Search Results
Results 51 - 100 of 2473
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Lang Christina - - 2011
Phospholipases are a diverse class of enzymes produced both by eukaryotic hosts and their pathogens. Major insights into action pathways of bacterial phospholipases have been provided during the last years. On the one hand bacterial phospholipases act as potent membrane destructors and on the other hand they manipulate and initiate ...
Santos Joana M - - 2011
Invasion of host cells by apicomplexan parasites is initiated when specialized secretory organelles called micronemes discharge protein complexes onto the parasite surface in response to a rise in parasite intracellular calcium levels. The microneme proteins establish interactions with host cell receptors, engaging the parasite with the host cell surface, and ...
Hanover John A - - 2011
The nutrient sensor O-GlcNAc transferase modifies proteins with the O-GlcNAc moiety. In this issue, Capotosti et al. (2011) reveal that O-GlcNAc transferase not only glycosylates the cell-cycle regulator host cell factor 1 but activates it through proteolytic cleavage, providing a surprising link between metabolism and epigenetic regulation of the cell cycle.
Asphahani Fareid - - 2011
The response of cells to a chemical or biological agent in terms of their impedance changes in real-time is a useful mechanism that can be utilized for a wide variety of biomedical and environmental applications. The use of a single-cell-based analytical platform could be an effective approach to acquiring more ...
Alonzo Francis F - - 2011
The Gram-positive bacterial cell wall presents a structural barrier that requires modification for protein secretion and large-molecule transport as well as for bacterial growth and cell division. The Gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes adjusts cell wall architecture to promote its survival in diverse environments that include soil and the cytosol of ...
Sattler Julia Magdalena - - 2011
Many intracellular pathogens hijack host cell actin or its regulators for cell-to-cell spreading. In marked contrast, apicomplexan parasites, obligate intracellular, single cell eukaryotes that are phylogenetically older than the last common ancestor of animals and plants, employ their own actin cytoskeleton for active motility through tissues and invasion of host ...
Dewoody Rebecca - - 2011
The pathogenic Yersinia species share a conserved type III secretion system, which delivers cytotoxic effectors known as Yops into target mammalian cells. In all three species, YopK (also called YopQ) plays an important role in regulating this process. In cell culture infections, yopK mutants inject higher levels of Yops, leading ...
Pelz Christiane - - 2011
The Helicobacter pylori protein CagA (cytotoxin-associated gene A) is associated with an increased risk for gastric cancer formation. After attachment to epithelial cells, the bacteria inject CagA via a type IV secretion apparatus into host cells, where it exerts its biological activity. Host cell responses to intracellular CagA have been ...
Nothelfer Katharina - - 2011
Invasive bacterial pathogens such as Shigella flexneri force their uptake into non-phagocytic host cells. Upon internalization, they rupture the endocytic vacuole and escape into the host cell cytoplasm. Recent studies applying fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) based methods to track host-pathogen interactions have provided insights into the process of bacterial ...
Sateriale Adam - - 2011
The protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica is responsible for invasive intestinal and extraintestinal amebiasis. The virulence of Entamoeba histolytica is strongly correlated with the parasite's capacity to effectively kill and phagocytose host cells. The process by which host cells are killed and phagocytosed follows a sequential model of adherence, cell killing, ...
Weber Andreas P M - - 2011
Plastids have a multitude of functions in eukaryotic cells, ranging from photosynthesis to storage, and a role in essential biosynthetic pathways. All plastids are of either primary or higher-order endosymbiotic origin. That is, either a photosynthetic cyanobacterium was integrated into a mitochondriate eukaryotic host cell (primary endosymbiosis) or a plastid-bearing ...
Wu Xiang - - 2011
The periplasmic High Temperature Requirement protein A (HtrA) plays important roles in bacterial protein folding and stress responses. However, the role of chlamydial HtrA (cHtrA) in chlamydial pathogenesis is not clear. The cHtrA was detected both inside and outside the chlamydial inclusions. The detection was specific since both polyclonal and ...
Choi Chul Hee CH Department of Periodontology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of - - 2011
The recent introduction of "oxygen-independent" flavin mononucleotide (FMN)-based fluorescent proteins (FbFPs) is of major interest to both eukaryotic and prokaryotic microbial biologists. Accordingly, we demonstrate for the first time that an obligate anaerobe, the successful opportunistic pathogen of the oral cavity, Porphyromonas gingivalis, can be genetically engineered for expression of ...
