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Results 301 - 350 of 1835
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Mortensen H D - - 2007
AIMS: To examine the relationship between the growth and pH gradients of Debaryomyces hansenii at a single-cell level. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using bioimaging techniques, the cell areas and early pH gradients (Delta pH(10)), i.e. the pH gradients determined 10 min after initiation of experiments, were determined for single cells of ...
Vo Thuy D - - 2007
Leigh's syndrome is a complex neurological disease with little known correlation between causes and symptoms. Mutations in pyruvate dehydrogenase and electron transport chain complexes have been associated with this syndrome, although the identification of affected enzymes is difficult, if not impossible, with non-invasive clinical tests. In this study, isotopomer analysis ...
Raybould Helen E - - 2007
In general, nutrient sensing mechanisms in the intestine are not well understood. Potential sensors include the terminals of extrinsic afferent nerves, enteric nerves, endocrine cells and other epithelial cells including enterocytes and immune cells. This short review will concentrate on the neural pathways that are activated by the presence of ...
Casamassimi Amelia - - 2007
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play a role in endogenous neovascularization of ischaemic tissues. Isolation and characterization of EPCs from circulating mononuclear cells are important for developing targeted cellular therapies and reproducibility of data are the major scientific goals. Here we compared two currently employed isolation methods, i.e. from total peripheral ...
Hinterkörner Georg - - 2007
One of the major problems in process performance of mammalian cell cultures is the production of lactic acid. Cell specific glucose uptake rates usually correlate to glucose concentration and approximately 80% of the metabolised glucose is converted into lactic acid. As the mitochondrial membrane potential was shown to correlate to ...
Harwood S M - - 2007
Cells exposed to high ambient glucose concentrations are subject to increases in intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)). We therefore considered it likely that the calcium-dependent cysteine protease calpain would play a role in the development of high glucose-induced cell injury. After 3 and 24 h, high glucose concentrations (25 mM D-glucose) produced ...
Yeh, Yi-Chun
Growth stimulating effects of LYCH leaf hydrolysates on P. acidilactici IMT101 cells were observed when MRS broth was supplemented with 20% (v/v) H1+H2, the mixture of hydrolysates prepared by a tea-making process. Cells grown on MRS containing H1+H2 showed a shortened lag phase while yielding a cell concentration (X sub ...
Falkinham Joseph O JO - - 2007
Cells of Mycobacterium avium strain A5 adhered to plasticized polyvinyl chloride catheter tubing and grew at low nutrient concentration, consistent with reports of catheter-associated M. avium infection. Starting with initial cell densities of 1-2x10(6) c.f.u. ml-1, biofilms of approximately 350 c.f.u. cm-2 formed within 24 h at room temperature. Growth ...
Ferreira T B - - 2007
Recombinant adenoviral vectors (AdV) have proven to be highly efficient for the delivery and expression of foreign genes in a broad spectrum of cell types and species both for vaccination and gene therapy in a number of specific applications. In this study, the effect of ammonia production on intracellular pH ...
Merivee Enno - - 2007
By single sensillum tip recording technique, in addition to the salt and pH cells found in antennal taste sensilla of some ground beetles earlier, the third chemosensory cell of four innervating these large sensilla was electrophysiologically identified as a sugar cell in the ground beetle Pterostichus aethiops. This cell generated ...
Ronny Purwadi
The cultivation of toxic lignocellulosic hydrolyzates has become a challengingresearch topic in recent decades. Although several cultivation methods have been proposed,numerous questions have arisen regarding their industrial applications. The current workdeals with a solution to this problem which has a good potential application on anindustrial scale. A toxic dilute-acid hydrolyzate ...
Neilands, Jessica
In nature, bacteria are organized in surface-associated biofilm communities. Dental plaque is one of the most studied biofilms and harbours many different species including the star of this thesis Streptococcus mutans. S. mutans has been implicated in the aetiology of caries and has been studied extensively but most research has ...
Khupova, Maria
An effect of permeabilisation and lyophilisation of the yeast cells Hansenula polymorpha on their electrochemical behaviour in the presence of mediators, substrates (formaldehyde, glucose, methanol, ethanol), and cofactors (NAD(+), NADP(+), NADH, NADPH, glutathione) has been studied. Two amperometric techniques differing in the cell immobilisation methods were applied. The cells of ...
