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Centurione L - - 2010
Morphological features of granulosa cells can reflect their functional status. The present study was aimed at comparing possible differences in the fine structure of human granulosa cells exposed to gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist or antagonist treatment during ovarian stimulation. Cells were obtained from follicular aspirates of 21 women treated with ...
Grasselli F - - 2010
Because of its widespread use and potential adverse biological effects, bisphenol A (BPA) represents one of the most studied endocrine-disrupting compounds. Within the reproductive system, ovarian granulosa cells have been documented as a target of BPA action, but no consensus has been reached about functional modifications induced by BPA. On ...
Choi Jong Yeob - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the involvement of autophagy in folliculogenesis and its correlation with apoptosis. DESIGN: Animal model-based study. SETTING: University medical center. ANIMAL(S): Twenty-one day-old female Sprague-Dawley rats. INTERVENTION(S): Ovaries obtained from established immature rat models primed with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) were used for the induction of follicular ...
Linterman Michelle A - - 2010
During T cell-dependent responses, B cells can either differentiate extrafollicularly into short-lived plasma cells or enter follicles to form germinal centers (GCs). Interactions with T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are required for GC formation and for selection of somatically mutated GC B cells. Interleukin (IL)-21 has been reported to play ...
Yokoo Masaki - - 2010
In most mammals, the oocyte is surrounded with compact multilayers of cumulus cells; these form cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). During oocyte maturation, the COCs dramatically expand and this is termed "cumulus expansion". We have previously demonstrated that cumulus expansion is the result of hyaluronan synthesis and accumulation in the extracellular space ...
Tian X - - 2010
SMAD signaling is essential for follicular development. The distribution of activated (phosphorylated) SMADs during folliculogenesis has not been described in detail. The present results indicate that oocytes from preantral and antral follicles contain the mRNA for the receptor regulated Smads (-1, -2, -3, -5 and -9), Smad4 (co-SMAD), and Smad6 ...
Raucci Franca - - 2010
We investigated whether the maturation of oocyte follicular epithelium of lizard is affected by d-aspartic acid (d-Asp). Our results demonstrated that d-Asp is endogenously present in the oocytes, and its distribution varies during the reproductive cycle and following intraperitoneal administration. At previtellogenesis, it is observed in the cytoplasm and nucleus ...
Jaglarz Mariusz K - - 2010
In fly ovaries, the follicular epithelium surrounding germline cells diversifies into several morphologically distinct cell subpopulations. This complex process is crucial for the formation of a regionally complex eggshell and establishment of polarity of the future embryo. Morphogenetic changes accompanying patterning of the follicular epithelium have been best characterized in ...
Wang Hong-Xing - - 2010
WNTs are secreted extracellular signaling molecules that transduce their signals by binding to G protein-coupled receptors of the frizzled (FZD) family. They control diverse developmental processes, such as cell fate specification, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and apoptosis. Although WNT signaling has been shown to be essential for development of the ...
De Felici Massimo - - 2010
At or early after birth, mammalian ovaries are filled with primordial follicles each composed by an oocyte blocked at the end of prophase I surrounded by a single layer of granulosa cells. The doctrine that female mammals are born with a finite number of oocytes fated to be exhausted with ...
Wen Xuexue - - 2011
Ovarian follicular development, follicle selection, and the process of ovulation remain poorly understood in most species. Numerous endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine factors, including the ligands represented by the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) superfamily, TGFβ, activin, inhibin, bone morphometric protein (BMP), and growth differentiation factor (GDF) are present in the ...
Webley G E - - 2010
To address the potential luteolytic role for prostaglandin F(2 alpha) (PGF(2 alpha)) in the corpus luteum of the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus), the ability of marmoset luteal cells, maintained in monolayer culture, to produce PGF(2 alpha) was determined in vitro in the presence and absence of human chorionic gonadotrophin ...
Fedorcs?k P?ter - - 2010
Tissue reorganization during ovulation and corpus luteum formation involves a coordinated action of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue MMP inhibitors (TIMPs). In this study we investigated the cellular source of ovarian MMPs and TIMPs. Cells isolated from the preovulatory human follicle were cultured after immunobead depletion of CD45-expressing cells, which ...
