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Results 351 - 400 of 1607
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Sever Navdar - - 2004
Insig-1 and Insig-2 are membrane proteins of the endoplasmic reticulum that regulate lipid metabolism by the following two actions: 1) sterol-induced binding to 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, an action that leads to ubiquitination and degradation of the enzyme; and 2) sterol-induced binding to SREBP cleavage-activating protein, an action that blocks the ...
Davis Warren W - - 2004
We present evidence that the ATP binding-cassette transporter-2 (ABCA2) is a sterol-responsive gene that has a role in the trafficking of low-density lipoprotein-derived free cholesterol (LDL-FC). In HepG2 cells ABCA2 was coordinately expressed with other sterol-responsive genes. Stable constitutive expression of ABCA2 in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHOA2) was accompanied ...
Thomas Sunil - - 2004
The plasma membrane of T cells is made up of a combination of phospholipids and proteins organized as glycolipoprotein microdomains termed lipid rafts. The structural assembly of lipid rafts was investigated by various physical and biochemical assays. Depending on the differentiation status of T cells, the lipid rafts seclude various ...
Tserng Kou-Yi - - 2004
Ceramides, which are produced from the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin or synthesized from serine and palmitate in a de novo pathway, are regarded as important cellular signals for inducing apoptosis. However, controversy over this proposed role of ceramides exists. Using stable isotope labelling coupled with GC (gas chromatography)-MS and mass isotopomer ...
Krishnan Sandeep - - 2004
In response to appropriate stimulation, T lymphocytes from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients exhibit increased and faster intracellular tyrosine phosphorylation and free calcium responses. We have explored whether the composition and dynamics of lipid rafts are responsible for the abnormal T cell responses in SLE. SLE T cells generate and ...
Sigal Leonard H - - 2004
The development of an antigen-specific immune response depends on the peptide-loaded MHC molecule on the surface of the antigen-presenting cell being found by the antigen-specific receptor on the cell about to be activated (the T-cell antigen receptor for T-cells or the membrane-bound immunoglobulin molecule on B-cells). The details of this ...
Caviglia J Matías - - 2004
We studied the regulation of triacylglycerol (TAG) metabolism by phosphatidylcholine (PC) in CHO MT58 cells, which are deficient in PC synthesis because of a temperature-sensitive CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase. At the permissive growth temperature (34 degrees C), these cells contained 49% less TAG and 30% less PC than wild-type CHO K1 cells. ...
Ongini Ennio - - 2004
Inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase, namely statins, exert pleiotropic actions beyond lipid-lowering effects. Their pharmacological activity on atherosclerotic plaque stability and vascular inflammation appears to be mediated, at least in part, by nitric oxide (NO). With the aim of enhancing the nonlipid-lowering properties of selected statins, we introduced a ...
Thomas Sunil - - 2004
The plasma membrane of T cells is made of a combination of glycosphingolipids and protein receptors organized in glycolipoprotein microdomains termed lipid rafts. The structural assembly of lipid rafts was investigated by various physical and biochemical assays. Depending on the differentiation status of T cells, the lipid rafts seclude various ...
Aurrand-Lions Michel - - 2004
Haemangiomas are benign tumours occurring in up to 12% of Caucasians, particularly in infancy and childhood. In the present study, two variant cell lines were isolated from murine endothelioma cells. One variant, named t.End.1V(high), represented 16.9% of the parental cell population and was selected by virtue of high expression levels ...
Lan Que - - 2004
Subcellular distribution of Aedes aegypti sterol carrier protein-2 (AeSCP-2) and AeSCP-x was studied using electron microscopy. In both cultured A. aegypti cells and in the larval midgut, AeSCP-2 was detected mostly in the cytosol, with some labeling mitochondria and nucleus, but not in membranous vesicles. The widespread distribution of AeSCP-2 ...
Poole Kate - - 2004
We have investigated whether raft lipids of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells play any role in microvilli maintenance using a combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and laser scanning confocal microscopy. MDCK cells were treated to reduce the amount of sphingolipids, cholesterol, or both and subsequently imaged, in buffer solution, ...
Brodsky Jeffrey L - - 2004
A cell-free system was established to study the process by which apolipoprotein (apo)B100-containing lipoproteins exit the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). ApoB was found in COPII vesicles with physical properties distinct from those containing other secreted proteins. When lipid synthesis in rat hepatoma cells was stimulated by fatty acid addition, fully lipidated ...
