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Results 301 - 350 of 2473
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Yoshida Sakiko - - 2008
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) spreads through cell-to-cell contact by forming a virological synapse. Based on the finding that HTLV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) binds to a PDZ domain containing scaffold protein Dlg1, whose function has been implicated in the organization of neuronal and immunological synapses, we examined the ...
Boxell Annika - - 2008
The complete development of Cryptosporidium in host cell-free medium first described in 2004, represented a significant advance that can facilitate many aspects of Cryptosporidium research. A current limitation of host cell-free cultivation is the difficulty involved in visualising the life-cycle stages as they are very small in size, morphologically difficult ...
Heinecke Lowella - - 2008
T-cell infiltration of the epithelium is a key feature of chronic rhinosinusitis and asthma. Viral infections are an important cause of disease exacerbations. We have found virus-induced expression of T cell-interacting ligands, B7 homolog costimulatory molecules, on airway epithelium. We tested the ability of human rhinovirus (HRV) 16 and double-stranded ...
Schmidt-Christensen Anja - - 2008
Cysteine proteases mediate liberation of Plasmodium berghei merozoites from infected hepatocytes. In an attempt to identify the responsible parasite proteases, we screened the genome of P. berghei for cysteine protease-encoding genes. RT-PCR analyses revealed that transcription of four out of five P. berghei serine repeat antigen (PbSERA) genes was strongly ...
Spurbeck Rachel R - - 2008
High levels of Lactobacillus, the dominant genus of the healthy human vaginal microbiota, have been epidemiologically linked to a reduced risk of infection following exposure to the sexually transmitted pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae. In this work, a cell culture model of gonococcal infection was adapted to examine the effects of lactobacilli ...
Egea Laia - - 2008
When exposed to enteric pathogens intestinal epithelial cells produce several cytokines and other proinflammatory mediators. To date there is no evidence that the ether-lipid platelet-activating factor (PAF) is one of these mediators. Our results revealed a significant increase in PAF production by human colonic tissue 4 h after infection by ...
Kumaki Yohichi - - 2008
The primary targets for SARS-CoV infection are the epithelial cells in the respiratory and intestinal tract. The angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) has been identified as a functional receptor for SARS-CoV. ACE-2 has been shown to be expressed at the apical domain of polarized Calu-3 cells. In this report, interferon alfacon ...
Polymenidou Magdalini - - 2008
Influenza vaccine production in embryonated eggs is associated with many disadvantages, and production in cell culture systems is a viable alternative. Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells are permissive for a variety of orthomyxoviruses and have proven particularly suitable for vaccine mass production. However, mammalian cells harboring the Prnp gene ...
Krocova Zuzana - - 2008
Immunity to Francisella tularensis is largely mediated by T lymphocytes but an important role of B lymphocytes in early stage of infection was previously uncovered. We wanted to find out if F. tularensis is able to infect B cells and/or influence them by direct contact. To investigate this possibility we ...
Plotkowski Maria-Cristina - - 2008
This report addressed the question whether ExoU stimulation of airway epithelial cells may contribute to the inflammatory response detected in the course of Pseudomonas aeruginosa respiratory infections. Infection with PA103 P. aeruginosa elicited a potent release of IL-6 and IL-8, as well as of arachidonic acid (AA) and PGE(2) that ...
Power A T - - 2008
Live cells offer unique advantages as vehicles for systemic oncolytic virus (OV) delivery. Recent studies from our laboratory and others have shown that virus-infected cells can serve as Trojan horse vehicles to evade antiviral mechanisms encountered in the bloodstream, prevent uptake by off-target tissues and act as microscale factories to ...
Dyson Ossie F - - 2008
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) has two modes of replications: latent and lytic replications. Reactivation from latency is dictated, in part, by the cell cycle. Herein, we have attempted to delineate the importance of cell cycle in KSHV pathogenesis by exploring the expression pattern of cell-surface receptors during different phases of ...
Brehm Klaus - - 2008
In order to elucidate host-parasite interactions and infection strategies of helminths at the molecular level, the availability of suitable in vitro cultivation systems for this group of parasites is of vital importance. One of the few helminth systems for which in vitro cultivation has been relatively successfully carried out in ...
