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Bate Clive - - 2008
The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies develop following the conversion of a host-encoded protein (PrP(C)) into abnormally folded, disease-related isoforms (PrP(Sc)). Here we report that three acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) inhibitors, TMP-153, FR179254 or YIC-C8-434, were more toxic to prion-infected neuronal cell lines (ScGT1 and ScN2a cells) than to their uninfected equivalents ...
Winiarska Magdalena - - 2008
Rituximab is used in the treatment of CD20+ B cell lymphomas and other B cell lymphoproliferative disorders. Its clinical efficacy might be further improved by combinations with other drugs such as statins that inhibit cholesterol synthesis and show promising antilymphoma effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ...
Accioly Maria T - - 2008
Lipid bodies (lipid droplets) are emerging as dynamic organelles involved in lipid metabolism and inflammation. Increased lipid body numbers have been described in tumor cells; however, its functional significance in cancer has never been addressed. Here, we showed increased number of lipid bodies in tumor tissues from patients with adenocarcinoma ...
Brodeur Mathieu R - - 2008
Lipoproteins transport many vitamins and hormones that have been shown to be necessary for bone formation. However, the metabolism of LDL and HDL3 by bone-forming osteoblastic cells remains unknown. Here we report that osteoblastic cells express scavenger receptors of class B that are implicated in the uptake of cholesterol and ...
Roy Keshab Chandra - - 2008
Natural Killer T (NKT) cells recognize both self and foreign lipid Ags presented by CD1 molecules. Although presentation of the marine sponge-derived lipid alphaGalCer to type I NKT cells has been well studied, little is known about self-glycolipid presentation to either type I or type II NKT cells. Here we ...
Maskow Thomas - - 2008
Bioremediation technologies and many environmentally sound biosyntheses rely on the catalytic potential of whole cells. For analyzing and controlling such processes robust real-time indicators for the concentration of intact cells such as impedance are required. The conventional method measures the capacitances of cell suspensions at one or two frequencies and ...
Diaz Giacomo - - 2008
Lipid droplets (LDs) are fat-storing organelles present in virtually all eukaryotic cells and involved in many aspects of cell biology related to lipid metabolism and cholesterol homeostasis. In this study, we investigated the presence of LDs in proliferating and quiescent (contact-inhibited) 3T3 fibroblasts to verify a correlation with cell growth. ...
Haynes Christopher A - - 2008
Fatty acyl-CoAs participate in numerous cellular processes. This article describes a method for the quantitation of subpicomole amounts of long-chain and very-long-chain fatty acyl-CoAs by reverse-phase LC combined with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in positive ion mode with odd-chain-length fatty acyl-CoAs as internal standards. This method is applicable to ...
Fei Weihua - - 2008
Lipid droplets (LDs) are emerging cellular organelles that are of crucial importance in cell biology and human diseases. In this study, we present our screen of approximately 4,700 Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants for abnormalities in the number and morphology of LDs; we identify 17 fld (few LDs) and 116 mld (many ...
Kim Woojin S - - 2008
Previous results indicate that apoE (apolipoprotein E) may be associated with the nucleus in specific cell types, particularly under stress conditions such as serum starvation. In addition, nuclear apoE localization in ovarian cancer was recently shown to be correlated with patient survival. In order to better understand the factors associated ...
Jain, R.
Thraustochytrid protists characteristically accumulate high amounts of lipids, much of which is comprised of the polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Since DHA is important in human health, thraustochytrids have attracted much attention from the point of view of biotechnology. However, the biological rationale of DHA production in the storage ...
Wang Dong - - 2008
Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) has been found to be colocalized with G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and the downstream signaling molecules; however, the mechanisms of the colocalization remain largely elusive. The present work has investigated the role of lipid rafts in the localized signaling from GPCRs to CFTR. Using commonly ...
Weinglass Adam B - - 2008
Absorption of dietary cholesterol in the proximal region of the intestine is mediated by Niemann-Pick C1-like protein (NPC1L1) and is sensitive to the cholesterol absorption inhibitor ezetimibe (EZE). Although a correlation exists between EZE binding to NPC1L1 in vitro and efficacy in vivo, the precise nature of interaction(s) between NPC1L1, ...
