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Chorny Michael M Division of Cardiology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. - - 2012
Cells modified with magnetically responsive nanoparticles (MNP) can provide the basis for novel targeted therapeutic strategies. However, improvements are required in the MNP design and cell treatment protocols to provide adequate magnetic properties in balance with acceptable cell viability and function. This study focused on select variables controlling the uptake ...
Malmkvist Jens J Department of Animal Science, Aarhus University, Blichers Alle 20, DK-8830 Tjele, Denmark. - - 2012
We investigated the hypothesis that performance of abnormal behavior is a stress response concurrent with reduced cell formation in the hippocampal region of the brain, using groups of adult female American mink with high occurrence of stereotypic behavior (STEREO, n=12), high occurrence of fur-chewing behavior (FURCHEW, n=12), or without abnormal ...
Filić Vedrana - - 2012
Rac proteins are the only canonical Rho family GTPases in Dictyostelium, where they act as key regulators of the actin cytoskeleton. To monitor the dynamics of activated Rac1 in Dictyostelium cells, a fluorescent probe was developed that specifically binds to the GTP-bound form of Rac1. The probe is based on ...
Simorangkir David R - - 2012
In primates, the time course of Sertoli cell proliferation and differentiation during puberty and its relationship to the expansion of undifferentiated Type A spermatogonia that occurs at this critical stage of development is poorly defined. Mid and late juvenile and early and late pubertal male rhesus monkeys were studied. Testes ...
Gallego V - - 2012
The development of powerful software has made possible spermatozoa morphology studies. However, some problems have emerged in relation to protocol standardization to compare results from different laboratories. This study was carried out to compare two techniques commonly used (staining vs phase contrast technique) for the morphometry study of gilthead sea ...
Hong Mi-Na - - 2012
The aim of this study was to determine whether extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) could affect intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and antioxidant enzyme activity. After MCF10A human breast epithelial cells were exposed to 1 mT of 60 Hz ELF-MF for 4 hours, intracellular ROS level, superoxide dismutase ...
Sharp David J - - 2012
The ability of the microtubule cystoskeleton to rapidly and locally reorganize itself in response to intra- and extracellular signals is essential to its wide range of functions.  A site of tightly regulated microtubule dynamics-and the major interface between the microtubule cytoskeleton and the extracellular environment-is the cell cortex, where the ...
Carreau Serge - - 2012
Aromatase converts irreversibly androgens into estrogens and is present in the endoplasmic reticulum of various cells of mammalian testes ; at least in rodents, all testicular cells except peritubular cells express aromatase. In testis, high affinity estrogen receptors, ERalpha and/or ERbeta, together with a membrane rapid effect recently described, mediate ...
Agoulnik Alexander I - - 2012
Cryptorchidism or undescended testis is the most frequent congenital abnormality in newborn boys. The process of testicular descent to the scrotum is controlled by hormones produced in Leydig cells, insulin-like3, and androgens. Variation in genetic and environmental factors might affect testicular descent. A failure of spermatogenesis and germ cell apoptosis ...
Chang Te-Sheng - - 2012
The histamine receptor H1 antagonist homochlorcyclizine (HC) has been widely used as an antihistamine agent for the treatment of allergies. However, the effect of HC on skin pigmentation is not known. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of HC on melanogenesis in mouse B16 melanoma cells. Our ...
Matsuoka Satomi - - 2012
Environmental changes result in signaling events at cell membranes. To develop the means to understand these events at the molecular level, it is essential to become familiar with the stochastic nature of signaling molecules in living cells. Using total internal reflection fluorescent microscopy (TIRFM), these signaling events can be directly ...
Higuchi Yuriko - - 2012
For successful development of cell-based therapy, both the disposition and differentiation of transplanted cells are directly related to therapeutic effects. In vivo imaging is an attractive tool to obtain real-time information on the disposition of target cells. In various types of imaging methods such as positron emission tomography(PET) and magnetic ...
Smith Emily Y - - 2012
Primordial germ cells (PGCs) play essential roles in both reproduction and development. In this chapter, we describe a method used in our laboratory for the immunopurification of PGCs from the mouse embryo. After dissection and disruption of the fetal gonad, PGCs are identified by a monoclonal antibody recognizing an epitope ...
