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Results 501 - 550 of 1583
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Pilquil C - - 2001
The serum-derived phospholipid growth factor, lysophosphatidate (LPA), activates cells through a family of G-protein-coupled EDG receptors. The present article examines the role of lipid phosphate phosphatase-1 (LPP-1, or phosphatidate phosphate 2A) in regulating cell activation by LPA. Overexpressing LPP-1 approximately doubled the rate of dephosphorylation of exogenous LPA by Rat2 ...
Pilquil C - - 2001
The serum-derived phospholipid growth factor, lysophosphatidate (LPA), activates cells through a family of G-protein-coupled EDG receptors. The present article examines the role of lipid phosphate phosphatase-1 (LPP-1, or phosphatidate phosphate 2A) in regulating cell activation by LPA. Over-expressing LPP-1 approximately doubled the rate of dephosphorylation of exogenous LPA by Rat2 ...
Allakhverdiev S I - - 2001
In this study, the tolerance to salt stress of the photosynthetic machinery was examined in relation to the effects of the genetic enhancement of the unsaturation of fatty acids in membrane lipids in wild-type and desA+ cells of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942. Wild-type cells synthesized saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids, ...
Wenner C - - 2001
Macrophage-derived apolipoprotein E (apoE) influences the susceptibility of the arterial wall to atherosclerosis. Previous studies have shown that production of apoE in these cells is regulated at a posttranscriptional level and is increased by inhibitors of proteasomal degradation. To further investigate this mechanism, we stably transfected RAW 264.7 macrophages and ...
Henneberry A L - - 2001
Phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine are the most abundant phospholipids in eukaryotic cells and thus have major roles in the formation and maintenance of vesicular membranes. In yeast, diacylglycerol accepts a phosphocholine moiety through a CPT1-derived cholinephosphotransferase activity to directly synthesize phosphatidylcholine. EPT1-derived activity can transfer either phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine to diacylglcyerol ...
Hasaba A - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) are nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol produced by the esterification of fatty acids and ethanol. FAEEs have been implicated as mediators of ethanol-induced organ damage in vivo and in vitro. They are detectable in the blood and in many organs after ethanol ingestion, and on ...
Harzer K - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a neurovisceral lysosomal lipidosis caused in most cases by mutations in the NPC1 gene that codes for the cholesterol regulating NPC1 protein. METHODS: Cultured skin fibroblasts from 11 NPC patients aged 0.25 to 34 years at diagnosis with different severity of neurologic and ...
Rivabene R - - 2001
The absorption, remodeling, and delivery of dietary lipids by intestinal cells are part of a complex multi-step process, the dynamics of which is influenced by the lipid composition of the diet and the physiological state of enterocytes. Emerging data indicate that, among the parameters known to modulate the cell functionality, ...
Igarashi M - - 2001
We investigated the growth inhibitory effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on HepG2 (human hepatoma cell line), exploring whether the inhibitory action occurs via lipid peroxidation in the cells. When the cells were incubated up to 72 h with 5-40 microM of CLA (a mixture of 9c,11t-18:2 and 10t,12c-18:2), cell ...
Zhu W - - 2001
Galectin-3, a member of beta-galactoside-binding lectin family, is suggested to be an AGE-receptor. To examine this possibility, we prepared CHO cells overexpressing human galectin-3 (galectin-3-CHO cells). Galectin-3-CHO cells showed a specific and saturable binding to (125)I-AGE-BSA with Kd of 3.1 microg/ml. (125)I-AGE-BSA was endocytosed by galectin-3-CHO cells and underwent lysosomal ...
Nayak N - - 2001
Retinyl esters (RE) have been used extensively as markers to study chylomicron (CM) catabolism because they are secreted in the postprandial state with CM and do not exchange with other lipoproteins in the plasma. To understand the mechanism of secretion of RE by the intestine under the fasting and postprandial ...
Baudry K - - 2001
A temperature-sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant harboring a lesion in the ERG26 gene has been isolated. ERG26 encodes 4alpha-carboxysterol-C3 dehydrogenase, one of three enzymatic activities required for the conversion of 4,4-dimethylzymosterol to zymosterol. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses of sterols in this mutant, designated erg26-1, revealed the aberrant accumulation of a 4-methyl-4-carboxy ...
