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Results 201 - 250 of 1607
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Matsumoto Masaaki - - 2007
A 5-month-old boy was noted to have brown macules with palpable infiltration on the head, trunk, and extremities a few weeks after birth, with recurrent episodes of generalized flushing and blistering in some of the macules. These lesions developed into yellowish plaques after 1 year of topical treatment with clobetasol ...
Brown J Mark - - 2007
Recent evidence suggests that NPC1L1 (Niemann-Pick C1-like 1) is critical for intestinal sterol absorption in mice, yet mechanisms by which NPC1L1 regulates cellular sterol transport are lacking. In the study we used a McArdle-RH7777 rat hepatoma cell line stably expressing NPC1L1 to examine the sterol-specificity and directionality of NPC1L1-mediated sterol ...
Vrins Carlos - - 2007
The ATP binding cassette transporters ABCG5 and ABCG8 are indispensable for hepatobiliary cholesterol transport. In this study, we investigated the specificity of the heterodimer for cholesterol acceptors. Dog gallbladder epithelial cells were mono- or double-transfected with lentiviral mouse Abcg5 and Abcg8 vectors. Double-transfected cells showed increased efflux to different bile ...
Adorni Maria Pia - - 2007
Cholesterol efflux occurs by different pathways, including transport mediated by specific proteins. We determined the effect of enriching cells with free cholesterol (FC) on the release of FC to human serum. Loading Fu5AH cells with FC had no effect on fractional efflux, whereas enriching mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPMs) resulted in ...
Pani Alessandra - - 2007
Our studies on the role of cholesterol homeostasis in the pathogenesis of scrapie revealed abnormal accumulation of cholesterol esters in ex vivo peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and skin fibroblasts from healthy and scrapie-affected sheep carrying a scrapie-susceptible genotype compared to sheep with a resistant genotype. Similar alterations were observed ...
Arriagada Christian - - 2007
The CNh and CTb cell lines are derived from the cerebral cortex of normal and trisomy 16 mice, an animal model of human trisomy 21, Down syndrome (DS), and represent in vitro models to study cellular events associated with the human condition. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) plays an important role ...
Chen Yaxi - - 2007
LDL receptor (LDLr) is widely expressed in both liver and peripheral tissue. We aimed to clarify tissue-specific regulation of LDLr in hepatic cell line (HepG2) cells and human kidney mesangial cells (HMCs) under physiological and inflammatory conditions. We have demonstrated that the concentration of LDL required for 50% inhibition of ...
Salinas Irene - - 2008
Probiotic bacteria are known to exert a wide range of beneficial effects on their animal hosts. Control of intestinal homeostasis, inflammation suppression and a reduction in the incidence of cancer all rely on the antiproliferative potential of probiotics. In this paper, we assess the antiproliferative activity of probiotics in two ...
Hofnagel Oliver - - 2007
The uptake of oxidized lipoproteins via scavenger receptors and the ensuing formation of foam cells are key events during atherogenesis. Foam cell formation can be reduced by treatment with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins). The efficacy of statins is evidently due not only to their cholesterol-lowering properties, but ...
Wu Ting-He - - 2007
B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) is an important negative regulator of T-cell activation. T-cell activation involves partitioning of receptors into discrete membrane compartments known as lipid rafts and the formation of an immunological synapse (IS) between the T cell and antigen-presenting cell (APC). Here we show that after T-cell ...
Oh Hea Young - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Lipid rafts are cholesterol-enriched microdomains in cell membranes that have been shown to regulate signal transduction. We investigated whether membrane cholesterol could regulate apoptosis and attempted to elucidate the mechanism by which apoptosis is induced in prostate cancer cells. METHODS: LNCaP cells were exposed to 2-hydroxyprophyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) to deplete ...
Firth Carole A - - 2007
In U937 and mouse myeloma cells, protein hydroperoxides are the predominant hydroperoxide formed during exposure to AAPH or gamma irradiation. In lipid-rich human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs), we have found the opposite situation. Hydroperoxide measurements by the FOX assay showed the majority of hydroperoxides formed during AAPH incubation were lipid hydroperoxides. ...
Lee Peter C W - - 2007
The endoplasmic reticulum membrane proteins Insig-1 and Insig-2 limit cholesterol synthesis, in part through their sterol-dependent binding to sterol-regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) cleavage-activating protein (SCAP). This binding prevents proteolytic processing of SREBPs, membrane-bound transcription factors that enhance cholesterol synthesis. We report here the characterization of mutant Chinese hamster ovary ...