Mays Charles E - - 2008
The cerebellum is involved in complex physiological functions including motor control, sensory perception, cognition, language, and emotion. Humans and animals with prion diseases are characterized clinically by ataxia, postural abnormalities and cognitive decline. Pathology in the cerebellum affected by prions includes spongiform degeneration, neuronal loss, and gliosis. To develop an ...
Aguib Yasmine - - 2008
Cell models for prion diseases are mainly of neuronal origin. However, the pathological isoform PrP(Sc) of cellular prion protein (PrP(c)) and prion infectivity are found in a variety of extraneural tissues in prion diseases. Although many cell types are not able to propagate PrP(Sc), little is known about cellular mechanism ...
Nishizawa Toyohiko - - 2008
Fish nodaviruses are causative agents of viral nervous necrosis causing high mortality in cultured marine fishes around the world. The first successful isolation of fish nodavirus was made with SSN-1 cells, which are persistently infected with snakehead retrovirus (SnRV). In the present study, a BF-2 cell line persistently infected with ...
Tahara Maino - - 2008
Measles is one of the most contagious human infectious diseases and remains a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. The signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM), also called CD150, is a cellular receptor for measles virus (MV), presumably accounting for its tropism for immune cells and its immunosuppressive properties. ...
Amino Rogerio - - 2008
The malaria sporozoite, the parasite stage transmitted by the mosquito, is delivered into the dermis and differentiates in the liver. Motile sporozoites can invade host cells by disrupting their plasma membrane and migrating through them (termed cell traversal), or by forming a parasite-cell junction and settling inside an intracellular vacuole ...
Sillankorva S - - 2008
AIMS: To study the efficacy of the lytic phage varphiS1 in eliminating Pseudomonas fluorescens in the early stage of biofilm formation, using an in situ and real time methodology for cell quantification. METHODS AND RESULTS: Cell adhesion and phage infection studies were carried out in a parallel plate flow chamber ...
Langlois Marc-André MA Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2QH, United Kingdom. - - 2008
APOBEC3 proteins are mammal-specific cytidine deaminases that can restrict retroviral infection. The exact mechanism of the restriction remains unresolved, but one model envisions that uracilated retroviral cDNA, generated by cytidine deamination, is the target of cellular glycosylases. While restriction is unaffected by UNG deficiency, it has been suggested that the ...
Maul Gerd G - - 2008
The promise of the mouse model of cytomegalovirus (CMV) research lies in a cost effective way to obtain significant data in in vivo settings. Keeping that promise requires a high degree of equivalency in the human and mouse virus. While genomic structure and many common proteins suggest that this system ...
Pohlscheidt M - - 2008
For the production of a chemically inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis (PPVO), an adherent bovine kidney cell line was cultivated on Cytodex-3 microcarriers in suspension culture. The inactivated and purified virus particles have shown immune modulatory activity in several animal models. PPVO was produced by a biphasic batch process at the 3.5 ...
Manzano-Roman Raúl - - 2008
The obligate intracellular pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum is transmitted by ticks and causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis, tick-borne fever of ruminants, and equine and canine granulocytic anaplasmosis. In a previous study, the perilipin (PLIN) gene was identified as one of the genes differentially expressed in human promyelocytic HL-60 cells in response to ...
Jarousse Nadine - - 2008
Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) is used as a model to study gammaherpesvirus pathogenesis both in tissue culture systems and in vivo. We used a gene-trapping approach to get insight into cellular factors involved in MHV68 infection. By generating a library of gene-trapped CHO cells, we were able to isolate several ...
Cockrell Diane C - - 2008
Purification of the obligate intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii requires physical disruption of infected cells. Here we describe a gentle and safe digitonin lysis procedure to release C. burnetii from infected cells. The purity, yield, and infectivity of digitonin-prepped organisms are comparable to that of organisms purified using cell lysis by ...
Bisaggio Danielle Frias Ribeiro - - 2008
Suramin has been previously reported to inhibit distinct cellular enzymes and to affect the synthesis and distribution of cytoskeleton proteins, cell differentiation and proliferation. The present study indicates that prolonged incubation of Trypanosoma cruzi-infected cells in the presence of 500 microM suramin during intracellular development of the parasite causes morphological ...