Chang J Y - - 2001
Cholesterol oxides, the oxygenated derivatives of cholesterol, have been shown to cause programmed cell death in a variety of cell types. Using N9 microglia, this study was designed to investigate the molecular events induced by cholesterol oxides prior to the execution of programmed cell death. Microglia were very sensitive to ...
Goti D - - 2001
It is clearly established that an efficient supply to the brain of alpha-tocopherol (alphaTocH), the most biologically active member of the vitamin E family, is of the utmost importance for proper neurological functioning. Although the mechanism of uptake of alphaTocH into cells constituting the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is obscure, we ...
Suzuki K - - 2001
Lipid microspheres (LM), currently in clinical use as drug carriers, mainly consist of soybean oil as a core and lecithin as a surfactant. The purpose of our study wass to determine whether or not LM incorporation is receptor-mediated. U937 cells resuspended in a serum-free medium abundantly took up unmodulated LM. ...
Iuliano L - - 2001
Atherosclerosis is the commonest lesion of blood vessels and is responsible for life-threatening events such as myocardial infarction and stroke. In the last two decades a series of excellent studies unraveled biochemical mechanisms that provided the background for a theory of atherogenesis. This theory is centered on foam cells and ...
German D C - - 2001
The BALB/c mouse model of Niemann-Pick type C disease exhibits similar neuropathological features to the human condition, including cerebral atrophy, demyelination of the corpus callosum, and degeneration of cerebellar Purkinje cells. The gene defect in Niemann-Pick C disease causes cholesterol to accumulate within the lysosomal compartment of neurons and glial ...
Charpentier D - - 2000
To determine the importance of hepatic apolipoprotein (apo) E in lipoprotein metabolism, HepG2 cells were transfected with a constitutive expression vector (pRc/CMV) containing either the complete or the first 474 base pairs of the human apoE cDNA inserted in an antisense orientation, for apoE gene inactivation, or the full-length human ...
Brasaemle D L - - 2000
The perilipins are the most abundant proteins at the surfaces of lipid droplets in adipocytes and are also found in steroidogenic cells. To investigate perilipin function, perilipin A, the predominant isoform, was ectopically expressed in fibroblastic 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes that normally lack the perilipins. In control cells, fluorescent staining of neutral ...
Arakawa R - - 2000
High density lipoprotein (HDL) is assembled by interaction of apolipoprotein A-I with human monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 by removing cellular cholesterol and phospholipid. Although the HDL formed with undifferentiated THP-1 cells contained only phosphatidylcholine and almost no cholesterol, the cells differentiated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) generated HDL enriched ...
Lee R G - - 2000
Two closely related enzymes with more than 50% sequence identity have been identified that catalyze the esterification of cholesterol using acyl-CoA substrates, namely acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 1 (ACAT1) and ACAT2. Both are membrane-spanning proteins believed to reside in the endoplasmic reticulum of cells. ACAT2 has been hypothesized to be associated with ...
Sproul T W - - 2000
B cell Ag receptor (BCR) signaling changes dramatically during B cell development, resulting in activation in mature B cells and apoptosis, receptor editing, or anergy in immature B cells. BCR signaling in mature B cells was shown to be initiated by the translocation of the BCR into cholesterol- and sphingolipid-enriched ...
Hartmann M A - - 2000
Plant isoprenoids represent a large group of compounds with a wide range of physiological functions. In the cytosol, isoprenoids are synthesized via the classical acetate/mevalonate pathway. In this pathway, farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) occupies a central position, from which isoprene units are dispatched to the different classes of isoprenoids, with sterols ...
Yamazaki T - - 2001
There is growing evidence suggesting that cholesterol metabolism is linked to susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease by influencing amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) metabolism. However, the precise cellular linkage sites between cholesterol and Abeta have not yet been clarified. To address this issue, we investigated Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) model cells and NPC ...
Wolins N E - - 2001
Most mammalian cells package neutral lipids into droplets that are surrounded by a monolayer of phospholipids and a specific set of proteins including the adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP; also called adipophilin), which is found in a wide array of cell types, and the perilipins, which are restricted to adipocytes and ...