Ramayya M S - - 2010
The majority of cancers derived from ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells are lethal. Estrogens promote proliferation of OSE cells, whereas progesterone inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis of OSE cells. Human steroidogenic factor-1 (hSF-1) induction of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) gene, and the steroidogenic enzymes CYP11A1 and HSD3B2 is ...
Lewandowski Jordan P JP Cell and Molecular Biology Graduate Program, Institute for Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, - - 2010
During Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis, a germline stem cell divides forming a cyst of 16 interconnected cells. One cell enters the oogenic pathway, and the remaining 15 differentiate as nurse cells. Although directed transport and localization of oocyte differentiation factors within the single cell are indispensible for selection, maintenance, and differentiation ...
Zhang Xiaoxin - - 2010
The ovarian sympathetic nerves participate in the regulation of mammalian ovarian function, but it is still not known whether the neonatal ovarian sympathetic nerve is involved in follicular development and related mechanisms. In the present study, the superior ovarian nerve (SON) of the neonatal rat was transected on postnatal day ...
Binelli Mario - - 2010
The continuum of folliculogenesis begins in the fetal ovary with the differentiation of the oogonia and their isolation within the primordial follicles. Primordial follicle activation is an enigmatic process, whereby some follicles enter the growing pool to become primary follicles, thereby embarking on an irreversible progression towards ovulation or atresia. ...
Zhang Yu - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Homeobox (HOX) genes encode transcription factors, which regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and migration. The deregulation of HOX genes is frequently associated with human reproductive system disorders. However, knowledge regarding the role of HOX genes in human granulosa cells is limited. METHODS: To determine the role of HOXA7 in ...
Grupen Christopher G - - 2010
The objective of the present study was to determine the temporal effects of sow follicular fluid (FF) in vitro on cumulus cell viability and function, as well as oocyte nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) recovered from the ovaries of prepubertal pigs were matured in medium with (+FF) or ...
Kolesarova Adriana - - 2010
Cobalt (Co) is an essential element. The general objective of this in vitro study was to examine dose-dependent changes in the secretory activity of porcine ovarian granulosa cells after experimental Co administration and to outline the potential intracellular mediators of its effects. Concentrations of IGF-I and progesterone were determined by ...
Liu Xiaohui - - 2010
Although many nanomaterials are being used in academia, industry and daily life, there is little understanding about the effects of nanoparticles on the reproductive health of vertebral animals, including human beings. An experimental study was therefore performed here to explore the effect of calcium phosphate nanoparticles on both steroid hormone ...
Schelbach Cheryl J - - 2010
Glucosamine (GlcN) is a widely used hyperglycaemia mimetic because of its ability to upregulate the 'energy-sensing' hexosamine biosynthesis pathway in a dose-dependent manner. A previous study demonstrated that addition of GlcN (2.5-5 mM) during IVM of cattle and pig cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) inhibited development following fertilisation and early cleavage. In ...
Nicholas Cory R - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Female reproductive potential, or the ability to propagate life, is limited in mammals with the majority of oocytes lost before birth. In mice, surviving perinatal oocytes are enclosed in ovarian follicles for subsequent oocyte development and function in the adult. Before birth, fetal germ cells of both sexes develop ...
Peddinti Divyaswetha - - 2010
Oocytes are the female gametes which establish the program of life after fertilization. Interactions between oocyte and the surrounding cumulus cells at germinal vesicle (GV) stage are considered essential for proper maturation or 'programming' of oocytes, which is crucial for normal fertilization and embryonic development. However, despite its importance, little ...
Myers Michelle - - 2010
Bidirectional signaling between the oocyte and surrounding somatic cells is absolutely essential for successful germ cell development in mammals. Oocytes secrete proteins that are necessary for granulosa cells growth and differentiation, whilst granulosa cells regulate oocyte development and integrate ovarian function with the rest of the body by orchestrating gonadal ...
Ding Wei - - 2010
The assembly of primordial follicles and subsequent development and transition of the primordial follicle to the primary follicle are critical processes in ovarian biology. In order to examine follicle formation and development in fetal and neonatal pigs, ovarian samples were obtained from a famous local breed of Chinese pigs, Erhualian ...
