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Almeida Cristina P - - 2010
Use of lipid nanoemulsions as carriers of drugs for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes has been increasingly studied. Here, it was tested whether modifications of core particle constitution could affect the characteristics and biologic properties of lipid nanoemulsions. Three nanoemulsions were prepared using cholesteryl oleate, cholesteryl stearate, or cholesteryl linoleate as ...
Diez Gerold - - 2009
The focal adhesion protein vinculin (1066 residues) can be separated into a 95-kDa head and a 30-kDa tail domain. Vinculin's lipid binding sites localized on the tail, helix 3 (residues 944-978) and the unstructured C-terminal arm (residues 1052-1066, the so-called lipid anchor), influence focal adhesion turnover and are important for ...
Mullen Peter James - - 2010
The mechanism of statin-induced skeletal muscle myopathy is poorly understood. We investigated how simvastatin affects cholesterol metabolism, ubiquinone levels, and the prenylation and N-linked glycosylation of proteins in C2C12 myotubes. We used liver HepG2 cells for comparison, as their responses to statins are well-characterized in terms of their cholesterol metabolism ...
Campia I - - 2009
Statins, inhibitors of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase, reduce the intracellular synthesis of cholesterol and prevent the onset of atherosclerosis. They also decrease the synthesis of isoprenoid molecules, such as the side chain of ubiquinone and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate. As a consequence, statins impair mitochondrial metabolism and the activation of small monomeric GTPases (such ...
Wu Hongtao - - 2009
In this study, we investigated the effects of simvastatin on proliferation, migration, and apoptosis in human U251 and U87 glioma cells and the underlying molecular mechanism. We used colony formation assay to test the cell proliferation, in vitro scratch assay to examine the cell migration, and caspase-3 activity assay, annexin ...
Sala-Vila Aleix - - 2010
An in vitro study showed that a lipid emulsion containing fish oil (FO) slows the growth of colon cancer cells and enhances their sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil (FU). The aim was to confirm this finding and to compare such an emulsion with an alternative to lowered n-6 fatty acid exposure. We ...
Murata Kazumoto - - 2009
Des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) is a well-established tumor marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the precise mechanism by which HCC cells produce DCP remains unknown. Our preliminary experiments demonstrated that HepG2 cells with chemical induction of epithelial-to-fibroblastoid conversion (EFC) produced DCP through impairment of vitamin K uptake via cytoskeletal rearrangement. Therefore, ...
Zhao Yu-Feng - - 2010
Reduction of pancreatic β-cell mass is a key element leading to type 2 diabetes. Obesity and overweight with high levels of lipids including cholesterol are tightly linked to type 2 diabetes. The direct impact of cholesterol on pancreatic β-cells, however, has not been extensively studied. In this study, MIN6 mouse ...
Plati Tiziana - - 2009
A defect in invariant NKT (iNKT) cell selection was hypothesized in lysosomal storage disorders (LSD). Accumulation of glycosphingolipids (GSL) in LSD could influence lipid loading and/or presentation causing entrapment of endogenous ligand(s) within storage bodies or competition of the selecting ligand(s) by stored lipids for CD1d binding. However, when we ...
Menendez Javier A - - 2010
Evolving evidence suggest that metabolic requirements for cell proliferation are identical in all normal and cancer cells. HER2 oncogene-overexpressors, a highly aggressive subtype of human cancer cells, constitute one of the best examples of how malignant cells maximize their ability to acquire and metabolize nutrients in a manner conductive to ...
Przybytkowski Ewa - - 2009
There is growing concern about the safety of engineered nanoparticles, which are produced for various industrial applications. Quantum dots are colloidal semiconductor nanoparticles that have unique luminescence characteristics and the potential to become attractive tools for medical imaging. However, some of these particles can cause oxidative stress and induce cell ...
Wang Xinwen X Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine and Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center, Houston, TX 77030, - - 2009
We previously reported that HIV protease inhibitor, ritonavir, could inhibit cholesterol efflux and induce endothelial dysfunction. In this study, we further determined the effects and molecular mechanisms of a clinically relevant combination of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) drugs on in vitro cholesterol efflux from human macrophage-derived foam cells. Foam ...
Hu Qin - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) may positively or negatively influence the development of atherosclerosis, depending on the cell type and the metabolic pathways regulated by this protein. We investigate the effects of Cav-1 on cholesterol efflux in RAW264.7 infected with AdPPARgamma1 and whether Cav-1 could attenuate established atherosclerotic lesions in PPARgamma1-treated apoE-deficient ...
