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Results 301 - 350 of 1593
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Bobryshev Yuri V - - 2005
Recently, laser capture microdissection (LCM) has become a powerful tool for investigating the genome and protein contents of cells populating normal and pathologically altered tissues. The present work reports a technique for the preparation of tissue specimens for further LCM combined with electron microscopy. In this work, atherosclerotic plaque cells ...
Alder-Baerens Nele - - 2005
ABCA1 has been established to be required for the efflux of cholesterol and phospholipids to apolipoproteins such as apoA-I. At present, it is unclear whether ABCA1-mediated lipid exposure is specific with regard to lipid headgroups and whether it requires calcium activation and the presence of a lipid acceptor. In the ...
Milne Stephen B - - 2005
The development of a new mass spectrometric lipid profiling methodology permits the identification of cellular phosphatidylinositol monophosphate/phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate/phosphatidylinositol trisphosphate (PIP/PIP2/PIP3) species that includes the fatty acyl composition. Using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, we were able to resolve and identify 28 PIP and PIP2 compounds as well as 8 PIP3 compounds ...
Karnell Fredrick G - - 2005
Recent studies argue for an important role for cholesterol in maintaining plasma membrane heterogeneity and influencing a variety of cellular processes, including signaling, adhesion, and permeability. Here, we document that tolerance-sensitive transitional immature B cells maintain significantly lower membrane unesterified cholesterol levels than mature-stage splenic B cells. In addition, the ...
Wu Sophia P - - 2005
Meso-to-meso ethyne-bridged tris[(porphinato)zinc(II)] (PZn(3)) near-infrared (NIR) fluorophores (lambda(em)(max) approximately 800 nm) can be rendered sufficiently amphiphilic to enable their facile incorporation into the hydrophobic core of the apo form of low-density lipoprotein (apo-LDL). These NIR fluorophores are notable in that they manifest low energy excited states polarized exclusively along the ...
Keynes Robert G - - 2005
Mechanisms which inactivate NO (nitric oxide) are probably important in governing the physiological and pathological effects of this ubiquitous signalling molecule. Cells isolated from the cerebellum, a brain region rich in the NO signalling pathway, consume NO avidly. This property was preserved in brain homogenates and required both particulate and ...
Hasty Alyssa H - - 2005
The ability of apolipoprotein E (apoE) to be spared degradation in lysosomes and to recycle to the cell surface has been demonstrated by our group and others, but its physiologic relevance is unknown. In this study, we characterized apoE recycling in primary murine macrophages and probed the effects of HDL ...
Bang Bo - - 2005
Lipid rafts are cholesterol-enriched microdomains in plasma membranes. The functional activity of many membrane proteins, including death and growth factor receptors, depends on their insertion in lipid rafts. We have previously demonstrated the presence of lipid rafts in keratinocytes and shown that lipid rafts are involved in the control of ...
Mielenz Dirk - - 2005
Lipid rafts serve as platforms for BCR signal transduction. To better define the molecular basis of these membrane microdomains, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to characterize lipid raft proteins from mature as well as immature B cell lines. Of 51 specific raft proteins, we identified a total ...
Liu Ying - - 2005
Cytochrome P450 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17) is a microsomal enzyme catalyzing two distinct activities, 17alpha-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase, essential for the biosynthesis of adrenal and gonadal steroids. CYP17 is a potent oxidant, it is present in liver and nonsteroidogenic tissues, and it has been suggested to have catalytic properties distinct to its function ...
Gederaas Odrun Arna - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to examine whether the dietary components n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may potentiate the effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in human cancer cell lines by enhancing the lipid peroxidation. The effects of the porphyrin precursor 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) and light (320 < ...
Suárez Yajaira - - 2005
Cholesterol is a major component of the plasma membrane in mammalian cells, where it acts as a modulator of bulk physical state and integrity. In addition to its structural role, cholesterol is essential for proliferation and other cell processes. The present study was undertaken to explore the stringency of the ...
Choi Eung-Ho - - 2005
Although many skin disorders, including psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, are adversely affected by psychologic stress (PS), the pathophysiologic link between PS and disease expression remains unclear. Recent studies demonstrated PS-induced alterations in permeability barrier homeostasis, mediated by increased endogenous glucocorticoids. Here, we assessed the mechanisms by which PS alters stratum ...
Ho Suleen S - - 2005
Several studies in humans have demonstrated the hypocholesterolemic effect of plant sterol consumption. It is unclear whether plant sterols regulate lipoprotein metabolism in the liver and intestines, thereby decreasing the levels of circulating atherogenic lipoproteins. We investigated the effect of the three main phytosterols: stigmasterol, campesterol, and beta-sitosterol on lipoprotein ...
Geyeregger René - - 2005
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) exert inhibitory effects on T cell-mediated immune responses. Activation of T cells in vivo depends on formation of an immunological synapse (IS) at the T cell/antigen-presenting cell (APC) interface. Here, we analyzed effects of PUFA treatment on the formation of the IS and APC-induced human T ...
Mannechez Aurélie - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Most cancer cells are characterized by mobile lipids visible on proton NMR (1H-NMR), these being comprised mainly of methyl and methylene signals from lipid acyl chains. Erythroleukemia K562 cells show narrow signals at 1.3 and 0.9 ppm, corresponding to mobile lipids (methylene and methyl, respectively), which are reduced when ...
Ishii Hidenari - - 2005
Externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) takes place in apoptotic cells as well as in viable cells under certain circumstances. Recent studies showed that externalized PS is localized at the lipid raft in viable activated immune cells. We found that lipid rafts and PS existed in a mutually exclusive manner in apoptotic ...
Fernández Carlos - - 2005
Cholesterol is a major lipid component of the plasma membrane in animal cells. In addition to its structural requirement, cholesterol is essential in cell proliferation and other cell processes. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the stringency of the requirement for cholesterol as a regulator of proliferation ...
Van Hoof Dennis - - 2005
While the intracellular pathways of ligands after receptor-mediated endocytosis have been studied extensively in mammalian cells, in insect cells these pathways are largely unknown. We transfected Drosophila Schneider line 2 (S2) cells with the human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) and transferrin (Tf) receptor (TfR), and used endocytosis of LDL ...
Onck, P.R.
Two closed cell aluminium foams and one open cell nickel-chromium foam were subjected to microstructural characterization, in situ fracture tests and fractography. The failure process of the open cell foam was observed to be rather ductile, while that of the closed cell foams was found to be brittle. The ductility ...
Tian Jun - - 2005
To explore the functions of very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDL-R) subtype II in lipoprotein metabolism and foam cells formation, the recombinant plasmid with the two subtypes cDNA was constructed respectively, the 1dl-A7 cell lines were transfected and two cell lines expressing VLDL-R were obtained: one stably expressing the VLDLR ...
Botham K M - - 2005
The development of atherosclerotic lesions in the artery wall is a complex process involving the endothelium, lipid engorged macrophages (foam cells) and smooth muscle cells. In recent years it has become clear that chylomicron remnants, the lipoproteins which carry lipids of dietary origin in the blood, are strongly atherogenic, and ...
Powner Dale J - - 2005
Phospholipase D (PLD) is an enzyme implicated in the regulation of both exocytic and endocytic vesicle trafficking as well as many other processes. Consistent with this, the small GTPase Arf6 and regulated changes in inositol phospholipids levels are two factors that regulate both PLD and vesicle trafficking. Here we describe ...
Aoki Takanori - - 2005
Apolipoprotein E (apoE) in a human fetal brain cDNA library was identified, using the expression cloning method, as a gene product that formed a complex with latent matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2. Co-expression of membrane-type MMP-1 (MT1-MMP) with apoE in HEK293T cells reduced the amount of apoE secreted into the culture medium, ...
Datar R - - 2004
Benzoyl peroxide (BP), a tumor promoter, has been shown to cause free-radical-induced lipid peroxidation and membrane damage at toxic concentrations. However, its effects on lipid metabolism at concentrations that were not overtly toxic have not been investigated. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of BP ...
Hofmanová J - - 2005
Differences in lipid metabolism of tumor and normal tissues suggest a distinct response to available lipid compounds. In this study, the in vitro effects of five types of commercial parenteral lipid emulsions were investigated on human cell lines derived from normal fetal colon (FHC) or colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29). Changes of ...
Vijayvargia Ravi - - 2004
The assembly of alpha-HL was shown to rapidly progress upon its interaction with Caveolin-1. Treatment of A431 cells with alpha-HL has resulted in clustering of Caveolin-1 at cell-cell contacts. Consistent with this observation, alpha-HL mutants devoid of assembly property have not induced the clustering of Caveolin-1. While cholesterol depletion of ...
Wassef Hanny - - 2004
Little is known about the regulation of apolipoprotein (apo) C-I production by human adipocytes. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to investigate the effect of different tissue culture conditions on the synthesis and secretion of apoC-I and apoE in human SW872 liposarcoma cells. After 3-4 d in culture ...
Fern?ndez Carlos - - 2004
As an essential component of mammalian cell membranes, cells require cholesterol for proliferation, which is either obtained from plasma lipoproteins or synthesized intracellularly from acetyl-CoA. In addition to cholesterol, other non-sterol mevalonate derivatives are necessary for DNA synthesis, such as the phosphorylated forms of isopentane, farnesol, geranylgeraniol, and dolichol. The ...
Heeren Joerg - - 2004
After internalization of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL) in hepatoma cells, TRL particles are immediately disintegrated in the early endosomal compartment. This involves the targeting of lipids and apoprotein B along the degradative pathway and the recycling of TRL-derived apoE through recycling endosomes. Re-secretion of apoE is accompanied by the concomitant association ...
Hronská Lucia - - 2004
Mild non-ionic detergents are used for solubilization of hydrophobic substrates in yeast growth media at concentrations 0.1-1%. Our data show that low concentrations of Nonidet P-40 may significantly affect lipid biogenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The uptake and esterification of external [4-14C]-cholesterol is strongly reduced in hem1 mutants treated ...
Nguyen Dzung H - - 2004
Human aging is associated with an increase in immune cell cholesterol levels, independent of circulating cholesterol levels. The effects of such an increase in membrane cholesterol on lipid raft-associated immune cell function have not been investigated. We sought to examine the effects of in vitro cholesterol loading on two known ...
Liang John J - - 2004
The relative importance of each core lipid in the assembly and secretion of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) has been of interest over the past decade. The isolation of genes encoding diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) and acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferases (ACAT1 and ACAT2) provided the opportunity to investigate the effects of isolated increases ...
Schuster George S - - 2004
Metallic medical devices undergo degradation in vivo and the degradation products affect the chemistry and biological responses of cells and tissues in the immediate vicinity. The responses vary with the metal and cell type. In the current study, we examined the effects of several metals on a human monocytic cell ...
Jeske Nathaniel A - - 2004
Metalloendopeptidase EC3.4.24.15 (EP24.15) is a physiologically important neuropeptide-degrading enzyme involved in the metabolism of multiple neuropeptides. The mechanism of release of EP24.15 from neuronal cells is multimodal, being both constitutive and stimulatable. Previous studies have characterized stimulated EP24.15 secretion, yet little is understood concerning constitutive release of the peptidase. Utilizing ...
White Nicole M - - 2004
Recent data demonstrate that inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase restores normal signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression regulation in cystic fibrosis (CF) cells through the modulation of RhoA function. These findings lead to the hypothesis that alterations in the cholesterol synthesis pathway may be an ...
Sever Navdar - - 2004
Insig-1 and Insig-2 are membrane proteins of the endoplasmic reticulum that regulate lipid metabolism by the following two actions: 1) sterol-induced binding to 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, an action that leads to ubiquitination and degradation of the enzyme; and 2) sterol-induced binding to SREBP cleavage-activating protein, an action that blocks the ...
Davis Warren W - - 2004
We present evidence that the ATP binding-cassette transporter-2 (ABCA2) is a sterol-responsive gene that has a role in the trafficking of low-density lipoprotein-derived free cholesterol (LDL-FC). In HepG2 cells ABCA2 was coordinately expressed with other sterol-responsive genes. Stable constitutive expression of ABCA2 in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHOA2) was accompanied ...
Thomas Sunil - - 2004
The plasma membrane of T cells is made up of a combination of phospholipids and proteins organized as glycolipoprotein microdomains termed lipid rafts. The structural assembly of lipid rafts was investigated by various physical and biochemical assays. Depending on the differentiation status of T cells, the lipid rafts seclude various ...
Tserng Kou-Yi - - 2004
Ceramides, which are produced from the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin or synthesized from serine and palmitate in a de novo pathway, are regarded as important cellular signals for inducing apoptosis. However, controversy over this proposed role of ceramides exists. Using stable isotope labelling coupled with GC (gas chromatography)-MS and mass isotopomer ...
Krishnan Sandeep - - 2004
In response to appropriate stimulation, T lymphocytes from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients exhibit increased and faster intracellular tyrosine phosphorylation and free calcium responses. We have explored whether the composition and dynamics of lipid rafts are responsible for the abnormal T cell responses in SLE. SLE T cells generate and ...
Sigal Leonard H - - 2004
The development of an antigen-specific immune response depends on the peptide-loaded MHC molecule on the surface of the antigen-presenting cell being found by the antigen-specific receptor on the cell about to be activated (the T-cell antigen receptor for T-cells or the membrane-bound immunoglobulin molecule on B-cells). The details of this ...
Caviglia J Matías - - 2004
We studied the regulation of triacylglycerol (TAG) metabolism by phosphatidylcholine (PC) in CHO MT58 cells, which are deficient in PC synthesis because of a temperature-sensitive CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase. At the permissive growth temperature (34 degrees C), these cells contained 49% less TAG and 30% less PC than wild-type CHO K1 cells. ...
Ongini Ennio - - 2004
Inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase, namely statins, exert pleiotropic actions beyond lipid-lowering effects. Their pharmacological activity on atherosclerotic plaque stability and vascular inflammation appears to be mediated, at least in part, by nitric oxide (NO). With the aim of enhancing the nonlipid-lowering properties of selected statins, we introduced a ...
Thomas Sunil - - 2004
The plasma membrane of T cells is made of a combination of glycosphingolipids and protein receptors organized in glycolipoprotein microdomains termed lipid rafts. The structural assembly of lipid rafts was investigated by various physical and biochemical assays. Depending on the differentiation status of T cells, the lipid rafts seclude various ...
Aurrand-Lions Michel - - 2004
Haemangiomas are benign tumours occurring in up to 12% of Caucasians, particularly in infancy and childhood. In the present study, two variant cell lines were isolated from murine endothelioma cells. One variant, named t.End.1V(high), represented 16.9% of the parental cell population and was selected by virtue of high expression levels ...
Lan Que - - 2004
Subcellular distribution of Aedes aegypti sterol carrier protein-2 (AeSCP-2) and AeSCP-x was studied using electron microscopy. In both cultured A. aegypti cells and in the larval midgut, AeSCP-2 was detected mostly in the cytosol, with some labeling mitochondria and nucleus, but not in membranous vesicles. The widespread distribution of AeSCP-2 ...
Poole Kate - - 2004
We have investigated whether raft lipids of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells play any role in microvilli maintenance using a combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and laser scanning confocal microscopy. MDCK cells were treated to reduce the amount of sphingolipids, cholesterol, or both and subsequently imaged, in buffer solution, ...
Brodsky Jeffrey L - - 2004
A cell-free system was established to study the process by which apolipoprotein (apo)B100-containing lipoproteins exit the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). ApoB was found in COPII vesicles with physical properties distinct from those containing other secreted proteins. When lipid synthesis in rat hepatoma cells was stimulated by fatty acid addition, fully lipidated ...
Eskelinen Eeva-Liisa - - 2004
Mice double deficient in LAMP-1 and -2 were generated. The embryos died between embryonic days 14.5 and 16.5. An accumulation of autophagic vacuoles was detected in many tissues including endothelial cells and Schwann cells. Fibroblast cell lines derived from the double-deficient embryos accumulated autophagic vacuoles and the autophagy protein LC3II ...
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