Franken D R - - 2009
Since the onset of intracytoplasmic sperm injection, researchers have intensified the search for the ideal spermatozoa to be used for injection. The aim of this study was to record the functional role of cumulus cell interaction with human spermatozoa as far as capacitation, acrosome reaction, morphology, zona binding and chromatin ...
Nystul Todd - - 2010
Though much has been learned about the process of ovarian follicle maturation through studies of oogenesis in both vertebrate and invertebrate systems, less is known about how follicles form initially. In Drosophila, two somatic follicle stem cells (FSCs) in each ovariole give rise to all polar cells, stalk cells, and ...
Gill Shahid Afzal - - 2011
This study was planned and executed with the aims to explore corpus luteal primary cell culture as an "animal alternate testing system" in toxicity studies and in vitro toxic effects of cypermethrin (CY) 90% (pyrethroid) and methamidophos (MTP) 73% (organophosphate) on morphology and progesterone secretory activity of bovine corpus luteal ...
K?ks S - - 2010
Communication between various ovarian cell types is a prerequisite for folliculogenesis and ovulation. In antral follicles granulosa cells divide into two distinct populations of mural and cumulus granulosa cells (CGC), enveloping the antrum and surrounding the oocyte, respectively. Both cell types, with the mural compartment in excess, contribute to the ...
Fan Heng-Yu - - 2010
The small G proteins of the RAS superfamily act as molecular switches in the transduction of cellular signals critical for a wide range of normal developmental events as well as pathological processes. However, the functions of Ras genes in ovarian cells have only started to be unveiled. RAS, most likely ...
Patel Satin S - - 2009
According to the traditional two-cell two-gonadotropin model of follicular steroidogenesis, androgen production arises exclusively from theca cells. The granulosa cells, in turn, utilize androstenedione and testosterone, which are aromatized into estrone and estradiol, respectively. Differential expression of the activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor, c-fos, has been postulated to result in ...
Nakamura Shuhei - - 2009
Aromatase is a steroidogenic enzyme catalyzing the production of estrogens and is important for the proper development and function of the reproductive system. The lineage of cyp19a1 (ovarian-type aromatase)-expressing cells in the developing gonad was analyzed using a transgenic medaka (Oryzias latipes) that recapitulates endogenous cyp19a1 expression with EGFP fluorescence. ...
Crisosto Nicol?s - - 2009
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by the presence of hyperandrogenism and an increased follicular mass probably determined by deregulation of locally produced factors. Anti-M?llerian hormone (AMH) is a glycoprotein that inhibits follicular recruitment and determines the size of the follicular pool. To evaluate the role of androgens in the ...
Serke Heike - - 2009
Autophagic cell death has been observed in granulosa cell cultures via the oxLDL-dependent activation of lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX-1). This activation might differ for cytokeratin-positive (CK(+)) and CK(-) granulosa cells. In particular, LOX-1 and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), one of the pattern recognition receptors of innate ...
Stelzer Rosemary - - 2009
Nanoparticle technology refers to research and technology developed at the atomic or molecular level for materials of approximately 1-100 nm in length. Through accidental or involuntary exposure, nanoparticles are potentially toxic to the body, including reproductive organs. Ovarian granulosa cells play a major role in maintaining ovarian function, health, and ...
Edson Mark A - - 2009
Two major functions of the mammalian ovary are the production of germ cells (oocytes), which allow continuation of the species, and the generation of bioactive molecules, primarily steroids (mainly estrogens and progestins) and peptide growth factors, which are critical for ovarian function, regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, and development of ...
Szołtys Maria - - 2010
Immunolocalization of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogense (3β-HSD), cytochrome P450c17 (P450c17) and androgen receptor (AR) were investigated in rat cumuli oophori (COCs) of late pre-ovulatory follicles and in post-ovulatory COCs bearing fertilized oocytes. A gradient of intensity of 3β-HSD immunolabelling was observed in the granulosa layer of pre-ovulatory follicles, with almost negative immunolabelling ...