Fukasawa M - - 2000
We examined the effects of reduction of sphingomyelin level on cholesterol behavior in cells using 2 types of Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants deficient in sphingomyelin synthesis: LY-A strain defective in intracellular trafficking of ceramide for sphingomyelin synthesis, and LY-B strain defective in the enzyme catalyzing the initial step of ...
Bartlett A L - - 2000
Desialylated low density lipoprotein (LDL) is rapidly taken up and accumulated by both peripheral blood monocytes and cells isolated from human arterial intima consisting predominantly of smooth muscle cells. It is shown that thioglycollate (TG)-elicited mouse macrophages and mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) show increased expression of a ...
Stary H C - - 2000
About one-half of infants in the first 6 mo of life have small collections of macrophages and macrophages filled with lipid droplets (foam cells) in susceptible segments of the coronary arteries. In subsequent years, fewer children have foam cells but around puberty (12-15 y) foam cell accumulations mostly larger than ...
Ricci V - - 2000
Helicobacter pylori vacuolating toxin (VacA) causes vacuolation in a variety of cultured cell lines, sensitivity to VacA differing greatly, however, among the different cell types. We found that the high sensitivity of HEp-2 cells to VacA was impaired by treating the cells with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) which removes glycosylphosphatidylinositol ...
Suzuki S - - 2000
Apolipoprotein (apo) A-I generates high-density lipoprotein (HDL) by removing cellular cholesterol and phospholipid on the interaction with cells as a main source of plasma HDL. The reaction is induced by dibutylyl cyclic (dbc) adenosine monophosphate (AMP) in RAW 264, mouse macrophage cell line cells, and we investigated its pharmacologic modulation ...
Leppimäki P - - 2000
We have examined how a specific enrichment of cultured fibroblasts with various sterols (cholesterol, lathosterol, 7-dehydrocholesterol, allocholesterol and dihydrocholesterol) regulate synthesis de novo of phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol and cholesteryl (or steryl) esters in human skin fibroblasts. When human skin fibroblasts were incubated for 1 h with 130 microM cholesterol/CyD complexes, the ...
Seo T - - 2000
Lipoprotein lipase (LpL) hydrolyzes chylomicron and very low density lipoprotein triglycerides to provide fatty acids to tissues. Aside from its lipolytic activity, LpL promotes lipoprotein uptake by increasing the association of these particles with cell surfaces allowing for the internalization by receptors and proteoglycans. Recent studies also indicate that LpL ...
Itabe H - - 2000
Oxidized phosphatidylcholine (OxPC) formed in oxidized low density lipoprotein (OxLDL) is thought to be involved in the development of atherosclerosis. OxPC has been found in foam cells in atherosclerotic lesions and suggested to be the epitope for OxLDL recognition by macrophages. OxPC is present as a complex with apolipoprotein B ...
Navab M - - 2000
Treatment of human artery wall cells with apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), but not apoA-II, with an apoA-I peptide mimetic, or with high density lipoprotein (HDL), or paraoxonase, rendered the cells unable to oxidize low density lipoprotein (LDL). Human aortic wall cells were found to contain 12-lipoxygenase (12-LO) protein. Transfection of the ...
García-Pelayo M C - - 2000
The optimal conditions for measuring 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase activity in Reuber H35 hepatoma cells are described in this paper. Cells in the exponential phase of growth were lysed by incubation with Brij 97 detergent for 30 min. We used imidazole buffer supplemented with EDTA and leupeptine, two inhibitors of proteases. ...
Pan M - - 2000
In HepG2 cells, inhibition of apolipoprotein B100 (apoB) translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum by an microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) inhibitor (CP-10447) in the presence of N-acetyl-leucinyl-norleucinal, a proteasomal inhibitor, results in accumulation of newly synthesized apoB in the translocation channel. Here we demonstrated that such accumulation led to a ...
Asmis R - - 2000
Several studies in macrophage cell lines, rodent macrophages, and animal models of atherosclerosis suggest that vitamin E may prevent the formation of foam cells. We tested this hypothesis in a recently developed, fully autologous in vitro model of human foam cell formation. During maturation, macrophages continuously increased their alpha-tocopherol/total cholesterol ...
