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Results 451 - 500 of 2474
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Mattila Joshua T - - 2007
Tick cell lines were used to model the effects of endosymbiont infection on phagocytic immune responses. The lines tested for their ability to phagocytose the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae), were ISE6 and IDE12 from the black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say (Acari: Ixodidae) and DAE15 from the Rocky ...
Goos Miriam - - 2007
Infections can aggravate the course of neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Mutations in the anti-oxidant enzyme Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1, SOD1) are associated with familial ALS. Streptococcus pneumoniae, the most frequent respiratory pathogen, causes damage by the action of the cholesterol-binding virulence factor pneumolysin and by stimulation ...
Andersson Monica - - 2007
Recombinant adenovirus vectors and transfection agents comprising cationic lipids are widely used as gene delivery vehicles for functional expression in cultured cells. Consequently, these tools are utilized to investigate the effects of functional over-expression of proteins on insulin mediated events. However, we have previously reported that cationic lipid reagents cause ...
Harrison Robert L RL USDA/ARS Insect Biocontrol Laboratory, Beltsville, MD, - - 2007
The lepidopteran insect cells used with the baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) are capable of synthesizing and accurately processing foreign proteins. However, proteins expressed in baculovirus-infected cells often fail to be completely processed, or are not processed in a manner that meets a researcher's needs. This chapter discusses a metabolic ...
Labadie Karine - - 2007
Cells cured of persistent virus infection can be used to investigate cellular pathways of resistance to viral cytopathic effects. Persistent poliovirus (PV) infections were established in human intestinal Caco-2 cells, and spontaneously cured cell cultures were obtained. Two cell clones, cl6 and b13, cured of type 3 PV mutant infection ...
Matusali Giulia - - 2007
In Burkitt's lymphoma cells, Epstein Barr virus (EBV) latency products interact with the ubiquitin-proteasome system to promote episomal maintenance and immunological evasion while the tripeptidylpeptidase II (TPPII) functions as an alternative protease. In the present study, we have examined the activities and levels of the proteasome and TPPII complex in ...
Miyamoto Maristela - - 2007
Forms of the protozoan of the Hepatozoon genus are detected free in the circulation and also within some of the erythrocytes of infected snakes. In healthy snakes, DNA fragmentation and cell death usually affect a few circulating erythrocytes in agreement with the long life span expected for these cells. In ...
Mock David J - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Human Herpesvirus 6 was previously demonstrated to infect human oligodendroglial precursor cells (OPCs) in vitro causing cell cycle arrest and premature differentiation with consequent loss of the precursor pool. OBJECTIVES: To develop an in vitro murine OPC model to study the cell cycle and differentiation effects of HHV-6 in ...
El-Sayed Kamelia A - - 2006
The dry powder of the plant aereal part; Cupressus macro-carpa (Cupressacea) was tested against Biomphalaria alexandrina. LC50 & LC90 values were 59.5 & 98.8 ppm, respec-tively. Exposure of B. alexandrina to sublethal concentrations (LC0, LC10 & LC25) of C. macrocarpa for three weeks signi-ficantly decreased the number of circulating hemocytes. ...
Zellweger Raphaël M - - 2006
The late appearance of neutralizing antibodies (nAb) against lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) has been attributed to various factors including immunopathology, low frequency of high-affinity specific B cells and competition by nonspecific polyclonal B cell activation. To investigate the activation of LCMV-nAb-producing B cells early following infection, we performed adoptive transfers ...
Sharma M - - 2006
Extracts of Echinacea purpurea are widely used for the prevention and treatment of common colds, coughs, bronchitis and other upper respiratory infections, many of which are caused by rhinoviruses (RVs). Recent reports have indicated that rhinoviruses can stimulate the release of various pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines from cultured nasal and ...
MacCallum Amanda J - - 2006
Campylobacter jejuni causes symptoms of acute inflammatory diarrhoea in man. C. jejuni interaction with epithelial cells elicits interleukin-8 (IL-8) production, and IL-8 recruits neutrophils to sites of infection. Cell culture models of bacterial interaction with epithelium are useful to define bacteria-host interaction and are used because it is thought they ...
