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Hornemann Thorsten - - 2009
The enzyme serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the de novo synthesis of sphingolipids. Previously the mammalian SPT was described as a heterodimer composed of two subunits, SPTLC1 and SPTLC2. Recently we identified a novel third SPT subunit (SPTLC3). SPTLC3 shows about 68% identity to SPTLC2 and also ...
Wang Chun - - 2009
Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B10 (AKR1B10) is primarily expressed in the normal human colon and small intestine but overexpressed in liver and lung cancer. Our previous studies have shown that AKR1B10 mediates the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase-alpha. In this study, we demonstrate that AKR1B10 is critical to cell ...
Matuana Laurent M - - 2009
Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) was foamed with an endothermic chemical foaming agent (CFA) through an extrusion process. The effects of polymer melt flow index, CFA content, and processing speed on the cellular structures, void fraction, and cell-population density of foamed PLA were investigated. The apparent melt viscosity of PLA was measured ...
Surrel Fanny - - 2009
Among mammalian secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA(2)s), the group X enzyme has the most potent hydrolyzing capacity toward phosphatidylcholine, the major phospholipid of cell membrane and lipoproteins. This enzyme has recently been implicated in chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis and asthma and may also play a role in colon tumorigenesis. ...
Døssing Kristina - - 2009
We previously showed that a native very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)- and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-rich mix induces global changes in DNA methylation in cultured THP-1 human macrophages. The exact molecular mechanisms for this response are not yet known. Previous studies showed that apolipoprotein B (ApoB) or its fragments can be localized ...
Park Eun-Kyung - - 2009
Caveolae (lipid rafts), microdomains of the plasma membrane, are known to contain various signalling molecules and consequently are involved in the regulation of many biological functions. To investigate the role of the caveolae in cell survival and adhesion, we disrupted the caveolae by depletion of cholesterol, a major lipid component ...
Rzepczynska Izabela J - - 2009
Statins are competitive inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, a rate-limiting step of the mevalonate pathway. The pleiotropic effects of statins may be due to inhibition of cholesterol synthesis, as well as decreased availability of several biologically important intermediate components of the mevalonate pathway, including two substrates for isoprenylation (farnesyl pyrophosphate ...
Chatterjee Cynthia - - 2009
HDL acts much like heparin to liberate hepatic lipase (HL) from cell surface proteoglycans and stimulate triglyceride clearance. Experiments were undertaken to evaluate the effects of factors that stimulate the secretion of HDL from the liver on the release of HL. Treatment of HepG2 cells with linoleic acid phospholipids (LAPL) ...
Weibel Ginny L - - 2009
15(S)-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LO-1) was present in the whole-cell homogenate of an acute human monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1). Additionally, 15-LO-1 was detected on neutral lipid droplets isolated from THP-1 foam cells. To investigate if 15-LO-1 is active on lipid droplets, we used the mouse leukemic monocytic macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7), ...
Paillasse Michael R - - 2009
Several studies indicate that cholesterol esterification is deregulated in cancers. The present study aimed to characterize the role of cholesterol esterification in proliferation and invasion of two tumor cells expressing an activated cholecystokinin 2 receptor (CCK2R). A significant increase in cholesterol esterification and activity of Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) was measured ...
Rush Jeffrey S JS Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, Kentucky 40536, - - 2009
To further evaluate the role of Rft1 in the transbilayer movement of Man(5)GlcNAc(2)-P-P-dolichol (M5-DLO), a series of experiments was conducted with intact cells and sealed microsomal vesicles. First, an unexpectedly large accumulation (37-fold) of M5-DLO was observed in Rft1-depleted cells (YG1137) relative to Glc(3)Man(9)GlcNAc(2)-P-P-Dol in wild type (SS328) cells when ...
Kumarasuriyar A - - 2009
Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) sugars are largely responsible for the bioactivity of the proteoglycan proteins they decorate, and are particularly important for mediating the processes of cell attachment and growth factor signaling. Here, we show that chlorate-induced de-sulfation of GAGs expressed by MG-63 osteosarcoma cells results in delayed cell proliferation when the ...
Akanuma Shin-ichi - - 2009
The purpose of this study was to determine the high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated alpha-tocopherol (alpha-tocopherol-HDL) transport and clarify the contribution of scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI) to the uptake in the human retinal pigment epithelial cell line (ARPE-19 cells). [(3)H]alpha-Tocopherol-HDL uptake into ARPE-19 cells seeded onto a transwell from ...
Sekine Yoshitaka - - 2009
Hypertriglyceridemia has been shown to be one of the risk factors for prostate cancer. In this study, we investigated the effect of remnant lipoproteins on cell growth in prostate cancer cell lines. Remnant lipoproteins were isolated as remnant like particles (RLP) from human plasma. We used RLP for TG-rich lipoproteins ...
Kao Erl-Shyh - - 2009
A recent investigation highlighted that oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic lesions through the formation of macrophage-derived foam cells. Hibiscus sabdariffa L., a garden plant containing a lot of pigments, was demonstrated to inhibit LDL oxidation and the progression of atherosclerosis in high ...
Stevenson Julian - - 2009
Cholesterol is an apparently indispensable lipid for numerous processes required for cell proliferation. Levels of this molecule are primarily regulated at the transcriptional level by the SREBPs (sterol-regulatory-element-binding proteins) and LXR (liver X receptor). In this issue of the Biochemical Journal, Rodríguez-Acebes et al. show that a cholesterol precursor, desmosterol, ...
Wu Tinghuai - - 2010
To maintain normal retinal function, retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells engulf photoreceptor outer segments (ROS) enriched in free fatty acids (FFAs). We have previously demonstrated fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5) downregulation in the RPE/choroidal complex in a mouse model of aging and early age-related macular degeneration. FABPs are involved in ...
Royer Marie-Charlotte - - 2009
Cholesterol oxides, in particular 7-ketocholesterol, are proatherogenic compounds that induce cell death in the vascular wall when localized in lipid raft domains of the cell membrane. Deleterious effects of 7-ketocholesterol can be prevented by vitamin E, but the molecular mechanism involved is unclear. In this study, unlike gamma-tocopherol, the alpha-tocopherol ...
Lamberti Yanina - - 2009
Bordetella pertussis is a re-emerging human respiratory pathogen whose infectious process is not fully understood, hampering the design of effective vaccines. The nature of bacterial attachment to host cells is a key event in the outcome of the infection. However, host cell receptors involved in B. pertussis colonization of the ...
Itoh Mizuho - - 2009
We isolated a HepG2-derived sub-clone (HepG2-Lipo), which possessed an increased lipoprotein synthesizing ability. HepG2-Lipo cells could secrete triglycerides (TG) and cholesterol at rates 9.4- and 6-fold higher, respectively, when compared to HepG2 cells. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that the expression levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c and -2 were 2.9- ...
Shibata Masahiro - - 2009
Lipid droplets (LDs) are ubiquitous in eukaryotic cells, while excess free fatty acids and glucose in plasma are converted to triacylglycerol (TAG) and stored as LDs. However, the mechanism for the generation and growth of LDs in cells is largely unknown. We show here that the LC3 lipidation system essential ...
Moreira Luciana S - - 2009
Cytoplasmic lipid bodies (also known as lipid droplets) are intracellular deposits of arachidonic acid (AA), which can be metabolized for eicosanoid generation. PGE2 is a major AA metabolite produced by epithelial cells and can modulate restoration of epithelium homeostasis after injury. We studied lipid body biogenesis and their role in ...
Guan Xue Li - - 2009
Sterols and sphingolipids are limited to eukaryotic cells, and their interaction has been proposed to favor formation of lipid microdomains. Although there is abundant biophysical evidence demonstrating their interaction in simple systems, convincing evidence is lacking to show that they function together in cells. Using lipid analysis by mass spectrometry ...
Gehrig Karsten - - 2009
In addition to suppressing cholesterol synthesis and uptake, oxysterols also activate glycerophospholipid and SM (sphingomyelin) synthesis, possibly to buffer cells from excess sterol accumulation. In the present study, we investigated the effects of oxysterols on the CDP-choline pathway for PtdCho (phosphatidylcholine) synthesis using wild-type and sterol-resistant CHO (Chinese-hamster ovary) cells ...
Cerantola Vanessa - - 2009
All mature Saccharomyces cerevisiae sphingolipids comprise inositolphosphorylceramides containing C26:0 or C24:0 fatty acids and either phytosphingosine or dihydrosphingosine. Here we analysed the lipid profile of lag1Delta lac1Delta mutants lacking acyl-CoA-dependent ceramide synthesis, which require the reverse ceramidase activity of overexpressed Ydc1p for sphingolipid biosynthesis and viability. These cells, termed 2Delta.YDC1, ...
Dierker Tabea - - 2009
The ectodomains of numerous proteins are released from cells by matrix metalloproteases to yield soluble intercellular regulators. A disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) family members have often been found to be the responsible "sheddases," ADAM17/tumor necrosis factor-alpha-converting enzyme being its best characterized member. In this work, we show that ShhNp (lipidated ...
Klein Diana - - 2009
Metachromatic leukodystrophy is a lysosomal disorder caused by the deficiency of arylsulfatase A (ASA). This leads to the storage of the sphingolipid 3-O-sulfogalactosylceramide (sulfatide) in various cell types, such as renal tubular cells. Examination of mannose 6-phosphate receptor (MPR300)-dependent endocytosis revealed that uptake of lysosomal enzymes is more than two-fold ...
Dove Stephen K - - 2009
Inositol phospholipids regulate many cellular processes, including cell survival, membrane trafficking, and actin polymerization. Quantification of inositol lipids is one of the essential techniques needed for studies that aim to decipher inositol lipid-dependent cellular functions. The study of phosphoinositides in most organisms is hampered by a lack of facile genetic ...
de Souza Wanderley - - 2009
Sterols are constituents of the cellular membranes that are essential for their normal structure and function. In mammalian cells, cholesterol is the main sterol found in the various membranes. However, other sterols predominate in eukaryotic microorganisms such as fungi and protozoa. It is now well established that an important metabolic ...
L?? He-Zuo - - 2009
Lipid rafts are cholesterol-enriched microdomains which act as a platform for the initiation of T-cell activation. To investigate effect of endogenous cholesterol on lipid rafts formation and activation of gammadeltaT cells, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated in vitro with Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens (Mtb-Ag). Lovastatin and fluvastatin, two 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme ...
Yoshimura Nakayuki - - 2009
AIM: Remnant lipoproteins are well known to play a pivotal role in atherosclerosis. In patients with postprandial dyslipidemia, metabolic pathways for exogenous lipoproteins are generally disturbed, resulting in accumulation of chylomicron remnants. Although it has been difficult to make a specific antibody against apolipoprotein B48 (apoB48) , a constituent of ...
Vassilieva Elena V EV Epithelial Pathobiology Research Unit, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University, Whitehead Research Building, 615 Michael Street, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, - - 2009
Flotillins and caveolins represent two types of resident proteins associated with lipid rafts in mammalian cells, however, their possible cross-talk in regulating lipid raft functions remains poorly understood. In this report, we observed that siRNA-mediated down-regulation of flotillin-1 expression which disrupted lipid raft-mediated endocytosis of BODIPY FL C(5)-lactosylceramide also substantially ...
McLeod, Roger Stephen
Apolipoprotein (apo) A-I is the major protein component of human high density lipoprotein (HDL). The plasma level of HDL or apo A-I is inversely related to the risk of developing atherosclerosis and the protective effect of HDL is believed to be related to its ability to promote the movement of ...
Wang Jing - - 2009
Cyclosporine A (CsA) is an efficient immunosuppressant used for reducing allograft rejection but with a severe side effect of causing hypertension. We hypothesize that the renal epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) may participate in CsA-induced hypertension. In the present study, we used the patch-clamp cell-attached configuration to examine whether and how ...
Reiss Allison B AB Vascular Biology Institute, Winthrop-University Hospital, Mineola, New York 11501, USA. - - 2008
To determine whether methotrexate (MTX) can overcome the atherogenic effects of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitors and interferon-gamma (IFNgamma), both of which suppress cholesterol efflux protein and promote foam cell transformation in human THP-1 monocyte/macrophages. Message and protein levels of the reverse cholesterol transport proteins cholesterol 27-hydroxylase and ATP-binding cassette transporter ...
Blagoveshchenskaya Anastasia - - 2009
Phosphoinositide lipids play a dual role in cell physiology. Specific sets of these molecules are short-lived downstream mediators of growth signals, regulating cell survival and differentiation. In addition, distinct classes of phosphoinositide lipids function as constitutive mediators of membrane traffic and organelle identity. Recent work has provided the first direct ...
Xia, Fuzhen
Type 2 diabetes is hallmarked by insufficient beta-cell insulin secretion and inappropriate alpha-cell glucagon secretion concomitant to peripheral insulin resistance. However, the mechanisms underlying dysregulation of pancreatic beta- and alpha-cells in type 2 diabetes require further investigation. Whereas triglycerides and saturated free fatty acids have been well recognized to cause ...
Sankaranarayanan Sandhya - - 2009
Among the known mechanisms of reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), ATP binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1)-mediated free cholesterol (FC) transport is the most recent and least studied. Here, we have characterized the efficiencies of different acceptors using baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells transfected with human ABCG1 cDNA, which is inducible upon ...
Li Yanqun - - 2008
Microalgal lipids are the oils of future for sustainable biodiesel production. However, relatively high production costs due to low lipid productivity have been one of the major obstacles impeding their commercial production. We studied the effects of nitrogen sources and their concentrations on cell growth and lipid accumulation of Neochloris ...
Manson Mary E - - 2008
The goal of this study was to identify a mechanism regulating cholesterol accumulation in cystic fibrosis (CF) cells. Both CFTR activation and expression are regulated by the cAMP pathway, and it is hypothesized that a feedback response involving this pathway may be involved in the phenotype of cholesterol accumulation. To ...
Bao Yi - - 2009
Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) and its human homologue CLA-1 plays an important role in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Using a previously established cell-based CLA-1 up-regulator screening assay, one of the positive strains, 04-9179, presented potent activity in elevating CLA-1 transcriptional level. We report here the identification of ...
Achituv, Y
The carbohydrate, lipid, and protein composition of coral tissue and zooxanthellae were compared in Hawaiian Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus) colonies kept at different ammonium levels. Corals were maintained at two levels of ammonium enrichment (20 uM and 50 uM), in locally drawn seawater with < 1 uM ammonium, and in water ...
Zaman Sabiha N - - 2008
Chemokines play pivotal roles in regulating a wide variety of biological processes by modulating cell migration and recruitment. Deregulation of chemokine signaling can alter cell recruitment, contributing to the pathogenic states associated with autoimmune disease, inflammatory disorders, and sepsis. During chemotaxis, lipid rafts and their resident signaling molecules have been ...
Nieto Francisco Leocata - - 2008
The present report was addressed to study the influence of sphingolipid metabolism in determining cellular fate. In nonstimulated proliferating Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, sphingolipid de novo synthesis is branched mainly to a production of sphingomyelin and ceramide, with a minor production of sphingosylphosphocholine, ceramide 1-phosphate, and sphingosine 1-phosphate. Experiments ...
Fisher Eric A - - 2008
The ATPase associated with various cellular activities (AAA-ATPase) p97 (p97) has been implicated in the retrotranslocation of target proteins for delivery to the cytosolic proteasome during endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD). Apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) is an ERAD substrate in liver cells, including the human hepatoma, HepG2. We studied the potential role ...
Chang Chi-Lun - - 2008
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a low-molecular-weight lysophospholipid enriched in platelets and mildly oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL). It is suggested that LPA is involved in atherosclerosis, and our previous studies showed that LPA regulates inflammation in multiple cell types. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ...
Lee Justin M S - - 2008
Atherosclerosis follows the deposition, retention, and oxidative modification of lipoproteins, especially low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in the walls of large arteries. Uptake of oxidized LDL results in the formation of macrophage foam cells. Proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and secretion of extracellular matrix contribute "fibrous" components of the plaque, whereas ...
Goluszko Pawel - - 2008
We sought to determine the role lipid rafts and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) in invasiveness of group B streptococci (GBS) to endometrial cells. Antibiotic protection assay and electron microscopy were used to evaluate the invasion of GBS to human endometrial Ishikawa cells cholesterol-depleted by using methyl-beta-cyclodextrin or treated with PI3K inhibitors: ...
Al-Turkmani M Rabie - - 2008
Specific fatty acid alterations have been described in the blood and tissues of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The principal alterations include decreased levels of linoleic acid (LA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). We investigated the potential mechanisms of these alterations by studying the cellular uptake of LA and DHA, their distribution ...
Rubis Blazej - - 2008
So far, a protective influence of phytosterols on the human organism and atherogenesis has been suggested. Most studies have concentrated on the cytotoxic efficacy of phytosterols on cancer cells. However, there are only a few reports showing their influence on normal cells. The aim of the present study was to ...
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