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Persico Marcello - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The poor response to antiviral treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients with genotype 1b has been associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome. However, the molecular link between these clinical entities is not clear. The goal of this study was to clarify the role of genotype 1b ...
Bhattacharyya Sumit - - 2009
The receptors for adhesion of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (RBC) in the placenta have been identified as chondroitin-4-sulphate (C4S) proteoglycans, and the more sulphate-rich chondroitin oligosaccharides have been reported to inhibit adhesion. Since the anti-malarial drug chloroquine accumulates in lysosomes and alters normal lysosomal processes, the effects of chloroquine ...
Cox Courtney - - 2009
Human Noroviruses are the predominant cause of non-bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. To facilitate prevention and control, a norovirus isolated from mice can provide a model to understand human noroviruses. To establish optimal viral infectivity conditions for murine noroviruses, several cell lines of hematopoietic lineage, including murine BV-2, RAW 264.7, and TIB, ...
Al-Hasani Keith - - 2009
We have previously shown that the enterotoxin SigA which resides on the she pathogenicity island (PAI) of S. flexneri 2a is an autonomously secreted serine protease capable of degrading casein. We have also demonstrated that SigA is cytopathic for HEp-2 cells and plays a role in the intestinal fluid accumulation ...
Wu Yuehong - - 2009
Amphotropic pseudotyped retroviral vectors have typically been used to infect target cells without prior concentration. Although this can yield high rates of infection, higher rates may be needed where highly efficient coinfection of two or more vectors is needed. In this investigation we used amphotropic retroviral vectors produced by the ...
Witteveldt Jeroen J MRC Virology Unit, Institute of Virology, University of Glasgow, Church Street, Glasgow G11 5JR, - - 2009
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects cells by the direct uptake of cell-free virus following virus engagement with specific cell receptors such as CD81. Recent data have shown that HCV is also capable of direct cell-to-cell transmission, although the role of CD81 in this process is disputed. Here, we generated cell ...
Eklund Sven E SE Department of Chemistry, Vanderbilt University, VU Station B. Nashville, TN 37235, USA; E-Mails: seklund@latech.edu ; - - 2009
Harnessing the potential of cells as complex biosensors promises the potential to create sensitive and selective detectors for discrimination of biodefense agents. Here we present toxin detection and suggest discrimination using cells in a multianalyte microphysiometer (MMP) that is capable of simultaneously measuring flux changes in four extracellular analytes (acidification ...
St-Pierre François - - 2008
Bacteriophage lambda infection of Escherichia coli can result in distinct cell fate outcomes. For example, some cells lyse whereas others survive as lysogens. A quantitative biophysical model of lambda infection supports the hypothesis that spontaneous differences in the timing of individual molecular events during lambda infection leads to variation in ...
Panomket Pawana - - 2008
Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is an important intracellular pathogen in tropical regions. TANK-binding kinase (TBK1), part of the pathway that induces transcription of Type I interferon genes, has been demonstrated to play an important role in controlling intracellular bacterial infections. To investigate the role of tbk1 in ...
Lee D - - 2008
In pig-to-human xenotransplantation, zoonotic infections have been an important barrier. The risk of zoonosis has been emphasized in xenotransplantation after finding that porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) can infect human cells in vitro. Until now, transmissions of PERVs from PK15 cells have been studied in vitro and in vivo, but transmission ...
Boldis V - - 2008
A total of 80 adult ticks (55 Haemaphysalis inermis, 12 Dermacentor reticulatus, 11 D. marginatus, 2 Ixodes ricinus) were collected from vegetation in three areas of Slovakia (forest and pasture habitat) in central Europe. Forty-six (46 ticks) (57.5%) of all species tested were positive by the hemocyte test, PCR assays ...
Kiel Johnathan L - - 2008
We previously reported a rickettsial heartwater-like disease in vipers from Ghana that resembled heartwater in its gross lesions, was apparently transmitted by ticks (Aponomma and Amblyomma), and responded clinically favorably to early treatment with tetracycline. Cell culture showed consistent cytopathic effects in bovine endothelial cells, viper cells, and mouse cells, ...
Gao Libo - - 2009
The biochemical effects of 2-(ethoxymethylthio)-9-phenyl-cyclohepta[d]pyrimidone (EPCP), a novel non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, have been investigated. Treatment with EPCP (EC(50) of 0.88 nM in CEM x174 cells) significantly inhibited the activity of SIV reverse transcriptase and elevated the percentage of viable cells in an SIV-infected sample in a dose-dependent manner. The ...
Misinzo G - - 2009
Epithelial cells are the major in vivo target cells for porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). Although these cells are used for most studies of PCV2 gene expression and, little is known on PCV2 entry, attachment and internalization, in epithelial cells. PCV2 attachment to epithelial cells occurred rapidly and in a ...
Nonaka Mizuho - - 2009
Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is a fatal lymphoproliferative disease that develops in human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I)-infected individuals. Despite the accumulating knowledge of the molecular biology of HTLV-I-infected cells, effective therapeutic strategies remain to be established. Recent reports showed that the hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase inhibitor statins have anti-proliferative ...
Murata Eri - - 2008
Death receptor-mediated host cell apoptosis, a defense strategy for elimination by the immune system of parasite-infected cells, is inhibited by Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease. It has previously been reported by us that, in infected cells, T. cruzi upregulates and exploits cFLIP(L), a mammalian inhibitor of death ...
Kato Akihisa - - 2009
Us3 is a serine-threonine protein kinase encoded by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). As reported here, we attempted to identify the previously unreported physiological substrate of Us3 in HSV-1-infected cells. Our results were as follows. (i) Bioinformatics analysis predicted two putative Us3 phosphorylation sites in the viral envelope glycoprotein B ...
Dagenais Taylor R - - 2009
Variable subregions within the variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) coat displayed by African trypanosomes are predicted sites for T- and B-cell recognition. Hypervariable subregion 1 (HV-1) is localized to an internal amphipathic alpha helix in VSG monomers and may have evolved due to selective pressure by host T-cell responses to epitopes ...
Carinhas Nuno - - 2009
One of the major concerns regarding the use of insect cells and baculovirus expression vectors for the production of recombinant proteins is the drop in production observed when infecting cultures at high cell densities; this work attempts to understand this so-called cell density effect in the scope of baculovirus production ...
Dewan M Zahidunnabi - - 2008
Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is associated with human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 infection. The tumor suppressor lung cancer 1 (TSLC1) gene was previously identified as a novel cell surface marker for ATL, and this study demonstrated the involvement of TSLC1 expression in tumor growth and organ infiltration of ATL ...
Jarousse Nadine - - 2008
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and its murine homolog, murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68), are lymphotropic viruses that establish latent infection in their host. Surprisingly, while B cells are the main viral reservoir in vivo, B-cell lines are poorly permissive to infection by either MHV68 or KSHV. Here, we report that most ...
Moore Elizabeth R - - 2008
Chlamydiae replicate intracellularly within a unique vacuole termed the inclusion. The inclusion circumvents classical endosomal/lysosomal pathways but actively intercepts a subset of Golgi-derived exocytic vesicles containing sphingomyelin (SM) and cholesterol. To further examine this interaction, we developed a polarized epithelial cell model to study vectoral trafficking of lipids and proteins ...
Ando Yoshinori - - 2008
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) causes fatal and sporadic encephalitis in human. The encephalitis-survivors frequently suffer from symptoms of memory deficits. It remains unclear how HSV-1 induces tissue damages in memory formation-associated brain tissues such as the hippocampus. In this study, we examined HSV-1 infection in the hippocampus using ...
Tiwari Vaibhav - - 2008
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) demonstrates a unique ability to infect a variety of host cell types. Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells form the outermost layer of the retina and provide a potential target for viral invasion and permanent vision impairment. Here we examine the initial cellular and molecular mechanisms ...
Pakkanen Kirsi - - 2008
Previously, virus-induced non-filopodial extensions have not been encountered in connection with viral infections. Here, we report emergence of long extensions protruding from Norden laboratory feline kidney (NLFK) and A72 (canine fibroma) cells infected with canine parvovirus for 72 h. These extensions significantly differ in length and number from those appearing ...
