Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1612
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Zhu Hong - - 2007
It has recently been demonstrated that purified NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is able to scavenge superoxide (O2(.-)) though the rate of reaction of O2(.-) with NQO1 is much lower than the rate of enzymatic dismutation catalyzed by superoxide dismutase (SOD). This study was undertaken to determine if the endogenously expressed ...
Ogita Akira - - 2007
The synergy between the alkylguanidinium chain of niphimycin (NM), a polyol macrolide antibiotic, and polyene macrolide amphotericin B (AmB) without such an alkyl side chain was examined using N-methyl-N"-alkylguanidines as its synthetic analogs. Among the analogs, N-methyl-N"-dodecylguanidine (MC12) most strongly inhibited the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and those of ...
Ghosh A - - 2007
Free radicals and allied molecules are the potential threats for the cellular components when they are produced in excess amount and cause different pathophysiological disorders including aging. Contrary to their detrimental effects, these molecules, in the other hand, can be utilized by the Phagocytic cells to destroy the abnormal cells ...
Pervaiz Shazib - - 2007
Recent evidence linking intracellular reactive oxygen species to cell survival and/or proliferation signals has resulted in a paradigm shift from the age-old dogma implicating reactive oxygen species exclusively in cell damage and death. It is now accepted that reactive oxygen species play important roles in normal physiological states and that ...
Møller Ian M - - 2007
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are produced in many places in living cells and at an increased rate during biotic or abiotic stress. ROS and RNS participate in signal transduction, but also modify cellular components and cause damage. We first look at the most common ROS ...
Xiang Zhongmin - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Prostaglandin (PG) production is associated with inflammation, a major feature in multiple sclerosis (MS) that is characterized by the loss of myelinating oligodendrocytes in the CNS. While PGs have been shown to have relevance in MS, it has not been determined whether PGs have a direct effect on cells ...
Beffagna Nicoletta - - 2007
In Arabidopsis thaliana cells, fusicoccin (FC) treatment induced an early and marked increase in the extracellular H(2)O(2) level. It also increased the huge hypo-osmotic stress-induced oxidative wave and, in addition, prevented the H(2)O(2) peak drop. These effects were apparently not linked to changes in either cytoplasmic pH or cytoplasmic free ...
Kolárová H - - 2007
Several recent studies bring evidence of cell death enhancement in photodynamic compound loaded cells by ultrasonic treatment. There are a number of hypotheses suggesting the mechanism of the harmful ultrasonic effect. One of them considers a process in the activation of photosensitizers by ultrasonic energy. Because the basis of the ...
Khattak Sarwat F - - 2007
Encapsulation devices are often hindered by the inability to achieve sufficient oxygen levels for sustaining long-term cell survival both in vivo and in vitro. We have investigated the use of synthetic oxygen carriers in alginate gels to improve metabolic activity and viability of HepG2 cells over time. Perfluorocarbons (PFCs), specifically ...
Molshanski-Mor Shahar - - 2007
The superoxide (O2-)-generating enzyme complex of phagocytes, known as the NADPH oxidase, can be assayed in a number of in vitro cell-free (or broken cell) systems. These consist of a mixture of the individual components of the NADPH oxidase, derived from resting phagocytes or in the form of purified recombinant ...
Yoshida Daizo - - 2007
Pituitary adenoma tissues are hypovascular, and have a lower partial oxygen pressure compared with neighboring normal organs. In this study, we investigated whether hypoxia influences the cell invasiveness of the human pituitary adenoma cell line, HP-75. HP-75 cells were exposed to hypoxic (1-10% oxygen) or normoxic (21% oxygen) conditions for ...
O'Riordan Tomás C - - 2007
The development and application of a methodology for measurement of oxygen within single mammalian cells are presented, which employ novel macromolecular near infrared (NIR) oxygen probes based on new metalloporphyrin dyes. The probes, which display optimal spectral characteristics and sensitivity to oxygen, excellent photostability, and low cytotoxicity and phototoxicity, are ...
