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Results 401 - 450 of 1836
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Squires Paul E - - 2005
The mechanisms through which pancreatic beta cells recognize and respond to changes in circulating glucose are well understood. Evidence is accumulating that a subpopulation of neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) use similar cellular mechanisms to sense changes in extracellular glucose. In the present study, we used PCR and single-cell ...
Jin Y - - 2005
Phenotypic and genotypic cell differentiation is considered an important feature that confers enhanced antifungal resistance in candidal biofilms. Particular emphasis has been placed in this context on the viability of biofilm subpopulations, and their heterogeneity with regard to the production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). We therefore assessed the utility ...
Pan Yen-Chung - - 2005
A method for the production of high-purity isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO) involving the transglucosylation by transglucosidase and yeast fermentation was proposed. The starch of rice crumbs was enzymatically liquefied and saccharified, and then converted to low-purity IMO syrup by transglucosylation. The low-purity IMO produced either from rice crumbs or tapioca flour as ...
Stokrová Jitka - - 2005
Sodium butyrate or glucose deprivation induce a more differentiated phenotype in many cancer cells. The aim of this study was to determine whether the induction effect of butyrate and/or glucose deprivation is dependent, in some way, on the differentiation state of individual cell lines. Sodium butyrate enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity ...
Vavasseur Alain - - 2005
In this review we concentrate on guard cell metabolism and CO2 sensing. Although a matter of some controversy, it is generally accepted that the Calvin cycle plays a minor role in stomatal movements. Recent data emphasise the importance of guard cell starch degradation and of carbon import from the guard ...
Valli Minoska - - 2005
Intracellular pH has an important role in the maintenance of the normal functions of yeast cells. The ability of the cell to maintain this pH homeostasis also in response to environmental changes has gained more and more interest in both basic and applied research. In this study we describe a ...
Tamaki Hisanori - - 2005
In the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cell size is affected by the kind of carbon source in the medium. Here, we present evidence that the Gpr1 receptor and Gpa2 Galpha subunit are required for both maintenance and modulation of cell size in response to glucose. In the presence of glucose, mutants ...
Zawada James - - 2005
A novel feeding strategy that prolongs rapid growth rates for Escherichia coli fermentations to moderately high cell density is presented. High-density fermentations are a common and successful means of producing biological products. However, acetate accumulation can be a substantial problem in these procedures. To avoid this problem, many feeding strategies ...
Coustou Virginie - - 2005
Trypanosoma brucei is a parasitic protist responsible for sleeping sickness in humans. The procyclic stage of T. brucei expresses a soluble NADH-dependent fumarate reductase (FRDg) in the peroxisome-like organelles called glycosomes. This enzyme is responsible for the production of about 70% of the excreted succinate, the major end product of ...
Thormann Kai M - - 2005
Active detachment of cells from microbial biofilms is a critical yet poorly understood step in biofilm development. We discovered that detachment of cells from biofilms of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 can be induced by arresting the medium flow in a hydrodynamic biofilm system. Induction of detachment was rapid, and substantial biofilm ...
Osório Hugo - - 2005
Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells (strain W303) grown in a minimal medium (containing 2% or 0.1% glucose) until exponential or stationary phase, were subjected to chronological aging in water, and yeast viability and nucleotide content were analyzed along several days of nutrient starvation. Cells collected in exponential phase (whether grown in the ...
Martens G - - 2005
Excessively high glucose concentrations have been shown to damage tissues through stimulation of mitochondrial superoxide generation. This effect has therefore been considered as a potential cause for dysfunction and death of pancreatic beta cells in diabetes. We have examined whether the rate of glucose metabolism in isolated rat beta cells ...
Vanoni M - - 2005
Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells grown in glucose have larger average size than cells grown in ethanol. Besides, yeast must reach a carbon source-modulated critical cell size in order to enter S phase at Start. This control is of outmost physiological relevance, since it allows us to coordinate cell growth with cell ...