Zhang Michelle Meng-Ni - - 2012
The morphology of a live cell reflects the organization of the cytoskeleton and the healthy status of the cell. We established a label-free platform for monitoring the changing morphology of live cells in real time based on scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). The dynamic morphology of a live human bladder cancer ...
Noorafshan Ali - - 2012
Number of the beta cells as well as their volume is a fundamental variable in the pancreatic research. This study describes a simple method for stereological estimation of the volume of the pancreas, the total volume of the islets, and the total number, as well as the mean volume, of ...
Hou Yue - - 2012
Cell migration plays an essential role in many biological processes, such as cancer metastasis, wound healing and immune response. Cell migration is mediated through protrusion and focal adhesion (FA) assembly, maturation and disassembly. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is known to enhance migration rate in many cell types; however it is ...
Sau Abhijit - - 2012
A tetrasaccharide repeating unit corresponding to the cell-wall lipopolysaccharide of E. coli O40 was synthesized by using a convergent block glycosylation strategy. A disaccharide donor was coupled to a disaccharide acceptor by a stereoselective glycosylation. A 2-aminoethyl linker was chosen as the anomeric protecting group at the reducing end of ...
Fraley Stephanie I - - 2012
Spontaneous molecular oscillations are ubiquitous in biology. But to our knowledge, periodic cell migratory patterns have not been observed. Here we report the highly regular, periodic migration of cells along rectilinear tracks generated inside three-dimensional matrices, with each excursion encompassing several cell lengths, a phenotype that does not occur on ...
Bossolasco P - - 2012
We have previously shown that human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) can reduce toxin-induced neurodegeneration in a well characterized rodent model of Parkinson's disease. However, the precise mechanisms, optimal cell concentration required for neuroprotection, and detailed cell tracking need to be defined. We exploited a near-infrared imaging platform to perform noninvasive ...
Koyama Hiroshi - - 2012
Different models for animal cell cytokinesis posit that the stiffness of the equatorial cortex is either increased or decreased relative to the stiffness of the polar cortex. A recent work has suggested that the critical cytokinesis signaling complex centralspindlin may reduce the stiffness of the equatorial cortex by inactivating the ...
Li Ying - - 2012
microRNAs (miRNAs) are small, conserved, non-coding RNAs that contribute to the control of many different cellular processes, including cell fate specification and growth control. Drosophila bantam, a conserved miRNA, is involved in several functions, such as stimulating proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis in the wing disc. Here, we reported the detailed ...
Lynch Kathleen S - - 2012
The physiological state of animals in many taxonomic groups can be modified via social interactions including simply receiving communication signals from conspecifics. Here, we explore whether the catecholaminergic system of female songbirds responds during social interactions that are limited to song reception. We measured the protein product of an immediate ...
Parpura Vladimir - - 2012
Ever since Rudolf Virchow in 1858 publicly announced his apprehension of neuroglia being a true connective substance, this concept has been evolving to encompass a heterogeneous population of cells with various forms and functions. We briefly compare the 19th-20th century perspectives on neuroglia with the up-to-date view of these cells ...
Steinmeyer Joseph D - - 2012
The complexity of neurons and neuronal circuits in brain tissue requires the genetic manipulation, labeling, and tracking of single cells. However, current methods for manipulating cells in brain tissue are limited to either bulk techniques, lacking single-cell accuracy, or manual methods that provide single-cell accuracy but at significantly lower throughputs ...
Hyenne Vincent - - 2012
In all organisms, cell polarity is fundamental for most aspects of cell physiology. In many species and cell types, it is controlled by the evolutionarily conserved PAR-3, PAR-6 and aPKC proteins, which are asymmetrically localized at the cell cortex where they define specific domains. While PAR proteins define the antero-posterior ...
Haj Fawaz G - - 2012
Protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a ubiquitously expressed PTP that is anchored to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). PTP1B dephosphorylates activated receptor tyrosine kinases after endocytosis, as they transit past the ER. However, PTP1B also can access some plasma membrane (PM)-bound substrates at points of cell-cell contact. To explore how PTP1B ...
Heo Jinseok - - 2012
Using a microfluidic cell volume sensor we measured the change in the cell volume of Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells induced by shear stress. An increase in shear stress from 0.2 to 2.0 dyn/cm(2) resulted in a volume decrease to a steady state volume ∼ 20 - 30 % smaller ...
Bollinger Kathryn E - - 2012
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are common anti-inflammatory agents that can cause ocular hypertension and secondary glaucoma as a consequence of impaired aqueous humor outflow through the trabecular meshwork (TM). Mechanisms of GC-signaling are complex and poorly understood. To better understand GC-signaling in the eye, we tested the hypothesis that common mechanisms of ...
Holmes William R - - 2012
The small GTPase Rac is known to be an important regulator of cell polarization, cytoskeletal reorganization, and motility of mammalian cells. In recent microfluidic experiments, HeLa cells endowed with appropriate constructs were subjected to gradients of the small molecule rapamycin leading to synthetic membrane recruitment of a Rac activator and ...
Kim Dae-Sung - - 2012
Homogeneous culture of neural precursor cells (NPCs) derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) would provide a powerful tool for biomedical applications. However, previous efforts to expand mechanically dissected neural rosettes for cultivation of NPCs remain concerns regarding non-neural cell contamination. In addition, several attempts to purify NPCs using cell ...
Selvi Ruthrotha B - - 2012
Intrinsically fluorescent glucose derived carbon nanospheres (CSP) efficiently enter mammalian cells and also cross the blood brain barrier (BBB). However, the mechanistic details of CSP entry inside mammalian cells and its specificity are not known. In this report, the biochemical and cellular mechanism of CSP entry into the living cell ...
Cubeddu Liza - - 2012
The proteins LMO4 and DEAF1 contribute to the proliferation of mammary epithelial cells. During breast cancer LMO4 is upregulated, affecting its interaction with other protein partners. This may set cells on a path to tumour formation. LMO4 and DEAF1 interact, but it is unknown how they cooperate to regulate cell ...
Rousseau Laure - - 2012
We characterized the in vivo importance of the homologous recombination factor RAD54 for the developing mouse brain cortex in normal conditions or after ionizing radiation exposure. Contrary to numerous homologous recombination genes, Rad54 disruption did not impact the cortical development without exogenous stress, but it dramatically enhanced the radiation sensitivity ...
Riggio Cristina - - 2012
It has been proposed in the literature that Fe(3)O(4) magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) could be exploited to enhance or accelerate nerve regeneration and to provide guidance for regenerating axons. MNPs could create mechanical tension that stimulates the growth and elongation of axons. Particles suitable for this purpose should possess (1) high ...
García-Amado María - - 2012
Cell number alterations in the amygdaloid complex (AC) might coincide with neurological and psychiatric pathologies with anxiety imbalances as well as with changes in brain functionality during aging. This stereological study focused on estimating, in samples from 7 control individuals aged 20 to 75 years old, the number and density ...
Taulet Nicolas - - 2012
Productive protrusions allowing motile cells to sense and migrate toward a chemotactic gradient of reactive oxygen species (ROS) require a tight control of the actin cytoskeleton. However, the mechanisms of how ROS affect cell protrusion and actin dynamics are not well elucidated yet. We show here that ROS induce the ...
Wills Thomas J - - 2012
Understanding the development of the neural circuits subserving specific cognitive functions such as navigation remains a central problem in neuroscience. Here, we characterize the development of grid cells in the medial entorhinal cortex, which, by nature of their regularly spaced firing fields, are thought to provide a distance metric to ...
Malik Saafan Z SZ Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of - - 2012
In the adult rodent brain, neural progenitor cells migrate from the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle towards the olfactory bulb in a track known as the rostral migratory stream (RMS). To facilitate the study of neural progenitor cells and stem cell therapy in large animal models of CNS disease, ...
Coniglio Salvatore J SJ Department of Anatomy and Structural Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA. - - 2012
Glioblastoma multiforme is a deadly cancer for which current treatment options are limited. The ability of glioblastoma tumor cells to infiltrate the surrounding brain parenchyma critically limits the effectiveness of current treatments. We investigated how microglia, the resident macrophages of the brain, stimulate glioblastoma cell invasion. We first examined the ...