Izumi Masayuki - - 2009
Abnormal lipid metabolism in adipose tissue is closely related to the occurrence and progression of a wide variety of metabolic syndromes. We have analyzed the pharmacological effects of Chinese herbal medicines on cell differentiation and lipid metabolism in adipocytes. Yi-Gan-San (YGS) is a Chinese herbal medicine that is effective in ...
Pandey Nihar R - - 2009
Linoleic acid-phospholipids stimulate high-density lipoprotein (HDL) net secretion from liver cells by blocking the endocytic recycling of apoA-I. Experiments were undertaken to determine whether apoA-I accumulation in the cell media is associated with membrane ATPase expression. Treatment of HepG2 cells with dilinoeoylphosphatidylcholine (DLPC) increased apoA-I secretion fourfold. DLPC also significantly ...
Cobbe Neville - - 2009
Invadolysin is a metalloprotease conserved in many different organisms, previously shown to be essential in Drosophila with roles in cell division and cell migration. The gene seems to be ubiquitously expressed and four distinct splice variants have been identified in human cells but not in most other species examined. Immunofluorescent ...
Han Pei-pei - - 2009
Plant cell culture has been developed as an alternative method for the production of an anticancer drug, paclitaxel. However, the sensitivity of plant cells to shear stress has been one of the main obstacles to the scale-up of the plant cell culture. To gain a better understanding of the mechanism ...
Li Ke - - 2009
Berberine is identified to lower the serum cholesterol level in human and hamster through the induction of low density lipoproteins (LDL) receptor in hepatic cells. To evaluate its potential in preventing atherosclerosis, the effect of berberine on atherosclerosis development in apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice was investigated. In apoE(-/-) mice, berberine ...
Ahiboh Hugues - - 2009
In the eukaryotic cell, phospholipids can be biosynthesized by two pathways, one from choline and the other one from ethanolamine. The functional effectiveness of each pathway depends on the type of the cell. Thiazolium designed-drugs have shown, under in vivo conditions, antiplasmodial and antimalarial activities with inhibition of the phospholipids ...
Hornemann Thorsten - - 2009
The enzyme serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the de novo synthesis of sphingolipids. Previously the mammalian SPT was described as a heterodimer composed of two subunits, SPTLC1 and SPTLC2. Recently we identified a novel third SPT subunit (SPTLC3). SPTLC3 shows about 68% identity to SPTLC2 and also ...
Wang Chun - - 2009
Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B10 (AKR1B10) is primarily expressed in the normal human colon and small intestine but overexpressed in liver and lung cancer. Our previous studies have shown that AKR1B10 mediates the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase-alpha. In this study, we demonstrate that AKR1B10 is critical to cell ...
Matuana Laurent M - - 2009
Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) was foamed with an endothermic chemical foaming agent (CFA) through an extrusion process. The effects of polymer melt flow index, CFA content, and processing speed on the cellular structures, void fraction, and cell-population density of foamed PLA were investigated. The apparent melt viscosity of PLA was measured ...
Surrel Fanny - - 2009
Among mammalian secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA(2)s), the group X enzyme has the most potent hydrolyzing capacity toward phosphatidylcholine, the major phospholipid of cell membrane and lipoproteins. This enzyme has recently been implicated in chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis and asthma and may also play a role in colon tumorigenesis. ...
Døssing Kristina - - 2009
We previously showed that a native very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)- and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-rich mix induces global changes in DNA methylation in cultured THP-1 human macrophages. The exact molecular mechanisms for this response are not yet known. Previous studies showed that apolipoprotein B (ApoB) or its fragments can be localized ...
Park Eun-Kyung - - 2009
Caveolae (lipid rafts), microdomains of the plasma membrane, are known to contain various signalling molecules and consequently are involved in the regulation of many biological functions. To investigate the role of the caveolae in cell survival and adhesion, we disrupted the caveolae by depletion of cholesterol, a major lipid component ...
Rzepczynska Izabela J - - 2009
Statins are competitive inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, a rate-limiting step of the mevalonate pathway. The pleiotropic effects of statins may be due to inhibition of cholesterol synthesis, as well as decreased availability of several biologically important intermediate components of the mevalonate pathway, including two substrates for isoprenylation (farnesyl pyrophosphate ...
