods of 2-6 days. Serial sections were evaluated with antibodies against quail cells, quail hemangiopoietic cells and desmin. With the exception of neural crest cells in the cranial sclerotome ...
Akeo K - - 1996
The rod outer segments of the retina that are phagocytized by retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are susceptible to lipid peroxidation because of their high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Linoleic hydroperoxides (LHP), synthesized by peroxidation of linoleic acids (LA), produce greater damage to retinal function than does LA. We ...
Yamamoto H - - 1996
To elucidate the degree of malignancy or the host-killing ability of rat ascites hepatoma AH66F, AH66 and AH130, the chick embryo-polymerase chain reaction system was used to measure the metastasis of these hepatoma cells. When inoculated into the chorioallantoic membrane vein of 10-day fertilized chicken eggs, AH66F cells metastasized in ...
Cruz Y P - - 1996
Allocation of cells in the marsupial epiblast to embryonic and extra-embryonic domains has to date been studied only histologically. An unresolved issue in marsupial embryology has been the existence of a medullary plate. We re-examined the hypotheses that the medullary plate, or neurectoderm, arises before notochord formation and that the ...
Halpern M E - - 1995
Zebrafish floating head mutant embryos lack notochord and develop somitic muscle in its place. This may result from incorrect specification of the notochord domain at gastrulation, or from respecification of notochord progenitors to form muscle. In genetic mosaics, floating head acts cell autonomously. Transplanted wild-type cells differentiate into notochord in ...
Prada F A - - 1995
Monoclonal antibody 3CB2 recognizes an antigen expressed in discrete cell types derived from ectoderm and mesoderm. Biochemical and immunohistochemical studies indicate that the antigen recognized by the antibody is a 55 kDa cytoplasmic protein that may be an intermediate filament associated protein (IFAP). Developmental studies show that 3CB2 antigen is ...
Yuan S - - 1995
The notochord normally arises from committed cells in the rostral tip of the primitive streak. After removal of these cells from the avian gastrula, embryos with notochords nevertheless develop in the majority of cases. A region required for the formation of this reconstituted notochord lies lateral to the primitive streak. ...
Borkowski O M - - 1995
We have used a novel cell marker, in which the twist promoter directs the synthesis of the cell surface protein CD2 (twi-CD2) to examine the development of the mesoderm in the Drosophila embryo after gastrulation and to locate the progenitor cell populations for different mesodermal derivatives. We find that the ...
Detrich H W HW - - 1995
Vertebrate hematopoietic stem cells are derived from vental mesoderm, which is postulated to migrate to both extra- and intraembryonic positions during gastrula and neurula stages. Extraembryonic migration has previously been documented, but the origin and migration of intraembryonic hematopoietic cells have not been visualized. The zebrafish and most other teleosts ...
Khaner O - - 1995
In the amniotes, two unique layers of cells, the epiblast and the hypoblast, constitute the embryo at the blastula stage. All the tissues of the adult will derive from the epiblast, whereas hypoblast cells will form extraembryonic yolk sac endoderm. During gastrulation, the endoderm and the mesoderm of the embryo ...
Willbold E - - 1995
Radial columnar organization of cell clones is a characteristic feature of vertebrate retinae that is structurally not understood. Here we provide in vitro evidence that Müller glia processes stabilize cells within columns. Dissociated embryonic chick retinal plus pigmented cells regenerate in vitro into fully laminated stratospheroids. After reaggregating chick and ...
Domingo C - - 1995
We show that notochord-inducing signals are present during Xenopus laevis gastrulation and that they are important for both inducing and organizing cell behavior and differentiation in the notochord. Previous work showed that convergent extension of prospective notochordal and somitic mesoderm occurs by mediolateral cell intercalation to produce a longer, narrower ...
Garcia C - - 1995
A study is made of the morphological characteristics of the endodermic cells of the stage 5 chick embryo by means of in vitro cell culture techniques. The scanning electron microscope revealed that the endodermic cells in cultures were rounded, tended to be smooth and had few blebs and microvilli. Regarding ...
Miller A - - 1995
This paper describes the use of a photobleach method and confocal microscopy to compare the cell-to-cell transfer rate of 5,6 carboxyfluorescein in dissociated embryonic chick lens cells with those in the anterior epithelium of the whole embryonic chick lens. The average cell-to-cell transfer rates obtained were 7.9 x 10(-3) sec-1 ...
Yonei S - - 1995
We have previously shown that MRC-5 cells induce the duplication of the chick limb bud following the implantation into the anterior limb bud only during pre-limb-bud stages. We now report the process of duplicated pattern formation caused by MRC-5 cells. The duplicated patterns are also formed following the implantation into ...
Kachinsky A M - - 1995
By using immunohistology combined with immunoblotting, cell culture, and RT-PCR, we show that the intermediate filament protein nestin is transiently expressed in the midembryonic mouse heart. Monoclonal antibody (MAb) Rat-401, known to react with nestin in neural and skeletal muscle cells, was also found to react with ventricular and atrial ...
Sze L Y - - 1995
In this study, we have isolated newly formed somites from the caudal regions of 8.5 day mouse embryos and transplanted them orthotopically into correspondingly staged hosts at the level of the prospective limb-forming region. The experimental embryos were then cultured intact for 32-36 hr. The donor somites used were pre-labelled ...
Schumaker T T - - 1995
The histology of skin responses to infestation with Argas (Persicargas) miniatus Koch, 1844, larvae was investigated on previously unexposed 1-mo-old chicks. An amorphous, acidophilic substance, referred to as cement, was observed from 24 h after infestation until the ticks had detached. The morphology of the lesions changed gradually during the ...
Koop S - - 1995
Metastasis is an inefficient process; only a few cancer cells are able to form tumors after being released into the circulation. We studied the fate of cancer cells after injection into the circulation, quantifying their survival and ability to extravasate by 1 day later. B16F10 cells, parental or transfectants overexpressing ...
Fontaine-Perus J - - 1995
Chimeras were prepared by transplanting somites from 9-day post-coïtum mouse embryos or somitic dermomyotomes from 10-day post-coïtum mouse embryos into 2-day-old chick embryos at different axial levels. Mouse somitic cells then differentiated in ovo in dermis, cartilage and skeletal muscle as they normally do in the course of development and ...
Tsonis P A - - 1995
Limb regeneration is a phenomenon occurring only in some urodeles. The process seems to be initiated by the dedifferentiation of the terminally differentiated cells. These cells differentiate, subsequently, to the tissues that comprise the limb, thus reconstructing the pattern of the missing limb part. In this paper we review and ...
Christ B - - 1995
We report on the formation and early differentiation of the somites in the avian embryo. The somites are derived from the avian embryo. The somites are derived from the mesoderm which, in the body (excluding the head), is subdivided into four compartments: the axial, paraxial, intermediate and lateral plate mesoderm. ...
Bumcrot D A - - 1995
Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is expressed in tissues with known signalling capacities, such as the notochord, the floor plate of the central nervous system, and the zone of polarizing activity in the limb. Several lines of evidence indicate that Shh is involved in floor plate induction, somite patterning, and regulation of ...
Ebensperger C - - 1995
Pax-1 encodes for a DNA-binding transcriptional activator that was originally discovered in murine embryos using a probe from the Drosophila paired-box-containing gene, gooseberry-distal. We have cloned the avian Pax-1 gene as a basis for experimental studies of the induction of Pax-1 in the paraxial mesoderm. The amino acid sequence of ...
Frasch M - - 1995
After gastrulation, progenitor cells of the cardiac, visceral and body wall musculature arise at defined positions within the mesodermal layer of the Drosophila embryo. The regulatory mechanisms underlying this process of pattern formation are largely unknown, although ablation experiments carried out in other insects indicate that inductive influences from ectodermal ...
Cohn M J - - 1995
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) act as signals in the developing limb and can maintain proliferation of limb bud mesenchyme cells. Remarkably, beads soaked in FGF-1, FGF-2, or FGF-4 and placed in the presumptive flank of chick embryos induce formation of ectopic limb buds, which can develop into complete limbs. The ...
Pitsillides A A - - 1995
The mechanisms essential for generating diarthrodial joint cavities between skeletal elements in developing limbs remain enigmatic. Histochemical localization of hyaluronan (HA) at joint interzones concomitant with cavitation led to the postulation that HA may be pivotal in this process. HA synthesis involves the transfer of UDP-glucuronate and UDP-N-acetyl glucosamine to ...
Wilson V - - 1995
The T (Brachyury) deletion in mouse is responsible for defective primitive streak and notochord morphogenesis, leading to a failure of the axis to elongate properly posterior to the forelimb bud. T/T embryonic stem (ES) cells colonise wild-type embryos, but in chimeras at 10.5 days post coitum (dpc) onwards they are ...
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