Bahmed Karim K Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, 80045, USA. - - 2012
Although the peptidyl-prolyl isomerase, cyclophilin-A (peptidyl-prolyl isomerase, PPIA), has been studied for decades in the context of its intracellular functions, its extracellular roles as a major contributor to both inflammation and multiple cancers have more recently emerged. A wide range of activities have been ascribed to extracellular PPIA that include ...
Rodrigues Loreta M LM Cancer Research UK Cambridge Research Institute, Li Ka Shing Centre, Robinson Way, Cambridge, - - 2012
The importance of ERBB2/NEU/HER2 in the response of breast tumours to the heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitor 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG; tanespimycin) has been demonstrated in the clinic. ERBB2 is an oncoprotein client that is highly dependent on HSP90. This and other oncogenic client proteins (e.g. B-RAF, C-RAF, ALK and CDK4) ...
Ges Igor A IA Department of Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235-1631, - - 2012
Release of neurotransmitters and hormones by calcium regulated exocytosis is a fundamental cellular/molecular process that is disrupted in a variety of psychiatric, neurological, and endocrine disorders. Therefore, this area represents a relevant target for drug and therapeutic development, efforts that will be aided by novel analytical tools and devices that ...
Liu Chunhai - - 2011
The present study aimed to investigate the differentiation of chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) primordial germ cells (PGCs) in duck (Anas domesticus) gonads. Chimeric ducks were produced by transferring chicken PGCs into duck embryos. Transfer of 200 and 400 PGCs resulted in the detection of a total number of 63.0 ± ...
John Morris G - - 2011
The cellular damage that spermatozoa encounter at rapid rates of cooling has often been attributed to the formation of intracellular ice although no convincing evidence of intracellular ice formation has ever been obtained. We demonstrate that the high intracellular protein content together with the osmotic shrinkage associated with extracellular ice ...
Bellingham M M Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, UK. - - 2012
Exposure to ubiquitous, environmental chemicals (ECs) has been hypothesized as a cause for declining male reproductive health. Understanding the long-term effects of EC exposure on reproductive health in humans requires animal models and exposure to 'real life', environmentally relevant, mixtures during development, a life stage of particular sensitivity to ECs. ...
Ahn Eun Hee - - 2011
Chlorogenic acid (CGA) possesses various biological activities such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-diabetic activities. In the present study, we examined the effect of CGA on the transduction efficiency of PEP-1-ribosomal protein S3 (PEP-1-rpS3) into cells and brain tissues, and its neuroprotective potential against ischemia/reperfusion. We found that, in the presence ...
Coştur P - - 2011
Azoospermia, which is the absence of spermatozoa in the ejaculate, is not a rare cause of male infertility. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is a calcium-independent NOS, which is present in the testis and involved in spermatogenesis, and apoptosis of Sertoli and germ cells. Twenty idiopathic infertile men presenting nonobstructive ...
Aman Andy - - 2011
The zebrafish sensory lateral line system has emerged as a powerful model for the mechanistic study of collective cell migration and morphogenesis. Recent work has uncovered the details of a signaling network involving the Wnt/β-catenin, Fgf and Delta-Notch pathways that patterns the migrating lateral line primordium into distinct regions. Cells ...
Wan Leo Q LQ Department of Biomedical Engineering; Columbia University; New York, NY - - 2011
A recently developed technique enables quantitative study of the initiation of left-right asymmetry using cells grown on micropatterns with close appositional boundaries. It was found that mammalian cells exhibit either a left or right bias in their migratory behavior, which was determined by cell phenotype, different for certain cancer and ...
Gregory M - - 2011
Oculodentodigital dysplasia (ODDD) is a dysmorphogenesis syndrome resulting from mutations in the GJA1 gene encoding the gap junction protein, connexin43 (CX43). In the testis this connexin localizes between Leydig cells, Sertoli cells and between Sertoli cells and germ cells. It is essential for Sertoli cell differentiation and spermatogenesis. This study ...
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