Bergelson Jeffrey M - - 2008
To initiate infection, poliovirus must release its RNA genome into the cytoplasm of a target cell, a process called 'uncoating'. How this occurs has remained uncertain, despite studies over several decades. Two new studies re-address the question of poliovirus entry. The results suggest that poliovirus enters different cells by different ...
Molestina Robert E - - 2008
Mammalian cells infected with Toxoplasma gondii are characterized by a profound reprogramming of gene expression. We examined whether such transcriptional responses were linked to changes in the cell cycle of the host. Human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) in the G(0)/G(1) phase of the cell cycle were infected with T. gondii and ...
Wegmann Susanne - - 2008
The infectious agent in prion diseases is an aberrant-folded isoform of the cellular prion protein (PrPC). This scrapie-related prion protein (PrPSc) has an increased beta-sheet content, is detergent insoluble and proteinase K resistant, and accumulates in prion-infected organisms and cells. In vitro, PrPSc self-aggregates into amyloid fibrils. However, there is ...
Stoner, Terri Dorene
Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) is a natural component of a variety of cruciferous plants including broccoli, cabbage, and brussel sprouts. I3C is an antagonist of the G1 phase of the cell cycle (Cover et al., JBC 1998; 273: 3838-47). It is known that cell cycle factors are required for herpes simplex virus ...
Yu P - - 2008
Xenotransplantation is associated with the risk of Porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) transmission, since it has been shown that PERV can infect human cells in vitro (Specke et al., Virology 285, 177-180, 2001). We evaluated the possibility of PERV infection of human cells in nude mice model. Porcine kidney cells PK15 ...
Vella Laura J - - 2008
Prion-propagating cell lines are an efficient and useful means for studying the cellular and molecular mechanisms implicated in prion disease. Use of cell-based models has lead to the finding that prion protein (PrP(C)) and PrP(Sc) are released from cells in association with exosomes. Furthermore, exosomes have been shown to act ...
Vieira Otilia V - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The urgent need for cheap and easy-to-use protection against both unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases has stimulated considerable interest in the use of surfactants as microbicides, anti-viral, and contraceptive agents in recent years. In the present study we report a systematic in vitro evaluation of the microbicidal, anti-viral ...
Courageot M-P - - 2008
It has been shown previously that ovine prion protein (PrP(C)) renders rabbit epithelial RK13 cells permissive to the multiplication of ovine prions, thus providing evidence that species barriers can be crossed in cultured cells through the expression of a relevant PrP(C). The present study significantly extended this observation by showing ...
Sinzger C - - 2008
The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) can infect a remarkably broad cell range within its host, including parenchymal cells and connective tissue cells of virtually any organ and various hematopoietic cell types. Epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells are the predominant targets for virus replication. The pathogenesis of acute ...
Diallo Ibrahim S - - 2008
Twelve nasal swabs were collected from yearling horses with respiratory distress and tested for equid herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) and equid herpesvirus 4 (EHV-4) by real-time PCR targeting the glycoprotein B gene. All samples were negative for EHV-1; however, 3 were positive for EHV-4. When these samples were tested for EHV-2 ...
Xu Xiao-Feng - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The pathogenesis of dengue virus (DV) has not been completely clarified. Rab8 regulates vesicular traffic from Golgi to plasma membrane where DV is matured and then delivered by exocytosis. In this study, involvement of Rab8 in DV serotype 2 (DV2) infection was investigated in HpeG2 cells. METHODS: Distributions of ...
Kong Byung-Whi - - 2008
A simple and efficient collection method using hypotonic burst to isolate virions from infected cultured cells is described. Distilled water treatment of avian metapneumovirus (AMPV)-infected cells with thorough mixing and repeated pipeting was considerably faster for virion collection in avian cells compared to the widely used freeze-thaw (F-T) method (30 ...