Chatterjee Cynthia - - 2009
HDL acts much like heparin to liberate hepatic lipase (HL) from cell surface proteoglycans and stimulate triglyceride clearance. Experiments were undertaken to evaluate the effects of factors that stimulate the secretion of HDL from the liver on the release of HL. Treatment of HepG2 cells with linoleic acid phospholipids (LAPL) ...
Weibel Ginny L - - 2009
15(S)-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LO-1) was present in the whole-cell homogenate of an acute human monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1). Additionally, 15-LO-1 was detected on neutral lipid droplets isolated from THP-1 foam cells. To investigate if 15-LO-1 is active on lipid droplets, we used the mouse leukemic monocytic macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7), ...
Paillasse Michael R - - 2009
Several studies indicate that cholesterol esterification is deregulated in cancers. The present study aimed to characterize the role of cholesterol esterification in proliferation and invasion of two tumor cells expressing an activated cholecystokinin 2 receptor (CCK2R). A significant increase in cholesterol esterification and activity of Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) was measured ...
Rush Jeffrey S JS Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, Kentucky 40536, - - 2009
To further evaluate the role of Rft1 in the transbilayer movement of Man(5)GlcNAc(2)-P-P-dolichol (M5-DLO), a series of experiments was conducted with intact cells and sealed microsomal vesicles. First, an unexpectedly large accumulation (37-fold) of M5-DLO was observed in Rft1-depleted cells (YG1137) relative to Glc(3)Man(9)GlcNAc(2)-P-P-Dol in wild type (SS328) cells when ...
Kumarasuriyar A - - 2009
Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) sugars are largely responsible for the bioactivity of the proteoglycan proteins they decorate, and are particularly important for mediating the processes of cell attachment and growth factor signaling. Here, we show that chlorate-induced de-sulfation of GAGs expressed by MG-63 osteosarcoma cells results in delayed cell proliferation when the ...
Akanuma Shin-ichi - - 2009
The purpose of this study was to determine the high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated alpha-tocopherol (alpha-tocopherol-HDL) transport and clarify the contribution of scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI) to the uptake in the human retinal pigment epithelial cell line (ARPE-19 cells). [(3)H]alpha-Tocopherol-HDL uptake into ARPE-19 cells seeded onto a transwell from ...
Sekine Yoshitaka - - 2009
Hypertriglyceridemia has been shown to be one of the risk factors for prostate cancer. In this study, we investigated the effect of remnant lipoproteins on cell growth in prostate cancer cell lines. Remnant lipoproteins were isolated as remnant like particles (RLP) from human plasma. We used RLP for TG-rich lipoproteins ...
Kao Erl-Shyh - - 2009
A recent investigation highlighted that oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic lesions through the formation of macrophage-derived foam cells. Hibiscus sabdariffa L., a garden plant containing a lot of pigments, was demonstrated to inhibit LDL oxidation and the progression of atherosclerosis in high ...
Stevenson Julian - - 2009
Cholesterol is an apparently indispensable lipid for numerous processes required for cell proliferation. Levels of this molecule are primarily regulated at the transcriptional level by the SREBPs (sterol-regulatory-element-binding proteins) and LXR (liver X receptor). In this issue of the Biochemical Journal, Rodríguez-Acebes et al. show that a cholesterol precursor, desmosterol, ...
Wu Tinghuai - - 2010
To maintain normal retinal function, retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells engulf photoreceptor outer segments (ROS) enriched in free fatty acids (FFAs). We have previously demonstrated fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5) downregulation in the RPE/choroidal complex in a mouse model of aging and early age-related macular degeneration. FABPs are involved in ...
Royer Marie-Charlotte - - 2009
Cholesterol oxides, in particular 7-ketocholesterol, are proatherogenic compounds that induce cell death in the vascular wall when localized in lipid raft domains of the cell membrane. Deleterious effects of 7-ketocholesterol can be prevented by vitamin E, but the molecular mechanism involved is unclear. In this study, unlike gamma-tocopherol, the alpha-tocopherol ...
Lamberti Yanina - - 2009
Bordetella pertussis is a re-emerging human respiratory pathogen whose infectious process is not fully understood, hampering the design of effective vaccines. The nature of bacterial attachment to host cells is a key event in the outcome of the infection. However, host cell receptors involved in B. pertussis colonization of the ...