Lu Hong-Fang - - 2007
We report the encapsulation of MIN6 cells, a pancreatic beta-cell line, using thermally induced gelable materials. This strategy uses aqueous solvent and mild temperatures during encapsulation, thereby minimizing adverse effects on cell function and viability. Using a 2:1 mixture of PNIPAAm-PEG-PNIPAAm tri-block copolymer and PNIPAAm homopolymer that exhibit reversible sol-to-gel ...
Sanz Pascual - - 2007
Glucose is the principal carbon and energy source for a wide variety of cells, ranging from unicellular microorganisms to higher eukaryotic cells. It is taken up by these cells and metabolized to obtain the energy necessary for cell viability. In addition, the presence of this sugar is able to adjust ...
Yamada Katsuya - - 2007
This protocol details a method for monitoring glucose uptake into single, living mammalian cells using a fluorescent D-glucose derivative, 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-NBDG), as a tracer. The specifically designed chamber and superfusion system for evaluating 2-NBDG uptake into cells in real time can be combined with other fluorescent methods such as Ca2+ ...
Farah Ibrahim O - - 2007
Tumor growth and abnormal cell survival were shown to be associated with a number of cellular metabolic abnormalities revealed by impaired oral glucose tolerance, depressed lipoprotein lipase activity leading to hypertriglyceridemia, and changes in amino acid profile as evidenced by increased plasma free tryptophan levels in patients with breast, lung, ...
Kino-oka Masahiro - - 2007
A culture surface was designed to regulate morphology of rabbit chondrocytes by changing the ratio of D- and L-glucose isomers displayed on a glass plate. With increasing ratio of d-glucose displayed on the surfaces, the efficiency of cell attachment improved, meaning that the attachment exclusively occurred via mediation of an ...
Singh Vijender - - 2007
The enzyme UDP-galactose-4-epimerase (GAL10) catalyzes a key step in galactose metabolism converting UDP-galactose to UDP-glucose which then can get metabolized through glycolysis and TCA cycle thus allowing the cell to use galactose as a carbon and energy source. As in many fungi, a functional homolog of GAL10 exists in Candida ...
Santiago A R - - 2007
Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of blindness among adults in the western countries. It has been reported that neurodegeneration may occur in diabetic retinas, but the mechanisms underlying retinal cell death are poorly understood. We found that high glucose increased the number of cells with condensed nuclei and the ...
Navarro-Tableros Victor - - 2007
Insulin secretion in mature beta-cells increases vigorously when extracellular glucose concentration rises. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion depends on Ca(2+) influx through voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. During fetal development, this structured response is not well established, and it is after birth that beta-cells acquire glucose sensitivity and a robust secretion. We compared some ...
Heimsath Ernest G EG - - 2006
Human retinal pigmented epithelial cells (ARPE-19) grown in euglycemic media (5.5 mM) had lower cell number, significantly different cell morphology, and lower levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the culture media than those grown in hyperglycemic media (18 mM) customarily used for culturing ARPE-19 cells. Although it has ...
Barbara Kellie E - - 2007
Transcriptomic reprogramming is critical to the coordination between growth and cell cycle progression in response to changing extracellular conditions. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the transcription factor Gcr1 contributes to this coordination by supporting maximum expression of G1 cyclins in addition to regulating both glucose-induced and glucose-repressed genes. We report here the ...
Davies Sarah L - - 2007
Pancreatic beta-cells increase in volume when exposed to elevated concentrations of extracellular glucose. This study has examined the effects of glucose on the volumes of pancreatic alpha-cells, which like beta-cells are regulated by glucose, and intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells which are unresponsive to glucose. Cell volume changes were monitored by ...
Liu Der-Zen - - 2007
A novel glucose-conjugated paclitaxel 5 was synthesized using succinic acid as linker between 2'-paclitaxel and methyl 2'-glucopyranose. 5 has not only improved the pharmaceutical properties of paclitaxel, such as solubility and stability, but also enhanced the specific target delivery to MCF-7 cells without the cytotoxicity against normal cells. Therefore, the ...
Ben-David Makhluf Shirly - - 2006
The spontaneous loading of magnetite nanoparticles into sperm cell was carried out by mixing an aqueous colloidal solution of Fe3O4-PVA with sperm cells (10(8) cells/ml) for 2 h at 37 degrees C suspended in glucose-free modified Tyrode solution. The penetration of the magnetite nanoparticles into the sperm cells was monitored ...
Kim Sung Hyun - - 2007
Lactate, one of the major waste products in mammalian cell culture, can inhibit cell growth and affect cellular metabolism at high concentrations. To reduce lactate formation, lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDH-A), an enzyme catalyzing the conversion of glucose-derived pyruvate to lactate, was down-regulated by an expression vector of small interfering RNAs (siRNA) ...
Anderson K M - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Hypoxic cancer cells located beyond the diffusion path of sufficient oxygen are considered a nidus of therapeutic failure. Due to the dependence of many malignantly transformed cells on glycolysis for metabolic energy, inhibiting this and other sources of energy should seriously reduce cell viability and proliferation, additively or even ...
Alonso Cecilia - - 2006
Bacterial assemblages in coastal pelagic environments are exposed to pronounced temporal and spatial fluctuations in the availability of monomeric substrates. Little is known about the response of particular bacterial groups to such variability. We studied glucose incorporation at various concentrations (0.1-100 nM) by bacteria related to Roseobacter, SAR11, Gammaproteobacteria and ...
Brennan Lorraine - - 2006
Prolonged exposure of pancreatic beta cells to the sulfonylureas glibencamide and tolbutamide induces subsequent desensitization to the actions of these drugs. The precise mechanisms underlying this desensitization remain unknown, prompting the present study, which investigated the impact of prolonged sulfonylurea exposure on glucose and energy metabolism using clonal pancreatic BRIN-BD11 ...
Blankenship Jill R JR Department of Microbiology, Hammer Health Sciences Center, Room 906, 701 W 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, - - 2006
Biofilms are differentiated masses of microbes that form on surfaces and are surrounded by an extracellular matrix. Fungal biofilms, especially those of the pathogen Candida albicans, are a cause of infections associated with medical devices. Such infections are particularly serious because biofilm cells are relatively resistant to many common antifungal ...
Yu Ming-An - - 2007
Ethyl(R)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate ((R)-CHBE) are obtained by cetyltrimetylammonium bromide (CTAB) permeabilized fresh brewer's yeast whole cells bioconversion of ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate (COBE ) in the presence of allyl bromide. The results showed that the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) in CTAB permeabilized brewer's yeast cells increased 525 and 7.9-fold, ...
Alem Mohammed A S - - 2006
Tyrosol and farnesol are quorum-sensing molecules produced by Candida albicans which accelerate and block, respectively, the morphological transition from yeasts to hyphae. In this study, we have investigated the secretion of tyrosol by C. albicans and explored its likely role in biofilm development. Both planktonic (suspended) cells and biofilms of ...
Kuravi Kasinath - - 2006
Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains three dynamin-related-proteins, Vps1p, Dnm1p and Mgm1p. Previous data from glucose-grown VPS1 and DNM1 null mutants suggested that Vps1p, but not Dnm1p, plays a role in regulating peroxisome abundance. Here we show that deletion of DNM1 also results in reduction of peroxisome numbers. This was not observed in ...
Roelofs Brian - - 2006
Glucose is a very important energy source for a wide variety of cells, and the ability of cells to respond to changes in glucose availability or other cell stresses is of critical importance. Many mammalian cells respond to acute stress by increasing the V(max) of transport through GLUT1; the most ...
Carrick, Hunter J.
Nutrient enrichment and its effect on benthic algal growth, community composition, and average cell size was assessed across two sites of differing pH within a single habitat. Nutrients were added using in situ substrata, which released either N, P, or no additional nutrients (controls) at each site for 21 days. ...
Poulsen Allan K - - 2007
The observation of oscillations in the concentrations of NADH and other intermediates in glycolysis in dense yeast cell suspensions is generally believed to be the result of synchronization of such oscillations between individual cells. The synchrony is believed to be a property of cell density and the question is: does ...
Trummer Evelyn - - 2006
Regulation of cell growth and protein expression potentially results in a sustainable enhancement of the volumetric productivity in a fermentation process. Following a biphasic cultivation strategy the process initially passes through a cell proliferation phase to generate a sufficiently high viable cell mass. In the subsequent production phase cells are ...
Champattanachai Voraratt - - 2007
Increased levels of protein O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) have been shown to increase cell survival following stress. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine whether in isolated neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) an increase in protein O-GlcNAcylation resulted in improved survival and viability following ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). NRVMs were exposed ...
Mai-Prochnow Anne - - 2006
In the ubiquitous marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas tunicata, subpopulations of cells are killed by the production of an autocidal protein, AlpP, during biofilm development. Our data demonstrate an involvement of this process in two parameters, dispersal and phenotypic diversification, which are of importance for the ecology of this organism and for ...
Vogt Rhonda R - - 2006
Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells secrete vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a cytokine known to promote angiogenesis. Results from RNase protection assays (RPAs) show that RPE from non-diabetic human donors and from adult retinal pigment epithelium-19 (ARPE-19) cells expressed significant bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) message. In addition, ARPE-19 cells cultured ...
Manning Fox Jocelyn E - - 2006
In contrast to mouse, rat islet beta-cell membrane potential is reported not to oscillate in response to elevated glucose despite demonstrated oscillations in calcium and insulin secretion. We aim to clarify the electrical activity of rat islet beta-cells and characterize and compare the electrical activity of both alpha- and beta-cells ...
Stadlbauer V - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Late diabetic complications cannot be prevented totally by current antidiabetic strategies. Therefore, new therapeutic concepts of insulin replacement such as pancreas transplantation are evolving. Due to the shortage of human donor organs, transplantation of microencapsulated xenogeneic pancreatic islet cells has attracted considerable attention. Sodium cellulose sulfate/poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (NaCS/PDADMAC) is ...
Rivinoja Antti - - 2006
Altered glycosylation has turned out to be a universal feature of cancer cells, and in many cases, to correlate with altered expression or localization of relevant glycosyltransferases. However, no such correlation exists between observed enzymatic changes and the expression of the oncofetal Thomsen-Friedenreich (T)-antigen, a core 1 (Gal-beta1 --> 3-GalNAc-ser/thr) ...
Zhang Xulang - - 2006
In this study, we investigated the effect of the microenvironment provided by alginate-poly-L-lysine-alginate (APA) microcapsule with liquefied or gelled core on the proliferation, viability, and metabolism of human cells, including anchorage-dependent MCF-7 breast cancer cells and primary fibroblasts, and anchorage-independent K-562 leukemia cells; cells in conventional culture were used as ...
Ladan Rashidi, Ghasemali Mohebali, ...
RIPI-S81 is a new dibenzothiophene (DBT)-desulfurizing bacterium, which was isolated by Research Institute of Petroleum Industry in Iran. Resting cells and growing cells of RIPI-S81 was able to convert alkylated dibenzothiophenes (Cx-DBTs) to hydroxybiphenyls such that they were almost stoichiometrically accumulated as the dead-end metabolites of Cx-DBTs desulfurization in the ...
Cui Yan - - 2006
Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are mitochondrial transporters present in the inner membrane of mitochondria. They belong to the family of anion mitochondrial carriers. UCPs could act as proton carriers activated by metabolites and create a shunt between complexes of the respiratory chain and ATP synthase. The increased leakiness of the mitochondrial ...
Jensen Mette V - - 2006
We have previously reported that glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) is tightly correlated with pyruvate carboxylase (PC)-catalyzed anaplerotic flux into the tricarboxylic acid cycle and stimulation of pyruvate cycling activity. To further evaluate the role of PC in beta-cell function, we constructed a recombinant adenovirus containing a small interfering RNA (siRNA) ...
Basu Aditya - - 2006
Pseudomonas putida CSV86 utilizes glucose, naphthalene, methylnaphthalene, benzyl alcohol and benzoate as the sole source of carbon and energy. Compared with glucose, cells grew faster on aromatic compounds as well as on organic acids. The organism failed to grow on gluconate, 2-ketogluconate, fructose and mannitol. Whole-cell oxygen uptake, enzyme activity ...
Steed Keesha A - - 2006
Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare were grown in suspension and in biofilms, and their susceptibilities to chlorine were measured. M. avium and M. intracellulare readily adhered within 2 h, and numbers increased 10-fold in 30 days at room temperature in biofilms on both polystyrene flasks and glass beads. The chlorine ...
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