Hakumäki J M - - 2000
A functionally and metabolically interesting class of cell lipid can be observed by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in situ. These prominent resonances are not only associated with malignancy and cell death, but also act as heralds of benign processes, such as cell activation and proliferation. Originally, these NMR ...
Guo W - - 2000
Medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCT) are present in milk, coconut oil and other foods, and are used therapeutically in special diets for certain disorders of lipid and glucose utilization. Recently, it has become apparent that MCT are not only oxidized in the liver, but are also present in lymph and fat tissue, ...
Brown M L - - 2000
We have cloned a human macrophage receptor that binds to apolipoprotein (apo)B48 of dietary triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins. TG-rich lipoprotein uptake by the apoB48R rapidly converts macrophages and apoB48R-transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells in vitro into lipid-filled foam cells, as seen in atherosclerotic lesions. The apoB48R cDNA (3,744 bp) encodes a ...
Jang J C - - 2000
Here we report a novel Arabidopsis dwarf mutant, fackel-J79, whose adult morphology resembles that of brassinosteroid-deficient mutants but also displays distorted embryos, supernumerary cotyledons, multiple shoot meristems, and stunted roots. We cloned the FACKEL gene and found that it encodes a protein with sequence similarity to both the human sterol ...
Ohashi M - - 2000
Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell mutants defective in the disintegration of endocytosed low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were isolated from mutagenized cells by repeated flow-cytometric cell sorting. After seven rounds of cell sorting, we obtained mutant pools, from which nine mutant clones were established. These mutant strains were all recessive, and were ...
Martín de Llano J J - - 2000
We have developed a new nonradioactive assay to identify human low-density lipoprotein receptor defects. It is based on the incubation of cultured cells with colloidal gold-LDL conjugates and quantitation of the gold associated with the cells by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. After an oxidative treatment with nitric and hydrochloric acids, ...
Oztürk A I - - 2000
In this study, the antimicrobial effects of monophosphazenes such as SM ipemphos and amphos were examined on bacterial and yeast strains. In addition, the biological effects of these compounds were tested on the lipid level of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans cells. The SM has an antimicrobial effect on the ...
Kesavan S S The Skin Research Centre, Department of Microbiology, University of Leeds, - - 2000
Malassezia spp. are believed to be the causative agents of pityriasis versicolor and are strongly implicated in seborrhoeic dermatitis. The yeast also forms part of the normal human cutaneous microflora. We have previously shown that when Malassezia yeast cells are incubated with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), they are ...
Burch W L - - 2000
Apolipoprotein (apo) B-100, an essential protein for the assembly and secretion of very low density lipoproteins depends on lipid binding (lipidation) for its secretion. Seven of its 8 disulfides are clustered within the N-terminal 21%. The role of these disulfides in the secretion of lipidated or unlipidated truncated forms of ...
Hoy A - - 2000
Apolipoprotein E (apoE) whose polymorphic expression is widely associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most studied protein present in cerebral amyloid deposits. Native or fragments of apoE are known to exert neurotoxic effects. We evaluated the effects of apoE oxidation and lipid-association on the viability of human ...
Ho Y Y - - 2000
Apolipoprotein E (apoE) on model triglyceride-rich particles (TGRP) increases triglyceride (TG) utilization and cholesteryl ester (CE) hydrolysis, independent of its effect on enhancing particle uptake. We questioned whether, under physiological concentrations, endogenously expressed apoE has similar effects on cellular lipid metabolism as compared to exogenous apoE. J774 macrophages, which do ...
Poirier P - - 2000
Much of the knowledge about the cell biology of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in vitro has been gained from adipose tissue model systems. However, the importance of skeletal muscle lipoprotein lipase (SMLPL) to both lipoprotein and muscle metabolism remains unclear. Although the production of LPL in cultured myocytes has been documented, ...
Zimmermann R - - 2000
Macrophages are intimately involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic diseases. A key feature of this process is their uptake of various lipoproteins and subsequent transformation to foam cells. Since lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is believed to play a role in foam cell formation, we investigated if endogenously produced proteoglycans (PGs) affect ...
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