Yamanaka Atsushi - - 2005
The influence of sugars in pre-cultivation media suspended plant cells on the kinetics of the sugar uptake and the ethanol production was studied by mid-infrared spectroscopy using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) equipped with an attenuate total reflection accessory (ATR). We performed the plant cell cultivation with Nicotiana tabacum ...
Gong, Lixin, 1966-
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Texas at Austin, 2005.
Benslimane Chouki - - 2005
The insect cell baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) is one of the most commonly used expression systems for recombinant protein production. This system is also widely used for the production of recombinant virus and virus-like particles. Although several published reports exist on recombinant protein expression using insect cells, information dealing ...
Milne Helen M - - 2005
We have generated MIN6 beta-cells that stably overexpress cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) and show a ninefold increase in cPLA(2) activity. Overexpression of cPLA(2) did not affect the capacity of MIN6 cells to show elevations in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in response to tolbutamide and KCl, and these depolarizing stimuli produced ...
Lazarevic Vladimir - - 2005
Mutations designated gtaC and gtaE that affect alpha-phosphoglucomutase activity required for interconversion of glucose 6-phosphate and alpha-glucose 1-phosphate were mapped to the Bacillus subtilis pgcA (yhxB) gene. Backcrossing of the two mutations into the 168 reference strain was accompanied by impaired alpha-phosphoglucomutase activity in the soluble cell extract fraction, altered ...
Islam Md Shahidul - - 2005
Type 2 diabetes is a polygenic disorder characterized by increased insulin resistance, and impaired insulin secretion leading to abnormalities of glucose and lipid metabolism. Reduced responsiveness of the beta-cells to glucose is a critical feature of this syndrome. Glucagon-like peptide 1, a product of the pro-glucagon gene makes beta-cells competent ...
Dalm Marcella C F - - 2004
For the development of optimal perfusion processes the effect of the feed and bleed rate on cell growth in a perfusion bioreactor was studied. The viable-cell density, viability, growth, death, and lysis rate and cell-cycle distribution of a hybridoma cell line producing an IgG1 were studied over a range of ...
Palmfeldt Johan - - 2004
The acidic proteome of Lactococcus lactis grown anaerobically was compared for three different growth conditions: cells growing on maltose, resting cells metabolizing maltose, and cells growing on glucose. In maltose metabolizing cells several proteins were up-regulated compared with glucose metabolizing cells, however only some of the up-regulated proteins had apparent ...
Gatlik-Landwojtowicz Ewa - - 2004
P-glycoprotein ATPase activity has been studied almost exclusively by measuring inorganic phosphate release from inside-out cellular vesicles. We have recently proposed a new method based on measurements of the extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) of living cells with a Cytosensor microphysiometer. This method allows for systematic investigation of the various factors ...
You Hyun Ju - - 2004
Strains of bifidobacteria have many health-promotion effects. Whole cells or cytoplasm extracts of Bifidobacterium bifidum BGN4, isolated from human feces, inhibited the growth of several cancer cell lines. The polysaccharide fraction (BB-pol) extracted from B. bifidum BGN4 had a novel composition, comprising chiroinositol, rhamnose, glucose, galactose, and ribose. Three human ...
Fiorentini Diana - - 2004
Glucose transport activity and its possible regulation by reactive oxygen species in two Glut1-expressing megakaryocytic cell lines, MO7e and B1647, differing in cytokine sensitivity were compared. Results show that: (1) In MO7e cells, glucose transport rate increased in response to thrombopoietin, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, or stem cell factor, due to ...
Alberghina Lilia - - 2004
Saccharomyces cerevisiae must reach a carbon source-modulated critical cell size, protein content per cell at the onset of DNA replication (Ps), in order to enter S phase. Cells grown in glucose are larger than cells grown in ethanol. Here, we show that an increased level of the cyclin-dependent inhibitor Far1 ...
Choi Ha-Jong - - 2004
Lactosucrose, a functional trisaccharide, was produced from lactose as an acceptor and sucrose as a fructosyl donor by whole cells harboring transfructosylation activity of levansucrase. Levansucrase-induced cells of Paenibacillus polymyxa were obtained in the medium containing sucrose, and the transfructosylation activity in the whole cell was optimized for lactosucrose production. ...