Naka Mayumi - - 2009
In the process of ovary sexual maturation, most immature ovarian follicles degrade into atretic follicles accompanied by apoptosis in granulosa cells. Macrophages can recognize apoptotic cells through specific binding with phosphatidylserine (PS), exposed on the surface of apoptotic cells, which is mediated by milk-fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8). In the ...
Bajénoff Marc - - 2009
Afferent lymph is transported throughout lymph nodes (LNs) by the conduit system. Whereas this conduit network is dense in the T-cell zone, it is sparse in B-cell follicles. In this study, we show that this differential organization emerges during lymph node development. Neonatal LNs lack B follicles, but have a ...
Lambert Charles C - - 2009
Ascidians are primitive chordates, subphylum Tunicata, that are sessile filter-feeding hermaphrodites as adults. Released oocytes are enclosed within a monolayer of follicle cells, a non-cellular vitelline coat and a monolayer of test cells that cover the egg membrane. Follicle cell structure is distinctive in different groups. They originate from circulating ...
Fan Heng-Yu HY Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, - - 2009
The small G-protein KRAS is crucial for mediating gonadotropin-induced events associated with ovulation. However, constitutive expression of KrasG12D in granulosa cells disrupted normal follicle development leading to the persistence of abnormal follicle-like structures containing nonmitotic cells. To determine what factors mediate this potent effect of KrasG12D, gene profiling analyses were ...
Pierre P - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Adiponectin is involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis and more recently in the reproductive functions. We have previously shown that adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) are expressed in human granulosa cells. However, it remains to be investigated whether both AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 or only one of these receptors ...
Bardales Jos? R - - 2009
Two different isoforms of the regulatory (R) subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), named R(myt1) and R(myt2), had previously been identified in the sea mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. R(myt1) and R(myt2) were differentially distributed in the various cell types comprising the mussel mantle. R(myt1) was found the only isoform to be ...
Roth Siegfried - - 2009
The orthogonal axes of Drosophila are established during oogenesis through a hierarchical series of symmetry-breaking steps, most of which can be traced back to asymmetries inherent in the architecture of the ovary. Oogenesis begins with the formation of a germline cyst of 16 cells connected by ring canals. Two of ...
Gupta Rupesh K RK Division of Toxicology, Department of Veterinary Biosciences, University of Illinois, 2001 South Lincoln Avenue, 3223 VMBSB, Urbana-Champaign, IL 61802, USA. - - 2009
Methoxychlor (MXC) reduces fertility in female rodents, decreases antral follicle numbers, and increases atresia through oxidative stress pathways. MXC also inhibits antral follicle growth in vitro. The mechanism by which MXC inhibits growth of follicles is unknown. The growth of follicles is controlled, in part, by cell cycle regulators. Thus, ...
Pereira João P JP Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California San Francisco, California 94143, - - 2009
B cell follicles are specialized microenvironments that support events necessary for humoral immunity. After antigen encounter, activated B cells initially seek T-cell help at the follicle-T-zone boundary and then move to interfollicular and T-zone distal (outer) regions of the follicle. Subsequently, some cells move to the follicle centre, become germinal ...
Maurizii Maria G - - 2009
The vasa gene, first identified in Drosophila, is a key determinant for germline formation in eukaryotes. Homologs of vasa have been identified and linked to germline development, in many invertebrates and vertebrates. Here, we analyze the distribution of Vasa in early germ cells (oogonia and oocytes) and previtellogenic ovarian follicles ...
Songsasen N - - 2009
Remarkably little is known about folliculogenesis in the dog. Objectives were to characterise (1) changes in follicle/oocyte diameter and granulosa cell number and (2) localisation of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 and FGF-7 during dog ovarian follicle development. Fourteen ovarian pairs were excised and processed for histological evaluation. Two to four ...
Govindan J Amaranath - - 2009
Soma-germline interactions control fertility at many levels, including stem cell proliferation, meiosis and gametogenesis, yet the nature of these fundamental signaling mechanisms and their potential evolutionary conservation are incompletely understood. In C. elegans, a sperm-sensing mechanism regulates oocyte meiotic maturation and ovulation, tightly coordinating sperm availability and fertilization. Sperm release ...
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