Azuma Yuya - - 2009
ATP-binding cassette protein A1 (ABCA1) mediates transfer of cellular free cholesterol and phospholipids to apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), an extracellular acceptor in plasma, to form high-density lipoprotein (HDL). It is currently unknown to what extent ABCA1 endocytosis and recycling contribute to the HDL formation. To address this issue, we expressed human ...
Li Jing - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) in vitro can induce foam cell formation in human mesangial cells. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) expressed in the arterial wall plays a key role in atherogenesis by actions of enzymolysis and 'molecular bridge', and, thereby, leads to the formation of lipid-loaded foam cells. It is known that ...
Brown Kevin D - - 2008
HYPOTHESIS: ErbB2 resides in lipid rafts (regions of receptor regulation) in vestibular schwannoma (VS) cells. BACKGROUND: ErbB2 is a growth factor receptor critical for Schwann cell (SC) proliferation and development. ErbB2 localization and activity may be regulated by merlin, an adaptor protein deficient in VS. Lipid rafts are microdomains in ...
Bate Clive - - 2008
The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, otherwise known as prion diseases, occur following the conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) to an alternatively folded, disease-associated isoform (PrPSc). Recent studies suggest that this conversion occurs via a cholesterol-sensitive process, as cholesterol synthesis inhibitors reduced the formation of PrPSc and delayed the clinical ...
Ron Idit - - 2008
Gaucher disease (GD) is a lysosomal storage disorder resulting from an inborn reduced activity or deficiency of glucocerebrosidase due mainly to mutations in the glucocerebrosidase gene. We have recently shown that mutant glucocerebrosidase variants present variable degrees of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention and undergo ER associated degradation (ERAD) in the ...
Patra Samir Kumar - - 2008
Cancer is one of the most devastating disorders in our lives. Higher rate of proliferation than death of cells is one of the essential factors for development of cancer. The dynamicity of cell membrane plays some vital roles in cell survival and cell death, including protection, endocytosis, signaling, and increases ...
Sugawara Teruo - - 2007
Steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein plays a crucial role in the intramitochondrial movement of cholesterol, where P450 side chain cleavage enzyme resides. Cholesterol sulphate (CS), which is present ubiquitously in mammalian tissues, is not only a precursor of sulphated adrenal steroids but also an inhibitor of cholesterol biosynthesis. This study ...
Su You-Qiang - - 2008
Oocyte-derived bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) and growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) are key regulators of follicular development. Here we show that these factors control cumulus cell metabolism, particularly glycolysis and cholesterol biosynthesis before the preovulatory surge of luteinizing hormone. Transcripts encoding enzymes for cholesterol biosynthesis were downregulated in both ...
Hansen, Marlan
During the first year of the award we have made substantial progress in achieving the aims of the proposal. I will discuss the progress for each aim of the proposal. Determine the ability of merlin to regulate ErbB2 localization and activity in vestibular schwannoma (VS) cells. Until recently we were ...
Tiwari Rashi - - 2007
Sterol homeostasis in eukaryotic cells relies on the reciprocal interconversion of free sterols and steryl esters. Here we report the identification of a novel reversible sterol modification in yeast, the sterol acetylation/deacetylation cycle. Sterol acetylation requires the acetyltransferase ATF2, whereas deacetylation requires SAY1, a membrane-anchored deacetylase with a putative active ...
Eacker Stephen M - - 2008
The male sex steroid, testosterone (T), is synthesized from cholesterol in the testicular Leydig cell under control of the pituitary gonadotropin LH. Unlike most cells that use cholesterol primarily for membrane synthesis, steroidogenic cells have additional requirements for cholesterol, because it is the essential precursor for all steroid hormones. Little ...
Brassard Pascal - - 2007
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been shown to be immunosuppressive. In particular, they can decrease important T-cell functions that may have a profound impact on the acquired immune response. Several mechanisms may explain the immunosuppressive properties of PUFAs. Here we review the mechanisms by which they interfere with T-cell activation. ...
Akiduki Gaku - - 2007
The study of adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation in insects has been limited by the lack of a system suitable for analysis of molecular mechanisms. Here, we describe the establishment of a model system of lipid accumulation in BmN4 cells, which are derived from silkworm ovary. In BmN4 cells, dexamethasone ...
Bionda Clara - - 2008
Lipid rafts are cholesterol-enriched microdomains in the plasma membrane. They act as molecular platforms that spatially organize membrane receptor molecules and are involved in the transduction of various signaling pathways. We recently reported that in the radiosensitive squamous cell carcinoma SCC61 line, gamma-irradiation results in a rearrangement of the plasma ...
Brezski Randall J - - 2007
The BCR-triggered responses of mature and transitional immature B cells differ at both the biochemical and functional level. In this study, we show that in mature B cells, BCR signaling triggers Vav phosphorylation and Rac1 activation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that although downstream actin-dependent BCR capping is independent of Rac1 activation, ...
Persson Jenny - - 2007
Lipid-filled macrophages (foam cells) are a defining feature of atherosclerotic plaques. Foam cells contain lipid droplet-associated proteins that in other cell types regulate lipid turnover. In foam cell such proteins may directly affect lipid droplet formation and lipid efflux. Differentiated primary human monocytes or THP-1 cells were lipid loaded by ...
Vignini Arianna - - 2008
Eating disorders (ED) are a group of important psychiatric disorders that affect young men and women, and can have serious consequences. Among all ED, anorexia nervosa (AN) is the most typical but also the most severe. The pathogenesis of AN is multifactorial and a great variety of cognitive deficits may ...
Listenberger Laura L - - 2007
Although neutral lipid storage droplets are ubiquitous in eukaryotic cells, very little is known about how their synthesis and turnover are controlled. Adipocyte differentiation-related protein (ADRP; also known as adipophilin) is found on the surface of lipid droplets in most mammalian cell types. To learn how ADRP affects lipid storage, ...
Matsumoto Masaaki - - 2007
A 5-month-old boy was noted to have brown macules with palpable infiltration on the head, trunk, and extremities a few weeks after birth, with recurrent episodes of generalized flushing and blistering in some of the macules. These lesions developed into yellowish plaques after 1 year of topical treatment with clobetasol ...
Brown J Mark - - 2007
Recent evidence suggests that NPC1L1 (Niemann-Pick C1-like 1) is critical for intestinal sterol absorption in mice, yet mechanisms by which NPC1L1 regulates cellular sterol transport are lacking. In the study we used a McArdle-RH7777 rat hepatoma cell line stably expressing NPC1L1 to examine the sterol-specificity and directionality of NPC1L1-mediated sterol ...
Vrins Carlos - - 2007
The ATP binding cassette transporters ABCG5 and ABCG8 are indispensable for hepatobiliary cholesterol transport. In this study, we investigated the specificity of the heterodimer for cholesterol acceptors. Dog gallbladder epithelial cells were mono- or double-transfected with lentiviral mouse Abcg5 and Abcg8 vectors. Double-transfected cells showed increased efflux to different bile ...
Adorni Maria Pia - - 2007
Cholesterol efflux occurs by different pathways, including transport mediated by specific proteins. We determined the effect of enriching cells with free cholesterol (FC) on the release of FC to human serum. Loading Fu5AH cells with FC had no effect on fractional efflux, whereas enriching mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPMs) resulted in ...
Pani Alessandra - - 2007
Our studies on the role of cholesterol homeostasis in the pathogenesis of scrapie revealed abnormal accumulation of cholesterol esters in ex vivo peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and skin fibroblasts from healthy and scrapie-affected sheep carrying a scrapie-susceptible genotype compared to sheep with a resistant genotype. Similar alterations were observed ...
Arriagada Christian - - 2007
The CNh and CTb cell lines are derived from the cerebral cortex of normal and trisomy 16 mice, an animal model of human trisomy 21, Down syndrome (DS), and represent in vitro models to study cellular events associated with the human condition. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) plays an important role ...
Chen Yaxi - - 2007
LDL receptor (LDLr) is widely expressed in both liver and peripheral tissue. We aimed to clarify tissue-specific regulation of LDLr in hepatic cell line (HepG2) cells and human kidney mesangial cells (HMCs) under physiological and inflammatory conditions. We have demonstrated that the concentration of LDL required for 50% inhibition of ...
Salinas Irene - - 2008
Probiotic bacteria are known to exert a wide range of beneficial effects on their animal hosts. Control of intestinal homeostasis, inflammation suppression and a reduction in the incidence of cancer all rely on the antiproliferative potential of probiotics. In this paper, we assess the antiproliferative activity of probiotics in two ...
Hofnagel Oliver - - 2007
The uptake of oxidized lipoproteins via scavenger receptors and the ensuing formation of foam cells are key events during atherogenesis. Foam cell formation can be reduced by treatment with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins). The efficacy of statins is evidently due not only to their cholesterol-lowering properties, but ...
Wu Ting-He - - 2007
B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) is an important negative regulator of T-cell activation. T-cell activation involves partitioning of receptors into discrete membrane compartments known as lipid rafts and the formation of an immunological synapse (IS) between the T cell and antigen-presenting cell (APC). Here we show that after T-cell ...
Oh Hea Young - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Lipid rafts are cholesterol-enriched microdomains in cell membranes that have been shown to regulate signal transduction. We investigated whether membrane cholesterol could regulate apoptosis and attempted to elucidate the mechanism by which apoptosis is induced in prostate cancer cells. METHODS: LNCaP cells were exposed to 2-hydroxyprophyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) to deplete ...
Firth Carole A - - 2007
In U937 and mouse myeloma cells, protein hydroperoxides are the predominant hydroperoxide formed during exposure to AAPH or gamma irradiation. In lipid-rich human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs), we have found the opposite situation. Hydroperoxide measurements by the FOX assay showed the majority of hydroperoxides formed during AAPH incubation were lipid hydroperoxides. ...
Lee Peter C W - - 2007
The endoplasmic reticulum membrane proteins Insig-1 and Insig-2 limit cholesterol synthesis, in part through their sterol-dependent binding to sterol-regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) cleavage-activating protein (SCAP). This binding prevents proteolytic processing of SREBPs, membrane-bound transcription factors that enhance cholesterol synthesis. We report here the characterization of mutant Chinese hamster ovary ...
Tsuzuki Wakako - - 2007
To elucidate the absorption characteristics of dietary lipids in the human intestine, we investigated the cellular uptake of lipid metabolites using a differential monolayer of the Caco2 cells. As lipid metabolites, several free fatty acids and 2-monoacylglycerols, were formed a mixed micelle by bile salts and lysophospholipids and they were ...
Muccioli Giulio G GG Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-7280, - - 2008
Microglial cell activation and migration play an important role in neuroinflammation propagation. While it is known that the lipid transmitter palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) regulates microglial migration by interacting with a cannabinoid-like receptor, the production and inactivation of this lipid by microglia has never been addressed directly. Here we show that the ...
Takahashi Miwa - - 2007
Cellular cholesterol increases when cells reach confluency in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. We examined the endocytosis of several lipid probes in subconfluent and confluent CHO cells. In subconfluent cells, fluorescent lipid probes including poly(ethylene glycol)derivatized cholesterol, 22-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)-23,24-bisnor-5-cholen-3beta-ol, and fluorescent sphingomyelin analogs were internalized to pericentriolar recycling endosomes. This accumulation ...
Temel Ryan E - - 2007
Previous studies in nonhuman primates revealed a striking positive correlation between liver cholesteryl ester (CE) secretion rate and the development of coronary artery atherosclerosis. CE incorporated into hepatic VLDL is necessarily synthesized by ACAT2, the cholesterol-esterifying enzyme in hepatocytes. We tested the hypothesis that the level of ACAT2 expression, in ...
Fujimoto Yasuyuki - - 2007
Lipid droplets (LDs) function as intracellular storage depots of neutral lipids. Recently, we identified long-chain acyl-coenzyme A synthetase 3 (ACSL3) as a major LD-associated protein in the human hepatocyte cell line HuH7. In this study, we investigated whether droplet-associated ACSL is involved in lipid metabolism in LDs. Addition of oleic ...
Saito Makiko - - 2007
Changes in the molecular species of lipids associated with Pex2 gene-mutation were investigated to elucidate the pathogeneses of peroxisome biogenesis disorders. Although no differences were observed in the concentrations of cholesterol and phosphatidyl choline between mutated Z65 and control CHO-K1 cells, the amounts of cholesterol esters and glycolipids in Z65 ...
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