Tsuzuki Wakako - - 2007
To elucidate the absorption characteristics of dietary lipids in the human intestine, we investigated the cellular uptake of lipid metabolites using a differential monolayer of the Caco2 cells. As lipid metabolites, several free fatty acids and 2-monoacylglycerols, were formed a mixed micelle by bile salts and lysophospholipids and they were ...
Muccioli Giulio G GG Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-7280, - - 2008
Microglial cell activation and migration play an important role in neuroinflammation propagation. While it is known that the lipid transmitter palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) regulates microglial migration by interacting with a cannabinoid-like receptor, the production and inactivation of this lipid by microglia has never been addressed directly. Here we show that the ...
Takahashi Miwa - - 2007
Cellular cholesterol increases when cells reach confluency in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. We examined the endocytosis of several lipid probes in subconfluent and confluent CHO cells. In subconfluent cells, fluorescent lipid probes including poly(ethylene glycol)derivatized cholesterol, 22-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)-23,24-bisnor-5-cholen-3beta-ol, and fluorescent sphingomyelin analogs were internalized to pericentriolar recycling endosomes. This accumulation ...
Temel Ryan E - - 2007
Previous studies in nonhuman primates revealed a striking positive correlation between liver cholesteryl ester (CE) secretion rate and the development of coronary artery atherosclerosis. CE incorporated into hepatic VLDL is necessarily synthesized by ACAT2, the cholesterol-esterifying enzyme in hepatocytes. We tested the hypothesis that the level of ACAT2 expression, in ...
Fujimoto Yasuyuki - - 2007
Lipid droplets (LDs) function as intracellular storage depots of neutral lipids. Recently, we identified long-chain acyl-coenzyme A synthetase 3 (ACSL3) as a major LD-associated protein in the human hepatocyte cell line HuH7. In this study, we investigated whether droplet-associated ACSL is involved in lipid metabolism in LDs. Addition of oleic ...
Saito Makiko - - 2007
Changes in the molecular species of lipids associated with Pex2 gene-mutation were investigated to elucidate the pathogeneses of peroxisome biogenesis disorders. Although no differences were observed in the concentrations of cholesterol and phosphatidyl choline between mutated Z65 and control CHO-K1 cells, the amounts of cholesterol esters and glycolipids in Z65 ...
Fuda Hirotoshi - - 2007
Oxysterols constitute a class of cholesterol derivatives that exhibit broad biological effects ranging from cytotoxicity to regulation of nuclear receptors. The role of oxysterols such as 7-ketocholesterol (7-KC) in the development of retinal macular degeneration and atheromatous lesions is of particular interest, but little is known of their metabolic fate. ...
Yancey Patricia G - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: ABCA1-dependent and ABCA1-independent pathways may operate in high-density lipoprotein formation by macrophages secreting apolipoprotein (apo) E. We examined the impact of ABCA1 on apoE-mediated efflux from cholesterol-enriched macrophages. METHODS AND RESULTS: Without acceptors, wild-type, ABCA1-/-, and apoE-/- macrophages released 5.7%+/-0.3%, 1.8%+/-0.1%, and 2.3%+/-0.2% of their cholesterol, and the LXR ...
Nakashima Hideyuki - - 2007
Caveolin-1 is a component of lipid rafts, and is considered to be a tumor suppressor molecule. However, the mechanisms by which caveolin-1 functions in cancer cells are not well understood. We generated caveolin-1 transfectant cells (Cav-1(+) cells) using a human melanoma cell line (SK-MEL-28) and investigated the effects of caveolin-1 ...
Haeffner E W - - 2007
We have introduced a heterologous coculture model between Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) and baby hamster kidney cells (PtK2), and we have studied the influence of PtK2 cells and their newly synthesized cholesterol on uptake and tumor cell proliferation. PtK2 cells produce about five times more cholesterol as compared to EAT ...
Mammoto Akiko - - 2007
Cytoskeleton-dependent changes in the activity of the small GTPase Rho mediate the effects of cell shape on cell function; however, little is known about how cell spreading and related distortion of the cytoskeleton regulate Rho activity. Here we show that rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton associated with early phases of ...
Fagone Paolo - - 2007
Stimulated B-lymphocytes differentiate into plasma cells committed to antibody production. Expansion of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi compartments is a prerequisite for high rate synthesis, assembly, and secretion of immunoglobulins. The bacterial cell wall component lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulates murine B-cells to proliferate and differentiate into antibody-secreting cells that morphologically resemble ...
Kodaira Yuichi - - 2007
Geranylgeranoic acid (GGA) and 2,3-dihydrogeranylgeranoic acid (2,3-diGGA) are geranylgeraniol-derived metabolites (Kodaira et al. (2002) J Biochem 132: 327-334). In the present study, we examined the effects of these acids on HL-60 cells. The cells were differentiated into neutrophils by GGA stimulation like retinoic acid stimulation. In the case of cells ...
Garrett Teresa A - - 2007
Prenols, a class of lipids formed by the condensation of five carbon isoprenoids, have important roles in numerous metabolic pathways of the eukaryotic cell. Prenols are found in the cell as free alcohols, such as dolichol, or can be attached to vitamins, as with the fat soluble vitamins. In addition, ...
Xu Fred Y - - 2007
N,N-Diethyl-2-[4-(phenylmethyl)phenoxy]ethanamine (DPPE, tesmilifene), a potent chemopotentiating drug currently in Phase III clinical trials of metastatic breast cancer, increases cytotoxicity of anthracyclines and taxanes in a variety of multi-drug resistance expressing (MDR+) tumor cell lines in vitro; inhibits binding of histamine to CYP3A4, a lipid/prostanoid-regulatory P450; and modulates serum levels of ...
Mailloux Ryan - - 2007
Mitochondrial dysfunction is the cause of a variety of pathologies associated with high energy-requiring tissues like the brain and muscles. Here we show that aluminum (Al) perturbs oxidative-ATP production in human hepatocytes (HepG2 cells). This Al-induced mitochondrial dysfunction promotes enhanced lipogenesis and the accumulation of the very low density lipoprotein ...
Guillou Hervé - - 2007
The activation of class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI(3)Ks) by cell surface receptors represents the initiation of a large and complex signaling network that couples many growth factors, antigens, and inflammatory stimuli to important cellular responses, such as cell growth, survival, and movement. The most direct measurement of class I PI(3)K ...
Hou Mengjun - - 2007
Formation of macrophage-derived foam cells is a hallmark in earlier stages of atherosclerosis (AS). Increased cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells promote atherosclerotic regression. In the present study, lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) promoting cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells was observed, and the mechanism underlying the action was investigated. Macrophage foam cells ...
Yang Peng-Yuan - - 2007
Foam cells are characteristic pathological cells in the lesions of atherosclerosis. Previous works have established macrophage-derived foam cell model to study the central role of the foam cells, and analyzed the protein expression profiles in foam cells. The reported in vitro foam cell model was established by incubating the human ...
Viccica G - - 2007
Cholesterol (C27H46O) is the principal structural lipid of the biological membrane, but it also plays an important role in many other biological functions. Even though the majority of body cholesterol is synthesized by the liver and secreted as circulating lipoproteins, many cell types can synthesize cholesterol ex novo. The biosynthetic ...
Michihara Akihiro - - 2007
We examined the change in the subcellular distribution of a lysosomal enzyme, beta-glucuronidase (beta-G), caused by decreased cholesterol levels in mouse melanoma cells using an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, lovastatin and lipoprotein-deficient serum (LDS). There was a decrease in the cholesterol content of the cells and increased secretion of the mature ...
Pipalia Nina H - - 2007
We studied the trafficking of sterols, lipids and proteins in Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) cells. The NPC is an inherited disorder involving the accumulation of sterol and lipids in modified late-endosome/lysosome-like storage organelles. Most sterol accumulation studies in NPC cells have been carried out using low-density lipoprotein (LDL) as the ...
Montechiaro Federico - - 2006
The chemical composition of organisms in relation to their environmental resource availability is an area of intense research activity. We studied the changes in cell composition of the cyanobacterium Phormidium autumnale in response to prolonged darkness. Cells allocated their internal resources in a homeostatic manner, oxidizing all the three major ...
Delmas Olivier - - 2007
Previous studies have shown that rotavirus virions, a major cause of infantile diarrhea, assemble within small intestinal enterocytes and are released at the apical pole without significant cell lysis. In contrast, for the poorly differentiated kidney epithelial MA 104 cells, which have been used extensively to study rotavirus assembly, it ...
Gentili H G - - 2007
The nonpathogenic ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila converts cholesterol from foodstuffs into provitamin D compounds in high yields. However, prolonged incubation with wild-type strain CU-399 at high densities results in a final deterioration of milk properties, possibly as a result of secreted hydrolases. Here we attempted to solve this problem using MS-1 ...
Jury Elizabeth C - - 2006
Loss of tolerance to self-Ags in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a prototypic autoimmune disease, is associated with dysregulation of T cell signaling, including the depletion of total levels of lymphocyte-specific protein kinase (Lck) from sphingolipid-cholesterol-enriched membrane microdomains (lipid rafts). Inhibitors of 3-hyroxy-3-methylgluteryl CoA reductase (statins) can modify the ...
Fujiyoshi Masachika - - 2007
The release of cholesterol from choroid plexus epithelial cells (CPE) plays an important role in cholesterol homeostasis in the CSF. The purpose of this study was to clarify the molecules involved in cholesterol release in CPE and the regulation mechanisms of the cholesterol release by the liver X receptor (LXR) ...
Ikeda Mitsunori - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The source of accumulated lipids in the foam cells of xanthoma is primarily the lipoproteins existing in the lesional dermis. OBJECTIVE: This study was designated to clarify the contribution of low density lipoprotein (LDL) density substances existing in xanthoma tissue to foam cell formation. METHODS: An LDL density fraction ...
Comiskey Martina - - 2007
HLA-G protein is the functional homolog of Qa-2, the product of the mouse preimplantation embryo development (Ped) gene. Embryos expressing Qa-2 on the cell surface exhibit a faster rate of preimplantation cleavage and preferential survival in utero compared with Qa-2-negative embryos. Qa-2 is glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) linked in the cell membrane. ...
Huang Peng P Department of Pharmacology, Center for Substance Abuse Research, Temple University School of Medicine, 3420 N Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA 19140, United - - 2007
Opioid receptors have been shown to be located in and regulated by lipid rafts/caveolae in caveolin-rich non-neuronal cells. Here, we found that caveolin-1 level was very low in rat brain and undetectable in NG108-15 cells, which endogenously express delta opioid receptors (DOR). Rat caudate putamen (CPu) membranes, NG108-15 cells and ...
Ono Kei - - 2006
We investigated roles of scavenger receptor A (SR-A) and mannose-binding lectin (MBL) in the uptake of endotoxin and bacteria by Kupffer cells. When [3H]lipid A was injected into retro-orbital plexus of mice, significantly less accumulation of lipid A in the liver was observed in SR-A-deficient mice and wild-type mice coinjected ...
Zhao Bin - - 2007
Reduction of the lipid burden of atherosclerotic lesion-associated macrophage foam cells is a logical strategy to reduce the plaque volume. Since extracellular cholesterol acceptor-mediated cholesterol efflux is the only recognized mechanism of cholesterol removal from foam cells and this process is rate limited at the level of intracellular cholesterol ester ...
Fukasawa Masayoshi - - 2006
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein plays important roles in the pathogeneses of liver steatosis as well as hepatocellular carcinomas due to HCV infection. In this study, we examined de novo fatty acid biosynthesis in hepatic cell line Huh7 cells expressing HCV core protein. The rate of metabolic labeling of ...
Klopotek Anett - - 2006
Cholesterol synthesis in animal cells is regulated by sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-2. The objective of this study was to investigate whether activation of peroxisome proliferator-activatedreceptor (PPAR)-gamma influences the SREBP-2 dependent cholesterol synthesis in liver and intestinal cells. Therefore, HepG2 and Caco-2 cells were incubated with and without 10 or ...
Chono Sumio - - 2006
To confirm the efficacy of dexamethasone incorporated into liposomes in the treatment of atherosclerosis, the uptake of dexamethasone-liposomes by macrophages and foam cells and its inhibitory effect on cellular cholesterol ester accumulation in these cells were investigated in-vitro. Dexamethasone-liposomes were prepared with egg yolk phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol and dicetylphosphate in a ...
Chow Warren A - - 2006
"HIV protease-induced lipodystrophy syndrome" is associated with the use of HIV protease inhibitors for treatment of HIV infection. In-vitro studies suggest that alteration of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 levels underlie its pathogenesis. We postulated that HIV protease inhibitors may represent a novel class of antiliposarcoma agents. SW872, FU-DDLS-1 and ...
Cho Hana - - 2006
Phosphoinositides are critical regulators of ion channel and transporter activity. There are multiple isomers of biologically active phosphoinositides in the plasma membrane and the different lipid species are non-randomly distributed. However, the mechanism by which cells impose selectivity and directionality on lipid movements and so generate a non-random lipid distribution ...
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