Feng Hanping - - 2006
Immunofluorescence-based assays have been developed to detect and quantitate Cryptosporidium parvum infection in cell culture. Here, we describe a method that tracks and quantifies the early phase of attachment and invasion of C. parvum sporozoites using a fluorescent dye. Newly excysted sporozoites were labeled with the amine-reactive fluorescein probe carboxyfluorescein ...
Smith Christopher M CM Division of Virology, Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, - - 2006
CD4(+) T cells play a major role in containing herpesvirus infections. However, their cellular targets remain poorly defined. In vitro CD4(+) T cells have been reported to kill B cells that harbor a latent gammaherpesvirus. We used the B cell-tropic murine gammaherpesvirus-68 (MHV-68) to test whether this also occurred in ...
Tsai Kuen-Nan - - 2007
Defective interfering (DI) RNAs are deletion mutants of viral genomes that are known in many cases to contribute to persistent infection and modification of viral pathogenesis. Cell type also plays a critical role in the establishment of viral persistence. In this study we have identified for the first time the ...
Iwamaru Yoshifumi - - 2007
Several lines of evidence suggest that microglia have important roles in the pathogenesis of prion diseases. Here, we establish a novel microglial cell line (MG20) from neonatal tga20 mice that overexpress murine prion protein. After exposure to Chandler scrapie, we observed the replication and accumulation of disease-associated forms of the ...
Monteiro da Silva J L - - 2007
Paracoccidioidomycosis is caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, which although not formally considered an intracellular pathogen, can be internalized by epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. The mechanisms used by P. brasiliensis to adhere to and invade non-professional phagocytes have not been identified. The signal-transduction networks, involving protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) ...
Waterman Scott R - - 2007
Laccase is a major virulence factor of the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans, which afflicts both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. In the present study, laccase was expressed in C. neoformans lac1Delta cells as a fusion protein with an N-terminal green fluorescent protein (GFP) using C. neoformans codon usage. The fusion protein ...
Guseva Natalia V - - 2007
In vitro studies of obligate intracellular chlamydia biology and pathogenesis are highly dependent on the use of experimental models and growth conditions that mimic the mucosal architecture and environment these pathogens encounter during natural infections. In this study, the growth of Chlamydia trachomatis genital serovar E was monitored in mouse ...
Jinn Tzyy-Rong - - 2006
The mushrooms of diverse Lingzhi species have been traditionally consumed as luxurious functional food supplements in Chinese society. FIP-gts, a fungal immunomodulatory protein found in Song-Shan Lingzhi (Ganodera tsugae) has been proposed to possess therapeutic effects on cancer and autoimmune diseases. To produce active FIP-gts for evaluation of oral administration, ...
Grabusic Kristina - - 2006
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2) gene product is the key regulator of the latent genes of EBV and essential for EBV-mediated transformation of human primary B cells. Viral mutants were constructed carrying a deletion of the EBNA2 conserved region 4 (CR4). Primary resting B cells infected with ...
Sioutopoulou D O - - 2006
Human adenocarcinoma HeLa cells surviving infection with low (10(-9) units), medium (10(-6) units), and high (10(-2) units) influenza B titers were compared to their uninfected precursors and to normal endocervical adenoepithelial and metaplastic cells using Papanikolaou-staining method and immunocytochemistry. Normal primary endocervical and infected HeLa cells surviving infection shared similar ...
Nogueira Yeda L - - 2006
The kinetics of growth of Leishmania performed in vitro after internalization of the promastigote form in the cell and the occurrence of the transformation of the parasite into the amastigote form have been described by several authors. They used explants of macrophages in hamster spleen cell culture or in a ...
Koutsoudakis George - - 2007
Recently a cell culture model supporting the complete life cycle of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) was developed. Searching for host cell determinants involved in the HCV replication cycle, we evaluated the efficiency of virus propagation in different Huh-7-derived cell clones. We found that Huh-7.5 cells and Huh7-Lunet cells, two ...