Karasinski Jason - - 2007
This work proposes the use of amperometric signals generated by a 96-well multi-array dissolved oxygen multi-electrode sensor (DOX) coupled with principal component analysis for continuous monitoring, identification and differentiation of bacteria. Two types of differentiation mechanisms were tested: (1) direct monitoring of respiratory activity via oxygen consumption and (2) quantification ...
Herst Patries M - - 2007
Oxygen consumption for bioenergetic purposes has long been thought to be the prerogative of mitochondria. Nevertheless, mitochondrial gene knockout (rho(0)) cells that are defective in mitochondrial respiration require oxygen for growth and consume oxygen at the cell surface via trans-plasma membrane electron transport (tPMET). This raises the possibility that cell ...
Wisel Sheik - - 2007
We report the labeling (internalization) of skeletal myoblasts (SMs) with a novel class of oxygen-sensing paramagnetic spin probe for noninvasive tracking and in situ monitoring of oxygenation in stem cell therapy using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. SM cells were isolated from thigh muscle biopsies of mice and propagated in ...
Kucera Igor - - 2006
When grown anaerobically on a succinate+nitrate (SN) medium, Paracoccus denitrificans forms the membrane-bound, cytoplasmically oriented, chlorate-reducing nitrate reductase Nar, while the periplasmic enzyme Nap is expressed during aerobic growth on butyrate+oxygen (BO) medium. Preincubation of SN cells with chlorate produced a concentration-dependent decrease in nitrate utilization, which could be ascribed ...
Frederiks Wilma M - - 2007
Oxygen insensitivity of carcinoma cells and oxygen sensitivity of non-cancer cells in the histochemical assay of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) enables detection of carcinoma cells in unfixed cell smears or cryostat sections of biopsies. The metabolic background of oxygen insensitivity is still not understood completely. In the present study, rat hepatocytes, ...
Blazek Ed R - - 2007
PURPOSE: Primary medulloblastoma and glioblastoma multiforme tumor cells that express the surface marker CD133 are believed to be enriched for brain tumor stem cells because of their unique ability to initiate or reconstitute tumors in immunodeficient mice. This study sought to characterize the radiobiological properties and marker expression changes of ...
Kim Sun Yee - - 2006
Singlet oxygen is a highly reactive form of molecular oxygen that may harm living systems by oxidizing critical cellular macromolecules and it also promotes deleterious processes such as cell death. The protective role of antioxidant enzymes against singlet oxygen-induced oxidative damage in HL-60 cells was investigated in control and cells ...
Mik Egbert G - - 2006
Molecular oxygen is the primary oxidant in biological systems. The ultimate destination of oxygen in vivo is the mitochondria where it is used in oxidative phosphorylation. The ability of this process to produce an amount of high-energy phosphates adequate to sustain life highly depends on the available amount of oxygen. ...
Chen Junping - - 2006
Photoreceptor cells are incessantly bombarded with photons of light, which, along with the cells' high rate of oxygen metabolism, continuously exposes them to elevated levels of toxic reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs). Vacancy-engineered mixed-valence-state cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria particles) scavenge ROIs. Our data show that nanoceria particles prevent increases in the ...
Jia Zhenquan - - 2007
Oxidative stress has been implicated in pesticide-induced neurotoxicity, based on its role in the cascade of biochemical changes that lead to dopaminergic neuronal cell death. We have, therefore, examined the role of oxidative stress caused by the pesticides endosulfan and zineb in human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) in culture. Upon treatment ...
Chandel Navdeep S - - 2007
Mammalian cells have divergent responses to varying oxygen levels. Cells exposed to low oxygen levels (hypoxia) activate the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) as an adaptive response. Cells exposed to hypoxia do not undergo senescence or cell death and do not diminish ATP levels. By contrast, cells exposed to high ...
Amatore Christian - - 2007
The release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or reactive nitrogen species (RNS), i.e., the initial phase of oxidative stress, by macrophage cells has been studied by electrochemistry within a microfluidic device. Macrophages were first cultured into a detection chamber containing the three electrodes system and were subsequently stimulated by the ...
Chen Yen-Chen - - 2007
Tumor cells with different origins have different threshold to apoptosis. Hematopoietic (Jurkat, NCI-H929) cells and non-hematopoietic (A549, MCF-7) cells were received hyperbaric oxygen (HBO(2)) treatment from 2.5 to 3.5 atmosphere absolute (ATA) of 100% oxygen for 6h, and a significant percentage of apoptosis were shown only in hematopoietic Jurkat and ...
Tsukiyama Fuyo - - 2006
Catechins have recently been reported to increase the cellular content of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha within mammalian cells. These catechins have a gallate moiety as a common structure. We now report that n-propyl gallate (nPG) also increases the HIF-1alpha protein in the rat heart-derived H9c2 cells. The increase was dose-dependent ...
Go JaeGwi - - 2007
During physical exertion the consumption rate increases and some cells suffer from the lack of oxygen. The time-wise evolution of hypoxia is analyzed mathematically under the condition the perfusion of each capillary is constant. The domain used contains multiple non-homogeneous capillaries of different solute out. Cells surrounding capillaries may consume ...
St-Pierre Julie J Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, - - 2006
PPARgamma coactivator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha) is a potent stimulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration. Since the mitochondrial electron transport chain is the main producer of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in most cells, we examined the effect of PGC-1alpha on the metabolism of ROS. PGC-1alpha is coinduced with several key ROS-detoxifying enzymes ...
Zhang Yu - - 2006
Time-dependent photoluminescence (PL) enhancement, blue shift, and photobleach were observed from the thiol-capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs) ingested in mouse myoblast cells and human primary liver cancer cells. It was revealed that the PL blue shift resulted from the photooxidation of the QD core by singlet oxygen molecules formed on ...
Huwiler Andrea - - 2006
Sufficient oxygen supply is crucial for the development and physiology of mammalian cells and tissues. When simple diffusion of oxygen becomes inadequate to provide the necessary flow of substrate, evolution has provided cells with tools to detect and respond to hypoxia by upregulating the expression of specific genes, which allows ...
Shirai Mutsuko - - 2006
To assess the efficacy of conjugated quercetin metabolites as attenuators for oxidative stress in the central nervous system, we measured the 13-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-HPODE)-dependent formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in pheochromocytoma PC-12 cells in the presence of quercetin 3-O-beta-glucuronide (Q3GA) and related compounds. A 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin (DCFH) assay showed that ...
Garnier Lionel - - 2006
Cadmium is suspected to exert its toxic action on cells through oxidative damage. However, the transition metal is unable to directly generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) via redox reactions with molecular oxygen in a biological environment. Here, we show that bright yellow-2 (BY-2) tobacco cells exposed to millimolar concentrations of ...
Amirsadeghi Sasan - - 2006
Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) lacking mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) have been compared with wild-type (Wt) tobacco using two different systems, either suspension cell cultures or leaves. In both systems, a lack of AOX was accompanied by an increase in some anti-oxidant defenses, consistent with the hypothesis that a lack of ...
Mir Youssef - - 2006
The feasibility to induce oxygen-independent tumour cell kill by two-photon excitation of copper tetrasulfophthalocyanine (CuPcS4) was studied in Jurkat cells in vitro. Following incubation with CuPcS4 cells were transferred to a closed cuvette and irradiated with 532 nm pulsed-laser or 680 nm continuous-laser light to evaluate the effect of either ...
Smallbone Kieran - - 2007
Successful adaptation to varying microenvironmental constraints plays a crucial role during carcinogenesis. We develop a hybrid cellular automation approach to investigate the cell-microenvironmental interactions that mediate somatic evolution of cancer cells. This allows investigation of the hypothesis that regions of premalignant lesions develop a substrate-limited environment as proliferation carries cells ...
Chen Fei - - 2006
The IkappaB kinase complex (IKK) is central to the activation of NF-kappaB, a critical transcription factor governing expression of genes involved in cell proliferation and anti-apoptotic responses. Mice with genetic disruptions of the Ikkbeta or Ikkgamma gene loci die during embryogenesis because of severe hepatic apoptosis. We now show that ...