Rajni - - 2011
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the causative agent of tuberculosis disease, which has developed a myriad of exceptional features contributing to its survival within the hostile environment of host cell. Unique cell wall structure with high lipid content plays an imperative role in the pathogenicity of mycobacteria. Cell wall components of MTB ...
Baumgartner Martin - - 2011
Theileria annulata is an intracellular protozoan parasite that infects B cells and macrophages of ruminants. Macrophages infected with T. annulata are de-differentiated and display tumour cell properties and a metastatic behaviour. How parasitized cells adapt their morphology, motility and invasive behaviour has not yet been addressed in detail. In this ...
Luquin M R - - 2010
Striatal carotid body cell aggregates (CBCA) grafts improve parkinsonism in animals and patients with Parkinson's disease. As CB cells contain trophic factors, we investigated the long-term effect of striatal CBCA grafts on nigrostriatal dopaminergic cells in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated monkeys receiving unilateral (UL-grafted group, n=4) or bilateral (BL-grafted group, n=3) CBCA ...
Gaus Kristin - - 2011
Pathogenic Yersinia species inject a panel of Yop virulence proteins by type III protein secretion into host cells to modulate cellular defense responses. This enables the survival and dissemination of the bacteria in the host lymphoid tissue. We have previously shown that YopE of the Y. enterocolitica serogroup O8 is ...
Barth Holger - - 2011
Bacterial exotoxins exploit protein transport pathways of their mammalian target cells to deliver their enzymatic active moieties into the cytosol. There, they modify their specific substrate molecules resulting in cell damage and the clinical symptoms characteristic for each individual toxin. We have investigated the cellular uptake of the binary actin ...
Liu Yaoping Y Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, 1124 W. Carson St., Torrance, CA, USA. - - 2011
Candida albicans is part of the normal human flora, and it grows on mucosal surfaces in healthy individuals. In susceptible hosts, this organism can cause both mucosal and hematogenously disseminated disease. For C. albicans to persist in the host and induce disease, it must be able to adhere to biotic ...
Kasper Christoph Alexander - - 2010
The enteroinvasive bacterium Shigella flexneri uses multiple secreted effector proteins to downregulate interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression in infected epithelial cells. Yet, massive IL-8 secretion is observed in Shigellosis. Here we report a host mechanism of cell-cell communication that circumvents the effector proteins and strongly amplifies IL-8 expression during bacterial infection. By ...
Foster Neil - - 2010
We show that following oral inoculation, prions bind to ileal Peyer patch and cecal patch microfold cells (M cells) in vivo. Furthermore, we show evidence that the cecum acts a biological sump holding large concentrations of prions for relatively long periods, thus increasing the exposure time of cecal patch M ...
Wira C R - - 2011
Female reproductive tract (FRT) epithelial cells protect against potential pathogens and sexually transmitted infections. The purpose of this study was to determine if epithelial cells from the upper FRT secrete antimicrobials that inhibit reproductive tract pathogens that threaten women's health. Apical secretions from primary cultures of Fallopian tube, uterine, cervical, ...
Wen Su - - 2011
This study investigated the effect of the extract of Bupleuri Radix (BRE) on the infection of Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells by anti-H1N1 virus. The effect of BRE on RANTES (the chemokine regulated on activation, normal T cells expressed and secreted) secretion in H1N1-infected A549 cells (human bronchial epithelial cells) ...
Irie Kanami - - 2010
Some hundred cells of Chlorella-like green algae are naturally enclosed within the cytoplasm of a single cell of green paramecia (Paramecium bursaria). Therefore, P. bursaria serves as an experimental model for studying the nature of endo-symbiosis made up through chemical communication between the symbiotic partners. For studying the mechanism of ...
Hayashi Yasuhiro - - 2010
The obligate intracellular bacterium Parachlamydia acanthamoebae is a potential human pathogen, but the host range of the bacteria remains unknown. Hence, the growth of P. acanthamoebae Bn₉ in protozoa (Tetrahymena, Acanthamoeba, Dictyostelium) and mammalian cells (HEp-2, Vero, THP-1, PMA-stimulated THP-1, Jurkat) was assessed using an AIU assay which had been ...