Smee Donald F - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The antipoxviral activities and phosphorylation of N-methanocarbathymidine ([N]-MCT) and four 5-halo-2'-deoxyuridines, namely 5-fluoro-(FdU), 5-chloro-(CldU), 5-bromo-(BrdU), and 5-iodo-(IdU) derivatives, were explored. METHODS: Antiviral activities and nucleoside metabolism were determined in C127I mouse, LLC-MK2 monkey, and A549 human cells infected with thymidine-kinase-containing and -deficient (TK+ and TK-) vaccinia (WR strain) viruses. ...
Hu Jun - - 2008
Bluetongue viruses (BTVs) infect primarily domestic cattle and wild ruminants but have never been shown to infect normal human cells. Thus, humans are sero-negative towards BTVs. The selective and differential effects of BTV serotype 10 (BTV-10) infection were investigated with five cell lines including primary human embryo lung fibroblast (HEL) ...
Obara Hisato - - 2008
Mycoplasma hyorhinis (M. hyorhinis) exerts multiple effects on cell metabolisms including apoptosis mediated by their endonucleases and nitric oxide production in vitro. Although AsA is preferable to health in general because of its reactive oxygen species scavenging activity, we found that in a human carcinoma cell line AZ-521 infected with ...
Verma Saguna - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Selenium (Se) deficiency plays an important role in viral pathogenesis. To understand the effects of Se deficiency on West Nile virus (WNV) infection, we analyzed cytopathogenicity, apoptosis and viral replication kinetics, using a newly developed Se-deficient cell culture system. RESULTS: Both Vero and SK-N-SH cells grown in Se-deficient media ...
Mohan Ketha V - - 2008
Rotavirus is a non-enveloped virus that depends on cellular lipids for cell entry and associates with lipid rafts during assembly. However, the effects of cellular lipids on rotavirus assembly are still not fully understood. The present study analyzes the effects of lovastatin, an inhibitor of cholesterol biosynthesis, during rotavirus infection ...
Brennan Lesley J - - 2008
Wolbachia are obligate intracellular bacteria which commonly infect arthropods. They are maternally inherited and capable of altering host development, sex determination, and reproduction. Reproductive manipulations include feminization, male-killing, parthenogenesis, and cytoplasmic incompatibility. The mechanism by which Wolbachia avoid destruction by the host immune response is unknown. Generation of antimicrobial peptides ...
Barcia Carlos - - 2008
Astrocytes usually respond to trauma, stroke, or neurodegeneration by undergoing cellular hypertrophy, yet, their response to a specific immune attack by T cells is poorly understood. Effector T cells establish specific contacts with target cells, known as immunological synapses, during clearance of virally infected cells from the brain. Immunological synapses ...
Mahal Sukhvir P SP Department of Infectology, Scripps Florida, Jupiter, FL, - - 2008
Prions are usually quantified by bioassays based on intracerebral inoculation of animals, which are slow, imprecise, and costly. We have developed a cell-based prion assay that is based on the isolation of cell lines highly susceptible to certain strains (Rocky Mountain Laboratory and 22L) of mouse prions and a method ...
Timpe Jennifer M JM Institute for Biomedical Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United - - 2008
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection of Huh-7.5 hepatoma cells results in focal areas of infection where transmission is potentiated by cell-cell contact. To define route(s) of transmission, HCV was allowed to infect hepatoma cells in the presence or absence of antibodies that neutralize cell-free virus infectivity. Neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) reduced ...
Wittkop Ulrike - - 2008
Chlamydophila pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae) has been detected in macrophages (Mø) and dendritic cells (DC) in vascular diseases. To understand the importance of these cell types in C. pneumoniae infection and transmission, we infected DC and cultivated them with Mø in a coculture model system which precludes cell-to-cell contact during chlamydial ...
Persson Emma K - - 2007
The obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii chronically infects up to one-third of the global population, can result in severe disease in immunocompromised individuals, and can be teratogenic. In this study, we demonstrate that death receptor ligation in T. gondii-infected cells leads to rapid egress of infectious parasites and lytic necrosis ...
Uppington Kay M - - 2008
Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders. They are characterised by neuronal loss and the accumulation of an abnormal protein in the CNS. Cell lines exist that express the toxic form of the prion protein (PrP) with little evidence of cell death. Other cell based models studying the mechanism by which ...
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