Xiao Jianqiao - - 2007
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BMRF-2 protein interaction with the beta1 family of integrins plays an important role in EBV infection of polarized oral epithelial cells. In this work, we characterized BMRF-2 protein expression in EBV-infected B lymphoblastoid and polarized oral epithelial cells, and in hairy leukoplakia (HL) epithelium. BMRF-2 expression in ...
Johansson Cecilia - - 2007
Most adenoviruses bind to the coxsackie- and adenovirus receptor (CAR). Surprisingly, CAR is not expressed apically on polarized cells and is thus not easily available to viruses. Consequently, alternative mechanisms for entry of coxsackievirus and adenovirus into cells have been suggested. We have found that tear fluid promotes adenovirus infection, ...
Chen Lei L Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, 1959 N.E. Pacific Street, Box 357242, Seattle, WA 98195, - - 2007
Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus encodes a homolog of the human cellular interleukin-6 that may play a formative role in many KSHV-related diseases. While the viral IL-6 can signal similarly to its human counterpart little is known about the role of vIL-6 during KSHV infection. Using homologous recombination and selection in eukaryotic ...
Yeung P S Marie - - 2007
Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterial pathogen that multiplies in the cytosol of host cells and spreads directly from cell to cell by using an actin-based mechanism of motility. The broad-range phospholipase C (PC-PLC) of L. monocytogenes contributes to bacterial escape from vacuoles formed upon cell-to-cell spread. PC-PLC is made as ...
Magdesian Margaret H - - 2007
Chagas' disease is a chronic, debilitating and incapacitating illness, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi when infective trypomastigotes invade host cells. Although the mechanism of trypomastigotes interaction with mammalian cells has been intensively studied, a final and integrated picture of the signal transduction mechanisms involved still remains to be ...
Roner Michael R - - 2007
Reovirus has been shown to lyse most transformed cells while establishing a persistent or abortive infection in non-transformed cells. Developing methods to identify the reovirus genes associated with oncolysis is an important step toward understanding the mechanisms involved. This report is the first to develop and apply the use of ...
Balsara Zarine R - - 2006
The obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis interferes with a number of host cell processes, including cytoskeletal organization, vesicular trafficking, and apoptosis. In this study we report that C. trachomatis-infected cells proliferate more slowly than uninfected cells, suggesting that C. trachomatis may also manipulate the eukaryotic cell cycle. We further demonstrate ...
Spinaci Cinzia - - 2006
BACKGROUND: A significant association between erythromycin resistance and ability of bacteria to enter human respiratory cells has been documented in group A streptococci (GAS) isolated in Italy from children with pharyngitis. The occurrence of strains combining cell invasiveness with erythromycin resistance raised serious concern because they could escape penicillin by ...
Preuss Thomas - - 2006
Xenotransplantation of pig organs is complicated by the existence of polytropic replication-competent porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERV) capable of infecting human cells. The potential for recombination between ecotropic PERV-C and human-tropic PERV-A and PERV-B adds another level of infectious risk. Proviral PERV-C were characterized in MAX-T cells derived from d/d haplotype ...
Querbes W - - 2006
Invasion of glial cells by the human polyomavirus, JC virus (JCV), leads to a rapidly progressing and uniformly fatal demyelinating disease known as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The endocytic trafficking steps used by JCV to invade cells and initiate infection are not known. We demonstrated that JCV infection was inhibited by ...
Galen Benjamin - - 2006
Viral entry may preferentially occur at the apical or the basolateral surfaces of polarized cells, and differences may impact pathogenesis, preventative strategies, and successful implementation of viral vectors for gene therapy. The objective of these studies was to examine the polarity of herpes simplex virus (HSV) entry using several different ...
Neglia Rachele - - 2006
It has been recently demonstrated that Candida albicans isolates with distinct genomic backgrounds (namely, b and c genotypes) express different susceptibility to antifungal activity by human monocytes in vitro. We show here that, although comparable in their ability to undergo dimorphic transition and in susceptibility to phagocytosis by microglial cells, ...
Loomis Wendy P - - 2006
The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the United States and the leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. Prior exposure to C. trachomatis has been shown to provide incomplete protection against subsequent infection. One possible explanation for the limited immunity ...