Hoffman David L - - 2007
Mitochondria are proposed to play an important role in hypoxic cell signaling. One currently accepted signaling paradigm is that the mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increases in hypoxia. This is paradoxical, because oxygen is a substrate for ROS generation. Although the response of isolated mitochondrial ROS generation to ...
Trachootham Dunyaporn - - 2006
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) stimulate cell proliferation and induce genetic instability, and their increase in cancer cells is often viewed as an adverse event. Here, we show that such abnormal increases in ROS can be exploited to selectively kill cancer cells using beta-phenylethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC). Oncogenic transformation of ovarian epithelial ...
Ueno Y - - 2006
Dental pulp cells can be exposed to hypoxia during severe inflammation or restorative procedures, though their response to hypoxia is not well-understood. We hypothesized that hypoxia has effects on the growth of pulp cells in vitro. When the cells were exposed to hypoxia for 48 hr, cell growth was suppressed, ...
Zurgil Naomi - - 2006
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have recently been shown to be involved in multiple physiological responses through modulation of signaling pathways. Inappropriate production of these radicals, and their metabolites, leads to the development of various pathologies. Free radicals can induce both positive and negative effects in cells, and their metabolic pathways ...
Trummer Evelyn - - 2006
The impact of process environment changes on process performance is one of the most crucial process safety issues when cultivating mammalian cells in a bioreactor. In contrast, directed shifting of process parameters can also be used as an optimization tool providing higher cell and product yields. Compared to other strategies ...
Frøyland Elisabeth - - 2006
Inflammation probably plays a significant role in perinatal brain injury. To study the contribution of locally produced cytokines, the effect on cell death of addition of IL-8 and MCP-1 or antibodies to these, and the impact of acidosis, human postmitotic NT2-N neurons were exposed to 3 h of hypoxia and ...
Zafar K S - - 2006
NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) can metabolize dopamine-derived quinones (DAQ) and absence of NQO1 due to the NQO1*2 polymorphism has been suggested to be a risk factor for Parkinson's disease. In order to define whether NQO1 plays a protective role in dopamine toxicity, we have examined the potential role of ...
Snyder John W - - 2006
The lowest excited electronic state of molecular oxygen, singlet molecular oxygen, O(2)(a (1)Delta(g)), is a reactive species involved in many chemical and biological processes. To better understand the roles played by singlet oxygen in biological systems, particularly at the sub-cellular level, optical tools have been developed to create and directly ...
Kim Seong-Mi - - 2006
In this study, we attempted to characterize the biomolecular effects of an atmospheric pressure cold plasma (APCP) system which utilizes helium/oxygen (He/O(2)). APCP using He/O(2) generates a low level of UV while generating reactive oxygen radicals which probably serve as the primary factor in sterilization; these reactive oxygen radicals have ...
Huang Xuan X Brander Cancer Research Institute, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595, - - 2006
DNA damage, particularly when it involves formation of double-strand breaks (DSBs), triggers phosphorylation of histone H2AX on Ser-139. Phosphorylated H2AX has been named gammaH2AX, and induction of gammaH2AX in cells exposed to genotoxic agents is considered a sensitive and specific reporter of DNA damage. However, in untreated normal cells as ...
Chattopadhyay Manas K - - 2006
We have previously shown that polyamine-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae are very sensitive to incubation in oxygen. The current studies show that, even under more physiological conditions (i.e. growth in air), polyamine-deficient cells accumulate reactive oxygen species (ROS). These cells develop an apoptotic phenotype and, after incubation in polyamine-deficient medium, die. To ...
Able, Amanda Jane
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Eblin K E - - 2006
Arsenicals have commonly been seen to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can lead to DNA damage and oxidative stress. At low levels, arsenicals still induce the formation of ROS, leading to DNA damage and protein alterations. UROtsa cells, an immortalized human urothelial cell line, were used to study the ...
Puttonen Katja A - - 2006
We studied the ability of prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) inhibitors, Z-Pro-Prolinal and JTP-4819, to prevent translocation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) treated monkey fibroblast (CV1-P) and human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells. The cells were pretreated with POP inhibitors (30 ...
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