Matsuo Aya - - 2008
TLR22 occurs exclusively in aquatic animals and its role is unknown. Herein we show that the fugu (Takifugu rubripes) (fg)TLR3 and fgTLR22 link the IFN-inducing pathway via the fg Toll-IL-1R homology domain-containing adaptor protein 1(fgTICAM-1, or TRIF) adaptor in fish cells. fgTLR3 resides in endoplasmic reticulum and recognizes relatively short-sized ...
Nakazato Tetsuro - - 2008
Clinical trials for treatment of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) caused by human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) using all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) have shown satisfactory therapeutic responses, although efficacies were limited. Recently, many synthetic retinoids have been developed and among them, a novel synthetic retinoid, Am80 (Tamibarotene) is an RARalpha- ...
Barford Jessica M T - - 2008
PURPOSE: Catheter associated urinary tract infection is the most common type of hospital acquired infection. An understanding of catheter associated urinary tract infection pathogenesis is needed to improve the control and treatment of these infections. We investigated the relationship among catheter material, bacteria and bladder epithelial cell reaction. MATERIALS AND ...
Dezfulian Mehrouz - - 2008
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with progressive dementia. Multiple processes have been implicated in AD, notably including abnormal beta-amyloid production, tau hyperphosphorylation and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), synaptic pathology, oxidative stress, inflammation, protein processing or misfolding, calcium dyshomeostasis, aberrant reentry of neurons into the cell cycle, cholesterol synthesis, ...
Greil Christopher S - - 2008
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal neurodegenerative diseases that include Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, bovine spongiform encephalopathy and sheep scrapie. Although one of the earliest events during TSE infection is the cellular uptake of protease resistant prion protein (PrP-res), this process is poorly understood due to the difficulty of clearly distinguishing input ...
Bryant Kevin F - - 2008
The small molecule salubrinal has antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and inhibits dephosphorylation of eIF2 alpha mediated by the HSV-1 protein ICP34.5. We investigated whether salubrinal's activities in infected cells depend on ICP34.5. An ICP34.5 deletion mutant was as sensitive as wild type HSV-1 to salubrinal inhibition of ...
Barcia Carlos - - 2008
The clearance of virally infected cells from the brain is mediated by T cells that engage antigen-presenting cells to form supramolecular activation clusters at the immunological synapse. However, after clearance, the T cells persist at the infection site and remain activated locally. In the present work the long-term interactions of ...
Plotkowski M C - - 2008
The present study addressed the question whether ExoU, a Pseudomonas aeruginosa toxin with phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity, may induce airway epithelial cells to overexpress tissue factor (TF) and exhibit a procoagulant phenotype. Cells from the human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B line were infected with an ExoU-producing P. aeruginosa strain, pre-treated or ...
Gorchakov Rodion - - 2008
Alphaviruses represent a serious public health threat and cause a wide variety of diseases, ranging from severe encephalitis, which can result in death or neurological sequelae, to mild infection, characterized by fever, skin rashes, and arthritis. In the infected cells, alphaviruses express only four nonstructural proteins, which function in the ...
Ott David - - 2008
Prion diseases are untreatable neurodegenerative disorders characterized by accumulation of PrP(Sc), an aggregated isoform of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)). We generated a library of PrP variants with random mutations in the helix-3 domain and screened for dominant-negative mutants (DNMs) that would inhibit replication of prions (the Rocky Mountain Laboratory ...
Kuh S U - - 2008
BACKGROUND: LMP-1 is known to increase proteoglycan production through the upregulating the BMPs and it is also known that BMP-2 acts on anulus fibrosus cells and chondrocytes to increase proteoglycan production. METHOD: We carried out an experiment, the effect of AdLMP-1 transfection on AF cells and chondrocytes in the production ...
Mouillet-Richard Sophie - - 2008
The conversion of the cellular prion protein, PrP(C), to an abnormal isoform, PrP(Sc), is a central event leading to neurodegeneration in prion diseases. Deciphering the molecular and cellular changes imparted by PrP(Sc) accumulation remains an arduous task due to the small number of cell lines supporting prion replication. Here we ...
Chen Sheng-Xia - - 2008
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The sarcotesta of Ginkgo biloba is a Chinese herbal medicine used for treating toxoplasmosis, a serious disease requiring treatment with antibiotics that can have serious side effects. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the anti-Toxoplasmagondii activity of ginkgolic acids (GAs) isolated from the Ginkgo biloba sarcotesta in Toxoplasmagondii-infected ...
Sakagami Hiroshi - - 2008
Sasa senanensis Rehder extract (SE) showed slightly higher cytotoxicity against human squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and human glioblastoma cell lines, as compared with human oral normal cells (gingival fibroblast, pulp cell, periodontal ligament fibroblast), and was more cytotoxic to human myelogenous and T-cell leukemia cell lines. SE showed a ...
Leonard Vincent H J - - 2008
The current model of measles virus (MV) pathogenesis implies that apical infection of airway epithelial cells precedes systemic spread. An alternative model suggests that primarily infected lymphatic cells carry MV to the basolateral surface of epithelial cells, supporting MV shedding into the airway lumen and contagion. This model predicts that ...
Qin Qing-Ming - - 2008
Brucella species are facultative intracellular bacterial pathogens that cause brucellosis, a global zoonosis of profound importance. Although recent studies have demonstrated that Brucella spp. replicate within an intracellular compartment that contains endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident proteins, the molecular mechanisms by which the pathogen secures this replicative niche remain obscure. Here, ...
Ishikawa Mieko - - 2008
Few laboratory strains of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) can infect Crandell feline kidney cells (an epithelial-type of cells), however, most primary isolates are T-lymphotropic. T-lymphotropic FIV requires both feline CD134 (an activation marker of helper T-lymphocytes) and CXCR4 (a chemokine receptor) in infection as primary and secondary receptors, respectively. Using ...
Botterel, Françoise
Abstract Background Invasive aspergillosis, which is mainly caused by the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus , is an increasing problem in immunocompromised patients. Infection occurs by inhalation of airborne conidia, which are first encountered by airway epithelial cells. Internalization of these conidia into the epithelial cells could serve as a portal of ...
Tattoli Ivan - - 2008
Infected epithelial cells, which act as a first barrier against pathogens, seldom undergo apoptosis. Rather, infected epithelial cells undergo a slow cell death that displays hallmarks of necrosis. Here, we demonstrate that rapid intracellular lysis of Shigella flexneri, provoked by either the use of a diaminopimelic acid auxotroph mutant or ...
Goh, Phuay-Yee
The Severe and Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS CoV) is a newly-emerged virus that caused an outbreak of atypical pneumonia in the winter of 2002-2003. Polyclonal antibodies raised against the nucleocapsid (N) of the SARS CoV showed the localization of N to the cytoplasm and the nucleolus in virus-infected and ...
Stojkovic Bojana - - 2008
The engulfment of Bacillus anthracis spores by macrophages is an important step in the pathogenesis of inhalational anthrax. However, from a quantitative standpoint, the magnitude to which macrophages interact with and engulf spores remains poorly understood, in part due to inherent limitations associated with commonly used assays. To analyze phagocytosis ...
Venketaraman Vishwanath - - 2008
Two virulence factors produced by the periodontopathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans are leukotoxin, a secreted lipoprotein that kills human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophages, and poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PGA), a surface polysaccharide that mediates intercellular adhesion, biofilm formation and detergent resistance. In this study we examined the roles of leukotoxin and PGA in protecting A. ...
Zweygarth E - - 2008
Four stocks of Ehrlichia ruminantium (Welgevonden, Ball3, Nonile and Blaauwkrans), the causative agent of heartwater in domestic ruminants, were isolated into Ixodes scapularis (IDE8) tick cells using the leukocyte fraction of the blood of infected sheep. Organisms of two of the E. ruminantium stocks (Welgevonden and Blaauwkrans) propagated in IDE8 ...
Verma, Saguna
Abstract Background Selenium (Se) deficiency plays an important role in viral pathogenesis. To understand the effects of Se deficiency on West Nile virus (WNV) infection, we analyzed cytopathogenicity, apoptosis and viral replication kinetics, using a newly developed Se-deficient cell culture system. Results Both Vero and SK-N-SH cells grown in Se-deficient ...
Dong Chuanfu - - 2008
Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) is a typical species of the genus Megalocytivirus in the family Iridoviridae. However, until recently, no suitable piscine cell line is stably susceptible to ISKNV. Here, a continuous cell culture derived from the mandarin fish fry (MFF-1) was developed and has been subcultured ...
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