Abdel-Latif Lubna - - 2006
The helper-independent bovine parvovirus (BPV) was studied to determine its effect on host embryonic bovine tracheal (EBTr) cells: whether the ultimate outcome of infection results in apoptotic cell death or cell death by necrosis. Infected cells were observed for changes marking apoptosis. Observations of alterations in nuclear morphology, membrane changes, ...
Wang Guan-Qing - - 2006
To simplify the titration of infectious varicella-zoster virus (VZV), we generated a reporter cell line that produced luciferase in a dose-dependent manner upon infection with cell-free VZV. A few VZV-infected cells were detectable by coculturing with the cell line. We demonstrated the usefulness of the cell line for antiviral studies.
Tiwari Vaibhav - - 2006
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection of the corneal stroma remains a major cause of blindness. Primary cultures of corneal fibroblasts (CF) were tested and found susceptible to HSV-1 entry, which was confirmed by deconvolution imaging of infected cells. Plaque assay and real-time PCR demonstrated viral replication and hence ...
Criss Alison K AK Department of Microbiology-Immunology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, - - 2006
Type IV pili are a major virulence factor of the obligate human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae (the gonococcus; Gc). Pili facilitate bacterial adherence to epithelial cells, but their participation in later steps of epithelial infection, particularly intracellular replication and exit, is poorly understood. Using polarized T84 cells as a model for ...
Miyazato Paola - - 2006
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia, a disease that is triggered after a long latency period. HTLV-1 is known to spread through cell-to-cell contact. In an attempt to study the events in early stages of HTLV-1 infection, we inoculated uninfected human ...
Kim Hwijin - - 2006
Despite many years of potent antiretroviral therapy, latently infected cells and low levels of plasma virus have been found to persist in HIV-infected patients. The factors influencing this persistence and their relative contributions have not been fully elucidated and remain controversial. Here, we address these issues by developing and employing ...
Tiwari A - - 2006
Vero cells are commonly used for the growth of avian metapneumovirus subtype C (aMPV-C). This study was conducted to evaluate 17 different cell types for the growth of a Minnesota strain of aMPV-C. The virus was inoculated into these cell types and virus growth was monitored by the development of ...
Conant Carolyn G - - 2007
For Chlamydia, an intracellular pathogen of humans, host cell invasion is obligatory for survival, growth and pathogenesis. At the molecular level, little is known about the binding and entry of Chlamydia into the mammalian host cell. Chlamydia are genetically intractable therefore experimental approaches targeting the host are often necessary. CHO6 ...
el-Awady Mostafa K MK Department of Biomedical Technology, National Research Center, Tahrir Street, PO 12622, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt. - - 2006
To establish a cell culture system with long-term replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome and expression of viral antigens in vitro. HepG2 cell line was tested for its susceptibility to HCV by incubation with a serum from a patient with chronic hepatitis C. Cells and supernatant were harvested at ...
Pornwiroon Walairat - - 2006
Rickettsia felis, the etiologic agent of spotted fever, is maintained in cat fleas by vertical transmission and resembles other tick-borne spotted fever group rickettsiae. In the present study, we utilized an Ixodes scapularis-derived tick cell line, ISE6, to achieve isolation and propagation of R. felis. A cytopathic effect of increased ...
Ueno T - - 2006
Promyelocytic leukemia (PML) bodies are discrete nuclear foci that are intimately associated with many DNA viruses. In human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection, the IE1 (for "immediate-early 1") protein has a marked effect on PML bodies via de-SUMOylation of PML protein. Here, we report a novel real-time monitoring system for HCMV-infected cells ...
Ali Al Ahmad M Z - - 2006
Zona-pellucida-free embryos at 8-16 cell stage were co-cultured for 6 days in an insert over a mixed cell monolayer infected with CAEV-pBSCA. Embryos were washed and transferred to an insert on CAEV indicator goat synovial membrane cells for 6 h, then they were washed and cultivated in B2 Ménézo for ...
Ratajczak J - - 2006
Normal and malignant cells shed from their surface membranes as well as secrete from the endosomal membrane compartment circular membrane fragments called microvesicles (MV). MV that are released from viable cells are usually smaller in size compared to the apoptotic bodies derived from damaged cells and unlike them do not ...
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