Eskelinen Eeva-Liisa - - 2004
Mice double deficient in LAMP-1 and -2 were generated. The embryos died between embryonic days 14.5 and 16.5. An accumulation of autophagic vacuoles was detected in many tissues including endothelial cells and Schwann cells. Fibroblast cell lines derived from the double-deficient embryos accumulated autophagic vacuoles and the autophagy protein LC3II ...
Breznan Dalibor - - 2004
The kidney is believed to play a major role in the clearance of apoA-I (apolipoprotein A-I) and HDL (high-density lipoprotein) particles from the bloodstream. Proximal tubule epithelial cells of the kidney appear to prevent the loss of these proteins in the urine by re-absorbing them from the urinary filtrate. Experiments ...
Morita Shin-Ya - - 2004
Arterial wall sphingomyelinase (SMase) has been proposed to be involved in atherogenesis. SMase modification of lipoproteins has been shown to occur in atherosclerotic lesions and to facilitate their uptake by macrophages and foam cell formation. To investigate the mechanism of macrophage uptake enhanced by SMase, we prepared lipid emulsions containing ...
Orlando Robert A - - 2004
The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) is a large (>600 kDa) multi-ligand-binding cell surface receptor that is now known to participate in a diverse range of cellular events. To accomplish this diverse role, LRP is composed of repetitive amino acid motifs consisting of complement-type and EGF precursor-type repeats. Within these ...
Tang Chao-Ke - - 2004
Cholesterol-loaded macrophage foam cells are a central component of atherosclerotic lesions. ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), the defective molecule in Tangier disease, mediates the efflux of phospholipid and cholesterol from cells to apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), reversing foam cell formation. This study investigated the effect of apoA-I on ABCA1 degradation ...
Imelli Nicola - - 2004
The species C adenovirus type 2 (Ad2) and Ad5 bind the coxsackievirus B Ad receptor and alphav integrin coreceptors and enter epithelial cells by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. This pathway is rapid and efficient. It leads to cell activation and the cholesterol-dependent formation of macropinosomes. Macropinosomes are triggered to release their contents ...
Gómez-Moutón Concepción - - 2004
Spatially restricted activation of signaling molecules governs critical aspects of cell migration; the mechanism by which this is achieved nonetheless remains unknown. Using time-lapse confocal microscopy, we analyzed dynamic redistribution of lipid rafts in chemoattractant-stimulated leukocytes expressing glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-anchored green fluorescent protein (GFP-GPI). Chemoattractants induced persistent GFP-GPI redistribution to the ...
Sharma Pranav - - 2004
Cholesterol and sphingolipid-enriched "rafts" have long been proposed as platforms for the sorting of specific membrane components including glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs), however, their existence and physical properties have been controversial. Here, we investigate the size of lipid-dependent organization of GPI-APs in live cells, using homo and hetero-FRET-based experiments, combined with ...
Mori Kohji - - 2004
Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), one of the genetic risk factors for Alzheimer's disease, is considered to have a critical role in transporting lipids in the brain. In the present study, we investigated ApoE release in primary rat microglial cultures. Microglial cells released ApoE in response to L-Ser in culture medium, and ...
Fortes Ana Margarida - - 2004
Study of lipoxygenase expression (LOX; EC 1.13.11.12) during organogenic nodule formation in hop (Humulus lupulus var. Nugget) showed that LOXs are developmentally regulated throughout the process, suggesting their involvement in the response of internodes to wounding, nodule formation, and plantlet regeneration from these nodules. LOX activity and lipid peroxides exhibited ...
Pizzo Paola - - 2004
Lipid rafts are plasma membrane compartments enriched in key signaling molecules. We have previously shown that in T lymphocytes anti-CD3 stimulation is insensitive to cholesterol extraction by methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MbetaCD), suggesting that anti-CD3 induced signal transduction is independent of raft integrity. Here we show that, in contrast to T cell stimulation ...
Fu Ying - - 2004
HepG2 cells were stably transfected with human caveolin-1 (HepG2/cav cells). Transfection resulted in expression of caveolin-1 mRNA, a high abundance of caveolin-1 protein, and the formation of caveolae on the plasma membrane. Cholesterol efflux from HepG2/cav cells was 280 and 45% higher than that from parent HepG2 cells when human ...
Pediconi M F - - 2004
The effects of metabolic inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis on the trafficking of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) to the cell membrane were studied in living CHO-K1/A5, a Chinese hamster ovary clonal line that heterologously expresses adult alpha2betadeltaepsilon mouse AChR. To this end, we submitted CHO-K1/A5 cells to long-term cholesterol deprivation, ...
Nagura Michiaki - - 2004
We investigated lipid composition and FA metabolism in Chinese hamster ovary CHO-K1) cells and Pex5-mutated CHO-K1 (ZP102) cells to clarify the biochemical bases of peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBD). ZP102 cells have defective peroxisomes and exhibit impairments of peroxisomal beta-oxidation of FA and plasmalogen biosynthesis. In addition, we identified FA metabolic ...
Zurgil Naomi - - 2004
Cell death is a major event in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL), which plays a key role in the atherogenesis, has a powerful cytotoxic effect and causes necrosis or apoptosis of different types of cells. In the present work we studied the mechanism of cell death in ...
Tsutsumi Toshihiko - - 2004
In our attempt to investigate the mechanism of the release of platelet-activating factor (PAF) from cells, the erythroleukemic cell line K562 was preloaded with a radiolabeled PAF analogue having an ethylcarbamyl residue, 1-O-octadecyl-2-O-ethylcarbamyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (ethylcarbamyl-PAF), that is resistant to the hydrolytic action of PAF acetylhydrolase. Its extracellular release was monitored using ...
Larbi Anis - - 2004
Aging is associated with a decline in T cell activation and proliferation, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Recent findings suggest that lipid rafts act as a platform in the initiation of T cell activation by selectively recruiting signaling proteins associated with formation of the initial complex of ...
Yu Yan-Ling - - 2003
The authors have identified 37 proteins in the whole-cell extracts from human monoblastic leukemia (U937) cell and macrophage-derived foam cell. The in vitro foam cell model was established by incubating the human U937 cells with oxidized low-density lipoprotein. The global changes in protein expressions between U937 foam cell and normal ...
Gramer Michael J - - 2003
An NSO/GS cell line secreting a humanized antibody was routinely propagated in a T-flask using 2% serum. For scale-up of antibody production, this cell line was inoculated into a hollow fiber system using the same serum concentration. The metabolic activity increased for a few days in the hollow fiber system, ...
Izard Jacques - - 2003
Although specific lipids in bacteria can be quantitated, there is still a need to quantitate the total lipid content of a bacterial sample. The sulfo-phospho-vanillin reaction for quantitation of bacterial lipids has significant advantages over traditional methods for screening of engineered mutant strains. In this report we show that this ...
Bagnato Carolina - - 2003
Diacylglycerol (DAG) is a versatile molecule that participates as substrate in the synthesis of structural and energetic lipids, and acts as the physiological signal that activates protein kinase C. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), the last committed enzyme in triacylglycerol synthesis, could potentially regulate the content and use of both signaling and ...
Hamilton Valerie T - - 2003
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection causes a significant polyclonal expansion of CD5(+), IgM+ B lymphocytes known as persistent lymphocytosis (PL) in approximately 30% of infected cattle. There is evidence that this expanded B cell population has altered signaling, and resistance to apoptosis has been proposed as one mechanism of B ...
Sathasivam Nalayini - - 2003
The effects of chlorpromazine (CPZ) on the lipid accumulation induced by the cationic lipophilic compound tetraphenylphosphonium chloride (TPP) were examined using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), lipid extraction and thin layer chromatography (TLC), and electron microscopy (EM). Chlorpromazine at concentrations of 12 or 25 microM significantly reduced the NMR-visible ...
Van Der Luit Arnold H - - 2003
The synthetic alkyl-lysophospholipid (ALP), Et-18-OCH3 (1-O-octadecyl-2-O-methyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine), can induce apoptosis in tumour cells. Unlike conventional chemotherapeutic drugs, ALP acts at the cell-membrane level. We have reported previously that ALP is internalized, and interferes with phosphatidylcholine (PC) biosynthesis de novo, which appeared to be essential for survival in lymphoma cells [Van der ...
Napolitano Mariarosaria - - 2003
The in vitro thiol redox modulation of cholesterol homeostasis was investigated in polarized Caco-2 intestinal cells. Cells were pre-incubated with the pro-oxidant compound CuSO4 or with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC), to induce a mild shift of the intracellular redox potential toward, respectively, a more oxidizing or a more reducing equilibrium, ...
Yu Yan-Ling - - 2003
AIM: To study the overall protein expression changes induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) in the U937 foam cells. METHODS: Foam cell model was established by incubating the human monoblastic leukemia (U937) cells with ox-LDL. Each protein samples in U937 control cells and U937 foam cells were separated by two-dimensional ...
Gniadecki Robert - - 2003
Lipid rafts are dynamic membrane microdomains enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids and are involved in the regulation of a variety of cellular processes, such as proliferation, apoptosis and cell motility. We have previously described that large lipid raft aggregates are readily detectable on cultured keratinocyte cell line HaCaT by staining ...
Lobasso Simona - - 2003
In the purple membrane (PM) of Halobacterium salinarum is present a phospholipid dimer consisting of sulfo-triglycosyl-diether (S-TGD-1) esterified to the phosphate group of phosphatidic acid (PA), i.e., S-TGD-1-PA, called glycocardiolipin (GlyC) (Corcelli, A., M. Colella, G. Mascolo, F. P. Fanizzi, and M. Kates. A novel glycolipid and phospholipid in the ...
Bortnick Anna E - - 2003
ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) promotes transfer of cholesterol and phospholipid from cells to lipid-free serum apolipoproteins. ABCA1 mRNA and protein expression in primary cultures of rodent type II cells was sensitive to upregulation with 5 microM 9-cis-retinoic acid (9cRA) and 6.2 microM 22-hydroxycholesterol (22-OH). The increase in ABCA1 protein ...
Witting Scott R - - 2003
It is widely accepted that functional ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) is critical for the formation of nascent high density lipoprotein particles. However, the cholesterol pool(s) and the cellular signaling processes utilized by the ABCA1-mediated pathway remain unclear. Sphingomyelin maintains a preferential interaction with cholesterol in membranes, and its catabolites, ...
Martinez Laurent O - - 2003
ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), the defective molecule in Tangier disease, mediates the apoAI-dependent efflux of excess cholesterol from cells. We recently showed that ABCA1 proteolysis by calpain was dependent on a PEST sequence in the cytoplasmic region of ABCA1 and was reversed by apoA-I interaction with ABCA1. We show ...
Sato Norihiro - - 2003
In the accompanying paper, we demonstrated that Chlorella kessleri uses prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathways to synthesize sn-1-C18-sn-2-C16 (C18/C16, prokaryotic lipids) and sn-1-C18-sn-2-C18 (C18/C18, eukaryotic lipids) species, respectively, in chloroplast lipids such as monogalactosyl diacylglycerol (MGDG) and digalactosyl diacylglycerol (DGDG). In this study, to examine the effect of CO2 on lipid ...
Manzoni Cristina - - 2003
The aims of this work were to monitor the subcellular localization of soybean 7S globulin in HepG2 cells and determine its interaction with cell protein components, by using laser-induced fluorescence capillary electrophoresis (LIF-CE). Furthermore, we evaluated in the same cell line the involvement of the alpha' constituent subunit from 7S ...
Price Lindsey J - - 2003
Graminicides belonging to the cyclohexanedione and aryloxyphenoxypropionate classes are well established to act by disrupting acyl lipid biosynthesis via specific inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Species of grass inherently resistant to such herbicides, or biotypes of grassy weed species which display acquired resistance to recommended rates of graminicide application, are known ...
Stuart Elizabeth S - - 2003
Obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens of the genus Chlamydia are reported to enter host cells by both clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent processes. C. trachomatis serovar K recently was shown to enter cells via caveolae-like lipid raft domains. We asked here how widespread raft-mediated entry might be among the Chlamydia. We show that ...
Kennedy Simon - - 2003
Increased accumulation of lipoproteins and cholesterol within cells from regenerated endothelium may be responsible for their reported dysfunction. This study compared the presence and uptake of oxidized forms of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in cells derived from native and regenerated endothelium. Four weeks after balloon denudation, primary cultures of native and ...
Rajendran Lawrence - - 2003
Hematopoietic cells have long been defined as round, nonpolar cells that show uniform distribution of cell surface-associated molecules. However, recent analyses of the immunological synapse and the importance of lipid microdomains in signaling have shed new light on the aspect of lymphocyte polarization during the activation processes, but none of ...
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