Itoh Mizuho - - 2009
We isolated a HepG2-derived sub-clone (HepG2-Lipo), which possessed an increased lipoprotein synthesizing ability. HepG2-Lipo cells could secrete triglycerides (TG) and cholesterol at rates 9.4- and 6-fold higher, respectively, when compared to HepG2 cells. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that the expression levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c and -2 were 2.9- ...
Shibata Masahiro - - 2009
Lipid droplets (LDs) are ubiquitous in eukaryotic cells, while excess free fatty acids and glucose in plasma are converted to triacylglycerol (TAG) and stored as LDs. However, the mechanism for the generation and growth of LDs in cells is largely unknown. We show here that the LC3 lipidation system essential ...
Moreira Luciana S - - 2009
Cytoplasmic lipid bodies (also known as lipid droplets) are intracellular deposits of arachidonic acid (AA), which can be metabolized for eicosanoid generation. PGE2 is a major AA metabolite produced by epithelial cells and can modulate restoration of epithelium homeostasis after injury. We studied lipid body biogenesis and their role in ...
Guan Xue Li - - 2009
Sterols and sphingolipids are limited to eukaryotic cells, and their interaction has been proposed to favor formation of lipid microdomains. Although there is abundant biophysical evidence demonstrating their interaction in simple systems, convincing evidence is lacking to show that they function together in cells. Using lipid analysis by mass spectrometry ...
Gehrig Karsten - - 2009
In addition to suppressing cholesterol synthesis and uptake, oxysterols also activate glycerophospholipid and SM (sphingomyelin) synthesis, possibly to buffer cells from excess sterol accumulation. In the present study, we investigated the effects of oxysterols on the CDP-choline pathway for PtdCho (phosphatidylcholine) synthesis using wild-type and sterol-resistant CHO (Chinese-hamster ovary) cells ...
Cerantola Vanessa - - 2009
All mature Saccharomyces cerevisiae sphingolipids comprise inositolphosphorylceramides containing C26:0 or C24:0 fatty acids and either phytosphingosine or dihydrosphingosine. Here we analysed the lipid profile of lag1Delta lac1Delta mutants lacking acyl-CoA-dependent ceramide synthesis, which require the reverse ceramidase activity of overexpressed Ydc1p for sphingolipid biosynthesis and viability. These cells, termed 2Delta.YDC1, ...
Dierker Tabea - - 2009
The ectodomains of numerous proteins are released from cells by matrix metalloproteases to yield soluble intercellular regulators. A disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) family members have often been found to be the responsible "sheddases," ADAM17/tumor necrosis factor-alpha-converting enzyme being its best characterized member. In this work, we show that ShhNp (lipidated ...
Klein Diana - - 2009
Metachromatic leukodystrophy is a lysosomal disorder caused by the deficiency of arylsulfatase A (ASA). This leads to the storage of the sphingolipid 3-O-sulfogalactosylceramide (sulfatide) in various cell types, such as renal tubular cells. Examination of mannose 6-phosphate receptor (MPR300)-dependent endocytosis revealed that uptake of lysosomal enzymes is more than two-fold ...
Dove Stephen K - - 2009
Inositol phospholipids regulate many cellular processes, including cell survival, membrane trafficking, and actin polymerization. Quantification of inositol lipids is one of the essential techniques needed for studies that aim to decipher inositol lipid-dependent cellular functions. The study of phosphoinositides in most organisms is hampered by a lack of facile genetic ...
de Souza Wanderley - - 2009
Sterols are constituents of the cellular membranes that are essential for their normal structure and function. In mammalian cells, cholesterol is the main sterol found in the various membranes. However, other sterols predominate in eukaryotic microorganisms such as fungi and protozoa. It is now well established that an important metabolic ...
L?? He-Zuo - - 2009
Lipid rafts are cholesterol-enriched microdomains which act as a platform for the initiation of T-cell activation. To investigate effect of endogenous cholesterol on lipid rafts formation and activation of gammadeltaT cells, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated in vitro with Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens (Mtb-Ag). Lovastatin and fluvastatin, two 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme ...
Yoshimura Nakayuki - - 2009
AIM: Remnant lipoproteins are well known to play a pivotal role in atherosclerosis. In patients with postprandial dyslipidemia, metabolic pathways for exogenous lipoproteins are generally disturbed, resulting in accumulation of chylomicron remnants. Although it has been difficult to make a specific antibody against apolipoprotein B48 (apoB48) , a constituent of ...
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