Kim Jeong H - - 2005
BCR-ABL oncoprotein-expressing cells are associated with a relative increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is thought to play a role in transformation. Elevated ROS levels in BCR-ABL-transformed cells were found to be blocked by the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone as well as the glucose transport inhibitor phloretin, ...
Cadek R - - 2004
The potentiometric fluorescence probe diS-C3(3) is expelled from S. cerevisiae by ABC pumps Pdr5 and Snq2 and can conveniently be used for studying their performance. The activity of these pumps in a strain with wild-type PDR1 allele was shown to drop sharply on glucose depletion from the medium and then ...
Li An-Fei - - 2004
PURPOSE: To study whether excess synthesis of an extracellular matrix (ECM) component, fibronectin (FN), underlying the monolayer of human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cells, influences permeability. METHODS: To upregulate FN expression, HTM cells were grown in high glucose (30 mM) medium for 10 days. In parallel, cells were grown in normal ...
Cedrola Sabrina - - 2004
Elevated expression of stress proteins can be a characteristic of human cancer and may be involved in the development of resistance to some types of chemotherapeutic agent. In this paper, the effect of physiological stress conditions, such as glucose deprivation, was investigated in overexpressing nPKCdelta murine melanoma BL6 (BL6T) cells. ...
Gottschalk Sven - - 2004
The therapeutic efficacy of imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) is based on its specific inhibition of the BCR-ABL oncogene protein, a widely expressed tyrosine kinase in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cells. The goal of this study was to evaluate glucose metabolism in BCR-ABL-positive cells that are sensitive to imatinib exposure. Two human ...
Griffith Cara L - - 2004
Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic fungus surrounded by an elaborate polysaccharide capsule that is strictly required for its virulence in humans and other mammals. Nearly half of the sugar residues in the capsule are derived from UDP-glucuronic acid or its metabolites. To examine the role of these nucleotide sugars in ...
Peng Xing Yue - - 2004
Using a three-dimensional flow control concept to manipulate and retain a single yeast cell in a microchip, we were able to study the kinetics of intracellular metabolism and calcium mobilization at the single-cell level, as stimulated by glucose and pH changes. As a model study, the fluorogenic substrate fluorescein diacetate ...
Ishii Takeo - - 2004
We investigated how nutritional deficiency affects cell cycle and cell viability in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. Deprivation of various amino acids or glucose induced cell cycle arrest and cell death in a different manner. Cell death on deprivation of these nutrients was increased by downregulating of p27Kip1 with RNA interference. ...
Davidsson Richard - - 2004
A microfluidic flow injection (microFIA) system was employed for handling and monitoring of cell-released products from living cells immobilised on silicon microchips. The dynamic release of glucose and ethanol produced from sucrose by immobilised Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells was determined using microchip biosensors (micro-biosensors) with either co-immobilised glucose oxidase-horseradish peroxidase (GOX-HRP), ...
Brune Alicia - - 2004
Porphyrin-sensitized nanoparticulate TiO(2) on conducting glass has been investigated as a photoanode material for a new cell that converts light energy into electricity. The cell is a hybrid of a dye-sensitized nanoparticulate semiconductor photoelectrochemical solar cell, and a biofuel cell that oxidizes glucose. Porphyrin molecules excited by light inject electrons ...
Achilles J - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely employed microorganism in biotechnological processes. Since proliferation and product formation depend on the capacity of the cell to access and metabolize a carbon source, a technique was developed to enable for analyzing the S. cerevisiae H155 cells' affinity to extracellular glucose concentrations. METHODS: The ...
Donlan R M - - 2004
Streptococcus pneumoniae forms biofilms, but little is known about its extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) or the kinetics of biofilm formation. A system was developed to enable the simultaneous measurement of cells and the EPS of biofilm-associated S. pneumoniae in situ over time. A biofilm reactor containing germanium coupons was interfaced ...
Zhao Guogang - - 2004
A new isolate of Arthrobacter sulfureus , when incubated at 50 g resting cells (dry cell wt) l(-1) with 50 g glucose l(-1) and 1 g 2-aminoacetophenone l(-1) in 50 mm potassium buffer (pH 7, 4 ml) at 30 degrees C, produced ( S )-2-amino-1-phenylethanol (e.e. >99%) with 75% yield ...
Huang Wei E - - 2004
We demonstrate the utility of the Raman confocal microscope to generate a spectral profile from a single microbial cell and the use of this approach to differentiate bacterial species. In general, profiles from different bacterial taxa shared similar peaks, but the relative abundances of these components varied between different species. ...
Ragusa S R - - 2004
Methods to measure protein, exopolysaccharide, viable cell number and INT reduction activity were tested on biofilm growing in a wastewater batch reactor. They were shown to be meaningful indicators of biofilm growth and correlated well with each other. Protein, exopolysaccharide, viable cells and INT reduction rates increased linearly over time. ...
Aledo J Carlos - - 2004
Tumours, and in general rapidly dividing cells, behave as dissipative devices that apparently waste glutamine, since its consumption seems to exceed both energetic and nitrogen needs. Although not conclusive, there is compelling evidence suggesting that the consumption of such large amounts of glutamine is essential to sustain high rates of ...
Araujo J C - - 2004
Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with domain and group specific probes that target intracellular 16S rRNA were used to investigate microbial composition of anaerobic biofilms developed on polypropylene (hydrophobic) and glass (hydrophilic) surfaces fitted inside a Modified Robbins Device (MRD). Crushed anaerobic granular sludge was used as inoculum for biofilm ...
Winkler Barry S - - 2004
Glucose has long been considered the substrate for energy metabolism in the retina. Recently, an alternative hypothesis (metabolic coupling) suggested that mitochondria in retinal neurons utilize preferentially the lactate produced specifically by Müller cells, the principal glial cell in the retina. These two views of retinal metabolism were examined using ...
Coinu Rita - - 2004
In this paper we report the behaviour of normal vascular smooth muscle cells and transformed breast cancer cells under normal versus simulated microgravity conditions by comparing cell proliferation, Glucose transport, Methionine uptake and protein synthesis. Modeled microgravity profoundly affects cell growth (especially in normal cells) and Glucose or Methionine metabolism ...
Muroyama Akiko - - 2004
Many metabolic factors affect the secretion of insulin from beta-cells and glucagon from alpha-cells of the islets of Langerhans to regulate blood glucose. Somatostatin from delta-cells, considered a local inhibitor of islet function, reduces insulin and glucagon secretion by activating somatostatin receptors in islet cells. Somatostatin secretion from delta-cells is ...
Kansara Maya - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Increased glucose uptake is characteristic of many tumours and transformed cells and, consequently, glucose deprivation would be expected to differentially affect cancer cell survival and growth. In this study we investigated whether specific oncogenes sensitise cells to apoptosis induced by glucose deprivation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Oncogene-transformed 32D cells were ...
Khoursandi Saeed - - 2004
We recently reported that a considerable amount of the sodium-d-glucose cotransporter SGLT1 present in Caco-2 cells, a model for human enterocytes, is located in intracellular compartments attached to microtubules. A similar distribution pattern was also observed in enterocytes in thin sections from human jejunum, highlighting the validity of the Caco-2 ...
Mannerström Marika - - 2004
Glucose is the main energy source of brain cells. The transport of glucose across the cell membrane is the first step of its utilization. Any modification in glucose uptake capacity may cause deleterious effects on neural cell functions. In the present study, 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (3-OMG) uptake and its modulation by selected ...
Ogata Takeki - - 2004
The present study was conducted in an attempt to treat streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycemia by transplanting beta cells derived from pancreatic ductal cells. Ductal cells obtained from neonatal rats were cultured in vitro. Approximately 70% of the cells were converted to insulin-secreting cells by incubating with betacellulin and activin A. Differentiated ...
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