Lee Byung Cheol - - 2010
In a previous study, we reported that a gene mutation of repeat in toxin E (RtxE), a transporter of cytotoxic factors, resulted in a significant impairment of epithelial cell cytotoxicity in Vibrio vulnificus, and that the expression of the rtxE gene was induced by the exposure to the host cells. ...
Khalafalla Reda E - - 2011
The negative effects of coccidiosis on poultry health and productivity and increasing problems related to drug resistance have stimulated the search for novel and alternative methods of control. The present study evaluates the anticoccidial activity of curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a natural polyphenolic compound abundant in the rhizome of the perennial herb ...
Oliveira Virgínia Carla - - 2011
The nonstructural protein (NSs) of the Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) has been identified as an RNAi suppressor in plant cells. A recombinant Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) designated vAcNSs, containing the NSs gene under the control of the viral polyhedrin (polh) gene promoter, was constructed and the effects of ...
Gödeke Julia - - 2011
Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is capable of forming highly structured surface-attached communities. By DNase I treatment, we demonstrated that extracellular DNA (eDNA) serves as a structural component in all stages of biofilm formation under static and hydrodynamic conditions. We determined whether eDNA is released through cell lysis mediated by the three ...
Brimacombe Claire L CL Hepatitis C Research Group, Institute For Biomedical Research, University of Birmingham, Vincent Drive, Birmingham B15 2TT, United - - 2011
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) can initiate infection by cell-free particle and cell-cell contact-dependent transmission. In this study we use a novel infectious coculture system to examine these alternative modes of infection. Cell-to-cell transmission is relatively resistant to anti-HCV glycoprotein monoclonal antibodies and polyclonal immunoglobulin isolated from infected individuals, providing an ...
Coleman Carrie B - - 2010
Gammaherpesviruses, including Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV; also known as human herpesvirus 8 [HHV-8]), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68; also known as gammaherpesvirus 68 [γHV68] or murine herpesvirus 4 [MuHV-4]), establish lifelong latency in the resting memory B cell compartment. However, little is known about how this reservoir ...
Berlutti F - - 2010
Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus, the principal etiologic agents of caries decay of teeth, are generally acquired in oral cavity at the moment of tooth eruption. However, as S. mutans has been detected in oral cavity of predentate children, the eruption of teeth seems not to be a necessary prerequisite, ...
Loghavi Sanam - - 2011
Introduction: Polyomavirus infections are common in the general (adult) population with a reported prevalence of more than 80%. Polyomavirus can infect urothelial carcinoma and change the morphology of these malignant cells, as is shown in this paper. Material and Methods: An eighty year old Hispanic male was referred to the ...
Rajanbabu Venugopal - - 2011
Antimicrobial peptides, small cysteine-rich molecules, play vital roles in host defense mechanisms against pathogen infection. Recently, tilapia hepcidin (TH)1-5, was characterized, and its antimicrobial functions against several pathogens were reported. Herein, we investigated the antiviral functions of TH1-5 against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) in Chinook salmon embryo (CHSE)-214 cells. ...
Scassa María E - - 2011
We studied the susceptibility of human embryonic stem cells and derived contractile embryoid bodies from WAO9, HUES-5 and HUES-16 cell lines to Coxsackievirus B infection. After validating stem cell-like properties and cardiac phenotype, Coxsackievirus B receptors CAR and DAF, as well as type I interferon receptors were detected in all ...
Botta Ginevra - - 2010
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive human brain tumor, and is highly resistant to chemo- and radiotherapy. Selectively replicating oncolytic viruses represent a novel approach for the treatment of neoplastic diseases. Coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (CAR) is the primary receptor for adenoviruses, and loss or reduction of CAR greatly decreases adenoviral ...
Lacroix Jeannine - - 2010
Despite multimodal therapeutic concepts, advanced localized and high-risk neuroblastoma remains a therapeutic challenge with a long-term survival rate below 50%. Consequently, new modalities for the treatment of neuroblastoma, e.g., oncolytic virotherapy are urgently required. H-1PV is a rodent parvovirus devoid of relevant pathogenic effects in infected adult animals. In contrast, ...
Miura Shiho - - 2010
CD1d and CD1d-restricted natural killer T (NKT) cells serve as a natural bridge between innate and adaptive immune responses to microbes. CD1d downregulation is utilized by a variety of microbes to evade immune detection. We demonstrate here that CD1d is downregulated in human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive cells in vivo and in ...
Chung Cheng-Yu - - 2010
To develop the enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccine, we previously constructed a recombinant baculovirus (Bac-P1-3CD) co-expressing EV71 P1 (under polyhedrin promoter) and 3CD (under p10 promoter) proteins, which caused P1 cleavage by 3CD protease and self-assembly of virus-like particles (VLPs) in Sf-9 cells. Assuming that reducing the 3CD expression can alleviate ...
Rinaldo Christine Hanssen - - 2010
Antiviral drugs for treating polyomavirus BK (BKV) replication in polyomavirus-associated nephropathy or hemorrhagic cystitis are of considerable clinical interest. Unlike cidofovir, the lipid conjugate 1-O-hexadecyloxypropyl cidofovir (CMX001) is orally available and has not caused detectable nephrotoxicity in rodent models or human studies to date. Primary human renal proximal tubular epithelial ...
Lin Tiehao - - 2010
The Spodoptera litura nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpltNPV) antiapoptotic gene Splt-p49 is able to rescue replication of a p35-null Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) in AcMNPV-permissive Sf9 cells. In this study, an AcMNPV p35 knockout bacmid was generated through ET homologous recombination in Escherichia coli and designated as vAc(P35-KO). The Splt-p49 gene was transposed ...
Carvalho Julianne V - - 2010
Neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite, closely related to Toxoplasma gondii, and causes abortion and congenital neosporosis in cattle worldwide. Trophoblast cells act in mechanisms of innate immune defense at the fetal-maternal interface and no data are available about the interaction of Neospora with human trophoblasts. Thus, this study aimed ...
Mehta Hina - - 2010
Replication-competent forms of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) defective in the viral neurovirulence factor infected cell protein 34.5 (ICP34.5) are under investigation for use in the therapeutic treatment of cancer. In mouse models, intratumoral injection of ICP34.5-defective oncolytic HSVs (oHSVs) has resulted in the infection and lysis of tumor cells, ...
Calattini Sara - - 2010
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is present in B cells in the blood of healthy people; few studies have looked for EBV in other cell types in blood from patients with lymphoproliferative disorders. We use a new technique combining immunofluorescent cell-surface staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization to quantify both EBV copy ...
Biéler Sylvain - - 2010
Microcin E492 (MccE492) is an antibacterial protein whose activity on target cells requires ManYZ, the inner membrane component of the mannose permease. We show here that MceA, the polypeptide core of MccE492, stably associates with ManYZ both in the presence and in the absence of MceB, the MccE492 immunity protein. ...
Lai Hsiao-Ching - - 2010
Tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes are considered to facilitate development of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), but how EBV in NPC tumor cells directs T cell infiltration remains unclear. Here we compare EBV-infected NPC cells with and without spontaneous expression of viral latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) and find that culture ...
Kurtz Brian M - - 2010
In this study, Equus caballus major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) was identified as a cellular entry receptor for the alphaherpesvirus equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1). This novel EHV-1 receptor was discovered using a cDNA library from equine macrophages. cDNAs from this EHV-1-susceptible cell type were inserted into EHV-1-resistant B78H1 ...
Zhu Xinmei - - 2010
T cell dysfunction significantly increases susceptibility to infections and organ failure after trauma or surgery (physical injury). This coincides with a persistent drop in arginine availability, a necessary amino acid for normal T cell function. Recent data led to the identification of a novel mechanism of T cell suppression caused ...
Serafini Barbara B Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, - - 2010
A cardinal feature of multiple sclerosis (MS) is the persistent intrathecal synthesis of antibodies. Our previous finding that a large fraction of B cells infiltrating the MS brain are infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) raises the possibility that this virus, because of its ability to establish a latent infection in ...
Zhao Zhe - - 2010
Vibrio alginolyticus is a Gram-negative bacterium and has been recognized as an opportunistic pathogen in humans as well as marine animals. However, the virulence mechanisms for this species of Vibrio have not been elucidated. This study characterized multiple mechanisms that induce cell death in fish cells upon infection with a ...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >