Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 1597
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Oh Hea Young - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Lipid rafts are cholesterol-enriched microdomains in cell membranes that have been shown to regulate signal transduction. We investigated whether membrane cholesterol could regulate apoptosis and attempted to elucidate the mechanism by which apoptosis is induced in prostate cancer cells. METHODS: LNCaP cells were exposed to 2-hydroxyprophyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) to deplete ...
Firth Carole A - - 2007
In U937 and mouse myeloma cells, protein hydroperoxides are the predominant hydroperoxide formed during exposure to AAPH or gamma irradiation. In lipid-rich human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs), we have found the opposite situation. Hydroperoxide measurements by the FOX assay showed the majority of hydroperoxides formed during AAPH incubation were lipid hydroperoxides. ...
Lee Peter C W - - 2007
The endoplasmic reticulum membrane proteins Insig-1 and Insig-2 limit cholesterol synthesis, in part through their sterol-dependent binding to sterol-regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) cleavage-activating protein (SCAP). This binding prevents proteolytic processing of SREBPs, membrane-bound transcription factors that enhance cholesterol synthesis. We report here the characterization of mutant Chinese hamster ovary ...
Tsuzuki Wakako - - 2007
To elucidate the absorption characteristics of dietary lipids in the human intestine, we investigated the cellular uptake of lipid metabolites using a differential monolayer of the Caco2 cells. As lipid metabolites, several free fatty acids and 2-monoacylglycerols, were formed a mixed micelle by bile salts and lysophospholipids and they were ...
Muccioli Giulio G GG Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-7280, - - 2008
Microglial cell activation and migration play an important role in neuroinflammation propagation. While it is known that the lipid transmitter palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) regulates microglial migration by interacting with a cannabinoid-like receptor, the production and inactivation of this lipid by microglia has never been addressed directly. Here we show that the ...
Takahashi Miwa - - 2007
Cellular cholesterol increases when cells reach confluency in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. We examined the endocytosis of several lipid probes in subconfluent and confluent CHO cells. In subconfluent cells, fluorescent lipid probes including poly(ethylene glycol)derivatized cholesterol, 22-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)-23,24-bisnor-5-cholen-3beta-ol, and fluorescent sphingomyelin analogs were internalized to pericentriolar recycling endosomes. This accumulation ...
Temel Ryan E - - 2007
Previous studies in nonhuman primates revealed a striking positive correlation between liver cholesteryl ester (CE) secretion rate and the development of coronary artery atherosclerosis. CE incorporated into hepatic VLDL is necessarily synthesized by ACAT2, the cholesterol-esterifying enzyme in hepatocytes. We tested the hypothesis that the level of ACAT2 expression, in ...
Fujimoto Yasuyuki - - 2007
Lipid droplets (LDs) function as intracellular storage depots of neutral lipids. Recently, we identified long-chain acyl-coenzyme A synthetase 3 (ACSL3) as a major LD-associated protein in the human hepatocyte cell line HuH7. In this study, we investigated whether droplet-associated ACSL is involved in lipid metabolism in LDs. Addition of oleic ...
Saito Makiko - - 2007
Changes in the molecular species of lipids associated with Pex2 gene-mutation were investigated to elucidate the pathogeneses of peroxisome biogenesis disorders. Although no differences were observed in the concentrations of cholesterol and phosphatidyl choline between mutated Z65 and control CHO-K1 cells, the amounts of cholesterol esters and glycolipids in Z65 ...
Fuda Hirotoshi - - 2007
Oxysterols constitute a class of cholesterol derivatives that exhibit broad biological effects ranging from cytotoxicity to regulation of nuclear receptors. The role of oxysterols such as 7-ketocholesterol (7-KC) in the development of retinal macular degeneration and atheromatous lesions is of particular interest, but little is known of their metabolic fate. ...
Yancey Patricia G - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: ABCA1-dependent and ABCA1-independent pathways may operate in high-density lipoprotein formation by macrophages secreting apolipoprotein (apo) E. We examined the impact of ABCA1 on apoE-mediated efflux from cholesterol-enriched macrophages. METHODS AND RESULTS: Without acceptors, wild-type, ABCA1-/-, and apoE-/- macrophages released 5.7%+/-0.3%, 1.8%+/-0.1%, and 2.3%+/-0.2% of their cholesterol, and the LXR ...
Nakashima Hideyuki - - 2007
Caveolin-1 is a component of lipid rafts, and is considered to be a tumor suppressor molecule. However, the mechanisms by which caveolin-1 functions in cancer cells are not well understood. We generated caveolin-1 transfectant cells (Cav-1(+) cells) using a human melanoma cell line (SK-MEL-28) and investigated the effects of caveolin-1 ...
Haeffner E W - - 2007
We have introduced a heterologous coculture model between Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) and baby hamster kidney cells (PtK2), and we have studied the influence of PtK2 cells and their newly synthesized cholesterol on uptake and tumor cell proliferation. PtK2 cells produce about five times more cholesterol as compared to EAT ...
Mammoto Akiko - - 2007
Cytoskeleton-dependent changes in the activity of the small GTPase Rho mediate the effects of cell shape on cell function; however, little is known about how cell spreading and related distortion of the cytoskeleton regulate Rho activity. Here we show that rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton associated with early phases of ...
Fagone Paolo - - 2007
Stimulated B-lymphocytes differentiate into plasma cells committed to antibody production. Expansion of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi compartments is a prerequisite for high rate synthesis, assembly, and secretion of immunoglobulins. The bacterial cell wall component lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulates murine B-cells to proliferate and differentiate into antibody-secreting cells that morphologically resemble ...
Kodaira Yuichi - - 2007
Geranylgeranoic acid (GGA) and 2,3-dihydrogeranylgeranoic acid (2,3-diGGA) are geranylgeraniol-derived metabolites (Kodaira et al. (2002) J Biochem 132: 327-334). In the present study, we examined the effects of these acids on HL-60 cells. The cells were differentiated into neutrophils by GGA stimulation like retinoic acid stimulation. In the case of cells ...
Garrett Teresa A - - 2007
Prenols, a class of lipids formed by the condensation of five carbon isoprenoids, have important roles in numerous metabolic pathways of the eukaryotic cell. Prenols are found in the cell as free alcohols, such as dolichol, or can be attached to vitamins, as with the fat soluble vitamins. In addition, ...
Xu Fred Y - - 2007
N,N-Diethyl-2-[4-(phenylmethyl)phenoxy]ethanamine (DPPE, tesmilifene), a potent chemopotentiating drug currently in Phase III clinical trials of metastatic breast cancer, increases cytotoxicity of anthracyclines and taxanes in a variety of multi-drug resistance expressing (MDR+) tumor cell lines in vitro; inhibits binding of histamine to CYP3A4, a lipid/prostanoid-regulatory P450; and modulates serum levels of ...
Mailloux Ryan - - 2007
Mitochondrial dysfunction is the cause of a variety of pathologies associated with high energy-requiring tissues like the brain and muscles. Here we show that aluminum (Al) perturbs oxidative-ATP production in human hepatocytes (HepG2 cells). This Al-induced mitochondrial dysfunction promotes enhanced lipogenesis and the accumulation of the very low density lipoprotein ...
Guillou Hervé - - 2007
The activation of class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI(3)Ks) by cell surface receptors represents the initiation of a large and complex signaling network that couples many growth factors, antigens, and inflammatory stimuli to important cellular responses, such as cell growth, survival, and movement. The most direct measurement of class I PI(3)K ...
Hou Mengjun - - 2007
Formation of macrophage-derived foam cells is a hallmark in earlier stages of atherosclerosis (AS). Increased cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells promote atherosclerotic regression. In the present study, lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) promoting cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells was observed, and the mechanism underlying the action was investigated. Macrophage foam cells ...
Yang Peng-Yuan - - 2007
Foam cells are characteristic pathological cells in the lesions of atherosclerosis. Previous works have established macrophage-derived foam cell model to study the central role of the foam cells, and analyzed the protein expression profiles in foam cells. The reported in vitro foam cell model was established by incubating the human ...
Viccica G - - 2007
Cholesterol (C27H46O) is the principal structural lipid of the biological membrane, but it also plays an important role in many other biological functions. Even though the majority of body cholesterol is synthesized by the liver and secreted as circulating lipoproteins, many cell types can synthesize cholesterol ex novo. The biosynthetic ...
Michihara Akihiro - - 2007
We examined the change in the subcellular distribution of a lysosomal enzyme, beta-glucuronidase (beta-G), caused by decreased cholesterol levels in mouse melanoma cells using an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, lovastatin and lipoprotein-deficient serum (LDS). There was a decrease in the cholesterol content of the cells and increased secretion of the mature ...
Pipalia Nina H - - 2007
We studied the trafficking of sterols, lipids and proteins in Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) cells. The NPC is an inherited disorder involving the accumulation of sterol and lipids in modified late-endosome/lysosome-like storage organelles. Most sterol accumulation studies in NPC cells have been carried out using low-density lipoprotein (LDL) as the ...
Montechiaro Federico - - 2006
The chemical composition of organisms in relation to their environmental resource availability is an area of intense research activity. We studied the changes in cell composition of the cyanobacterium Phormidium autumnale in response to prolonged darkness. Cells allocated their internal resources in a homeostatic manner, oxidizing all the three major ...
Delmas Olivier - - 2007
Previous studies have shown that rotavirus virions, a major cause of infantile diarrhea, assemble within small intestinal enterocytes and are released at the apical pole without significant cell lysis. In contrast, for the poorly differentiated kidney epithelial MA 104 cells, which have been used extensively to study rotavirus assembly, it ...
Gentili H G - - 2007
The nonpathogenic ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila converts cholesterol from foodstuffs into provitamin D compounds in high yields. However, prolonged incubation with wild-type strain CU-399 at high densities results in a final deterioration of milk properties, possibly as a result of secreted hydrolases. Here we attempted to solve this problem using MS-1 ...
Jury Elizabeth C - - 2006
Loss of tolerance to self-Ags in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a prototypic autoimmune disease, is associated with dysregulation of T cell signaling, including the depletion of total levels of lymphocyte-specific protein kinase (Lck) from sphingolipid-cholesterol-enriched membrane microdomains (lipid rafts). Inhibitors of 3-hyroxy-3-methylgluteryl CoA reductase (statins) can modify the ...
Fujiyoshi Masachika - - 2007
The release of cholesterol from choroid plexus epithelial cells (CPE) plays an important role in cholesterol homeostasis in the CSF. The purpose of this study was to clarify the molecules involved in cholesterol release in CPE and the regulation mechanisms of the cholesterol release by the liver X receptor (LXR) ...
Ikeda Mitsunori - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The source of accumulated lipids in the foam cells of xanthoma is primarily the lipoproteins existing in the lesional dermis. OBJECTIVE: This study was designated to clarify the contribution of low density lipoprotein (LDL) density substances existing in xanthoma tissue to foam cell formation. METHODS: An LDL density fraction ...
Comiskey Martina - - 2007
HLA-G protein is the functional homolog of Qa-2, the product of the mouse preimplantation embryo development (Ped) gene. Embryos expressing Qa-2 on the cell surface exhibit a faster rate of preimplantation cleavage and preferential survival in utero compared with Qa-2-negative embryos. Qa-2 is glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) linked in the cell membrane. ...
Huang Peng P Department of Pharmacology, Center for Substance Abuse Research, Temple University School of Medicine, 3420 N Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA 19140, United - - 2007
Opioid receptors have been shown to be located in and regulated by lipid rafts/caveolae in caveolin-rich non-neuronal cells. Here, we found that caveolin-1 level was very low in rat brain and undetectable in NG108-15 cells, which endogenously express delta opioid receptors (DOR). Rat caudate putamen (CPu) membranes, NG108-15 cells and ...
Ono Kei - - 2006
We investigated roles of scavenger receptor A (SR-A) and mannose-binding lectin (MBL) in the uptake of endotoxin and bacteria by Kupffer cells. When [3H]lipid A was injected into retro-orbital plexus of mice, significantly less accumulation of lipid A in the liver was observed in SR-A-deficient mice and wild-type mice coinjected ...
Zhao Bin - - 2007
Reduction of the lipid burden of atherosclerotic lesion-associated macrophage foam cells is a logical strategy to reduce the plaque volume. Since extracellular cholesterol acceptor-mediated cholesterol efflux is the only recognized mechanism of cholesterol removal from foam cells and this process is rate limited at the level of intracellular cholesterol ester ...
Fukasawa Masayoshi - - 2006
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein plays important roles in the pathogeneses of liver steatosis as well as hepatocellular carcinomas due to HCV infection. In this study, we examined de novo fatty acid biosynthesis in hepatic cell line Huh7 cells expressing HCV core protein. The rate of metabolic labeling of ...
Klopotek Anett - - 2006
Cholesterol synthesis in animal cells is regulated by sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-2. The objective of this study was to investigate whether activation of peroxisome proliferator-activatedreceptor (PPAR)-gamma influences the SREBP-2 dependent cholesterol synthesis in liver and intestinal cells. Therefore, HepG2 and Caco-2 cells were incubated with and without 10 or ...
Chono Sumio - - 2006
To confirm the efficacy of dexamethasone incorporated into liposomes in the treatment of atherosclerosis, the uptake of dexamethasone-liposomes by macrophages and foam cells and its inhibitory effect on cellular cholesterol ester accumulation in these cells were investigated in-vitro. Dexamethasone-liposomes were prepared with egg yolk phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol and dicetylphosphate in a ...
Chow Warren A - - 2006
"HIV protease-induced lipodystrophy syndrome" is associated with the use of HIV protease inhibitors for treatment of HIV infection. In-vitro studies suggest that alteration of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 levels underlie its pathogenesis. We postulated that HIV protease inhibitors may represent a novel class of antiliposarcoma agents. SW872, FU-DDLS-1 and ...
Cho Hana - - 2006
Phosphoinositides are critical regulators of ion channel and transporter activity. There are multiple isomers of biologically active phosphoinositides in the plasma membrane and the different lipid species are non-randomly distributed. However, the mechanism by which cells impose selectivity and directionality on lipid movements and so generate a non-random lipid distribution ...
Mweva S - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Fu5AH rat hepatoma cells and cAMP (cyclic AMP)-pretreated J774 mouse macrophages are commonly used as models for SR-BI (scavenger receptor class B type I) and ABCA1 (ATP binding cassette transporter 1)-mediated free cholesterol efflux to whole serum, respectively. However, the responsiveness of Fu5AH, control or cAMP pretreated J774 cells ...
Bengoechea-Alonso Maria T - - 2006
Members of the sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) family of transcription factors control the biosynthesis of cholesterol and other lipids, and lipid synthesis is critical for cell growth and proliferation. We recently found that the mature forms of SREBP1a and SREBP1c are hyperphosphorylated in mitotic cells, giving rise to a ...
Akpovi Casimir D - - 2006
Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) contributes to HDL-mediated cellular cholesterol efflux and is a phagocytosis-inducing phospholipid phosphatidylserine receptor in rat Sertoli cells, whereas the spliced variant of the SR-B gene, SR-BII, is implicated in the efflux of free cholesterol in macrophages. This study aimed to assess whether spontaneous ...
Sagiv Yuval - - 2006
Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) is a late endosomal/lysosomal transmembrane protein involved in the cellular transport of glycosphingolipids and cholesterol that is mutated in a majority of patients with Niemann-Pick C neurodegenerative disease. We found that NPC1-deficient mice lacked Valpha14-Jalpha18 NKT cells, a major population of CD1d-restricted T cells that is ...
Krafft Christoph - - 2006
Raman microspectroscopic mapping enables one to study the chemical composition and molecular structure of subcellular components in individual cells without the need for labeling. Lung fibroblast cells were prepared under normal conditions and under stress, which was induced by 24 h of exposure to glyoxal. Raman microspectroscopic maps were recorded ...
Kriska Tamas - - 2006
Sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2) plays a crucial role in the trafficking and metabolism of cholesterol and other lipids in mammalian cells. Lipid hydroperoxides generated under oxidative stress conditions are relatively long-lived intermediates that damage cell membranes and play an important role in redox signaling. We hypothesized that SCP-2-facilitated translocation of ...
Schønberg Svanhild A - - 2006
N-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may be associated with increased risk of colon cancer, whereas n-3 PUFAs may have a protective effect. We examined the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid and arachidonic acid on the colon carcinoma cell lines SW480 derived from a primary tumour, and SW620 derived ...
Miwa Yoshikatsu - - 2006
Our previous study has shown that a soluble hesperidin derivative, glucosyl hesperidin (G-hesperidin), preferentially lowers serum triglyceride (TG) level in hypertriglyceridemic subjects through the improvement of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) metabolic abnormality. G-Hesperidin has also been found to decrease an elevated serum apolipoprotein B (apo B) level in the hypertriglyceridemic ...
Hill J - - 2006
The outermost layer of the skin, the stratum corneum, consists of non-viable keratin-filled cells, or corneocytes, embedded in a matrix of lipids. The boundary of the cells consists of cross-linked proteins with covalently bound lipids on the outer surface. The spaces between cells are filled with a mixture of ceramides, ...
Krimbou Larbi - - 2006
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The interest for the human HDL system was recently revived by the identification of the ABCA1 as a critical component in the formation and maintenance of plasma HDL levels. The present review focuses on recent progress in our understanding of the basic mechanisms underlying HDL biogenesis pathways. ...
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >