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Seo Jeong Yeon - - 2009
Previously we showed that the underlying mechanism of oxidative stress-induced apoptosis is nuclear loss of DNA repair protein Ku70 and Ku80, which are involved in the DNA repair process of double-strand breaks. Lycopene acts as an antioxidant and a singlet oxygen quencher. In the present study, we aim to investigate ...
Riera María F - - 2009
Sertoli cells provide the physical support and the necessary environment for germ cell development. Among the products secreted by Sertoli cells, lactate, the preferred energy substrate for spermatocytes and spermatids, is present. Considering the essential role of lactate on germ cell metabolism, it is supposed that Sertoli cells must ensure ...
Rackova Lucia - - 2009
Oxidative stress has been widely considered as a key player in the adverse effects of hyperglycaemia to various tissues, including neuronal cells. This study examined the participation of oxidative stress in injurious effects of high glucose on HT22 cells along with the activity of proteasome, a proteolytic system responsible for ...
Hubenova Yolina - - 2010
Various prokaryote species have been widely studied for microbial fuel cell (MFC) application. However, the information about yeast utilization into biofuel cells is still scanty. The aim of this investigation is to verify if Candida melibiosica 2491, a yeast strain, possessing high phytase activity, could be applied as a biocatalyst ...
van den Beucken Twan - - 2009
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Carbonic anhydrase (CA) 9 expression is induced under hypoxic conditions. Recently we discovered that hypoxia-induced CA9 expression requires an intact unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of reduced CA9 expression in UPR-impaired tumor cells on pH regulation and ...
Koball Sebastian - - 2009
The purposes of this study were to test the human promyelocytic cell line HL60 for its usability as a new cell model for the immune barrier of the peritoneum, and to investigate the impact of different peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions in the model. HL60 cells were stimulated by retinoic acid ...
Wu Liyu L Department of Cell and Tissue Biology, Programs in Cell Biology and Developmental Biology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, - - 2009
In multicellular organisms, cell size is tightly controlled by nutrients and growth factors. Increasing ambient glucose induces enhanced protein synthesis and cell size. Continued exposure of cells to high glucose in vivo, as apparent under pathological conditions, results in cell hypertrophy and tissue damage. We demonstrate that activation of TGF-beta ...
Fath Melissa A MA Free Radical and Radiation Biology Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. - - 2009
Increasing evidence suggests that cancer cells (relative to normal cells) have altered mitochondrial electron transport chains (ETC) that are more likely to form reactive oxygen species (ROS; i.e., O(2)(*-) and H(2)O(2)) resulting in a condition of chronic metabolic oxidative stress, that maybe compensated for by increasing glucose and hydroperoxide metabolism. ...
Hernlund Emma - - 2009
We have here examined chemopotentiating effects of glycolysis inhibitor 2-deoxy-d-glucose (DG) in two epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) cell lines and 17 freshly isolated ascitic EOC cell samples, and we identify low expression of the beta-F1-ATPase involved in mitochondrial ATP production as a candidate marker for sensitivity to this strategy. Although ...
Spoden Gilles A - - 2009
The glycolytic key regulator pyruvate kinase M2 (M2-PK or PKM2) can switch between a highly active tetrameric and an inactive dimeric form. The transition between the two conformations regulates the glycolytic flux in tumor cells. We developed specific M2-PK-binding peptide aptamers which inhibit M2-PK, but not the 96% homologous M1-PK ...
Li Guang-Yu - - 2009
The energy reduction-induced death of retinal ganglion cells is associated with many ophthalmic diseases. The present study was designed to investigate the apoptosis pathway of retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5) following acute ATP reduction by using glucose deprivation (GD). RGC-5 cells were cultured in glucose-free or normal DMEM for 3 days. ...
Kumar Sravanth Hindupur - - 2009
As tumors grow larger, they often experience an insufficient supply of oxygen and nutrients. Hence, cancer cells must develop mechanisms to overcome these stresses. Using an in vitro transformation model where the presence of the simian virus 40 (SV40) small T (ST) antigen has been shown to be critical for ...
Pfannkuche H - - 2009
The gastrointestinal epithelium is in close contact with the various components of the chymus, including nutrients, bacteria and toxins. The epithelial barrier has to decide which components are effectively absorbed and which components are extruded. In the small intestine, a nutrient like glucose is mainly absorbed by the sodium linked ...
Tuncagil Sevinc - - 2009
Two types of bacterial biosensor were constructed by immobilization of Gluconobacter oxydans and Pseudomonas fluorescens cells on graphite electrodes modified with the conducting polymer; poly(1-(4-nitrophenyl)-2,5-di(2-thienyl)-1 H-pyrrole) [SNS(NO(2))]. The measurement was based on the respiratory activity of cells estimated by the oxygen consumption at -0.7 V due to the metabolic activity ...
Khan Asiya - - 2009
Production of mannitol from glycerol by resting cells of Candida magnoliae under aerobic condition was investigated. The resting cells were suspended in aqueous solution of glycerol in Erlenmeyer flasks and incubated on rotary shaker. The samples were analyzed by ion exclusion-HPLC equipped with refractive index and UV detector. The resting ...
Owens Carmen R - - 2009
Enantiopure epoxides are valuable intermediates in the synthesis of optically pure biologically active fine chemicals (e.g., pharmaceuticals) that are often difficult to produce by chemical approaches. An attractive alternative is biological synthesis by microorganisms expressing stereoselective enzymes. In this study, we investigated the ability of ethene-grown Nocardioides sp. strain JS614 ...
Lu Gang G Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, 231 Albert Sabin Way, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0529, - - 2009
We report that elevated connexin-43 (Cx-43) in stem cells preconditioned with insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is cytoprotective and reprograms the cells for cardiomyogenic differentiation. Sca-1+ cells were preconditioned with 100 nmol/L IGF-1 for 30 minutes followed by 8 hours of oxygen glucose deprivation to assess the cytoprotective effects of preconditioning. ...
Yang Kuo-Ching - - 2009
Phloretin (Ph), which can be obtained from apples, apple juice, and cider, is a known inhibitor of the type II glucose transporter (GLUT2). In this study, real-time PCR analysis of laser-capture microdissected (LCM) human hepatoma cells showed elevated expression (>5-fold) of GLUT2 mRNA in comparison with nonmalignant hepatocytes. In vitro ...
Shi Qingli Q Weill Cornell Medical College/Burke Medical Research Institute, White Plains, New York 10605, - - 2009
Diminished energy metabolism and reduced activity of brain alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) occur in a number of neurodegenerative diseases. The relation between diminished KGDHC activity and altered energy metabolism is unknown. The present study tested whether a reduction in the KGDHC activity would alter cellular metabolism by comparing metabolism of ...
Kominsky Douglas J - - 2009
The development of imatinib resistance has become a significant therapeutic problem in which the etiology seems to be multifactorial and poorly understood. As of today, clinical criteria to predict the development of imatinib resistance in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), other than rebound of the myeloproliferation, are under development. However, there ...
Wu Tiejun - - 2009
The modification of proteins with O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is increasingly recognized as an important posttranslational modification that modulates cellular function. Recent studies suggested that augmentation of O-GlcNAc levels increase cell survival following stress. Salidroside, one of the active components of Rhodiola rosea, shows potent anti-hypoxia property. In the present study, ...
Choi Sun-Sil - - 2009
AIMS: The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma plays an important role in adipocyte differentiation. Its ligands, including thiazolidinediones, improve insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes. We investigate the effect of magnolol, an ingredient of Magnolia officinalis on adipogenesis and glucose uptake using 3T3-L1 cells. MAIN METHODS: The effect ...
Douglas Erik S - - 2009
A microdevice is developed for DNA-barcode directed capture of single cells on an array of pH-sensitive microelectrodes for metabolic analysis. Cells are modified with membrane-bound single-stranded DNA, and specific single-cell capture is directed by the complementary strand bound in the sensor area of the iridium oxide pH microelectrodes within a ...
Kieffer, Timothy James
This thesis reports methodology that was developed to isolate and enrich intestinal endocrine cell preparations by centrifugal elutriation and short-term culture to enable the study of the regulation of IRGIP secretion at the cellular level. Adherent canine epithelial cell cultures contained ~10% IRGIP cells. The release of IRGIP from these ...
Gore Jeff J Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, - - 2009
The origin of cooperation is a central challenge to our understanding of evolution. The fact that microbial interactions can be manipulated in ways that animal interactions cannot has led to a growing interest in microbial models of cooperation and competition. For the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to grow on sucrose, ...
Choi Yongki - - 2009
The ultra-small silicon nanoparticle was shown to be an electrocatalyst for the electrooxidation of glucose. The oxidation appeared to be a first order reaction which involves the transfer of 1 electron. The oxidation potential showed a low onset of -0.4V vs. Ag/AgCl (-0.62 V vs. RHE). The particle was used ...
Zhang Xiaodong - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Most cancer cells exhibit increased anaerobic glycolysis and use this metabolic pathway for the generation of ATP as a main source of energy. This impaired metabolism of glucose, leading to the secretion of lactic acid even in the presence of oxygen, is named the Warburg effect. Because cancer cells ...
Li Bing-xue - - 2009
A black yeast strain "NG" was isolated from strawberry fruit and identified as Aureobasidium pullulans. Strain NG displayed yeast-like cell (YL), swollen cell (SC), septate swollen cell (SSC), meristematic structure (MS), and chlamydospore (CH) morphologies. pH was the key factor regulating cell morphogenesis of strain NG. Differentiation of YL controlled ...
Ji Xiao-Jun - - 2009
Batch fermentative production of 2,3-butanediol by Klebsiella oxytoca was investigated using various oxygen supply methods though varying agitation speed. Based on the analysis of three kinetic parameters including specific cell growth rate (micro), specific glucose consumption rate (q(s)) and specific 2,3-butanediol formation rate (q(p)), a two-stage agitation speed control strategy, ...
Kostesha Natalie - - 2009
This work describes a mediated amperometric method for simultaneous real-time probing of the NAD(P)H availability in two different phenotypes, fermentative and respiratory, of the phosphoglucose isomerase deletion mutant strain of S. cerevisiae, EBY44 [ENY.WA-1A pgi1-1D::URA3], and its parental strain, ENY.WA-1A. The developed method is based on multichannel detection using microelectrode ...
Ahn Sug-Joon - - 2009
Oxygen has a potent influence on the expression of genes and the activity of physiological and biochemical pathways in bacteria. We have found that oxygen significantly altered virulence-related phenotypic properties of Streptococcus mutans, the primary etiological agent of human dental caries. Transport of glucose, fructose, or mannose by the sugar:phosphotransferase ...
Costes Safia - - 2009
In type 2 diabetes, chronic hyperglycemia is detrimental to beta-cells, causing apoptosis and impaired insulin secretion. The transcription factor cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) is crucial for beta-cell survival and function. We investigated whether prolonged exposure of beta-cells to high glucose affects the functional integrity of CREB. INS-1E cells and rat ...
Aykin-Burns Nùkhet N Free Radical and Radiation Biology Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, - - 2009
Cancer cells, relative to normal cells, demonstrate increased sensitivity to glucose-deprivation-induced cytotoxicity. To determine whether oxidative stress mediated by O(2)(*-) and hydroperoxides contributed to the differential susceptibility of human epithelial cancer cells to glucose deprivation, the oxidation of DHE (dihydroethidine; for O(2)(*-)) and CDCFH(2) [5- (and 6-)carboxy-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate; for hydroperoxides] ...
Gao Ping P Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA. - - 2009
Altered glucose metabolism in cancer cells is termed the Warburg effect, which describes the propensity of most cancer cells to take up glucose avidly and convert it primarily to lactate, despite available oxygen. Notwithstanding the renewed interest in the Warburg effect, cancer cells also depend on continued mitochondrial function for ...
Zhu Aiping - - 2009
Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in the regulatory role of cell metabolism in tumor biology and immunology. To assess changes in metabolite levels in cell populations and tissues, especially from small clinical samples, highly sensitive assays are required. Based on the reaction of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) and the ...
Su Yuhua - - 2009
In this work, the anion exchange resin (AER) was modified with a layer of glucose oxidase (GOD) and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA), respectively, via layer-by-layer electrostatic self-assembling strategy. The PDDA and GOD modified AER (PDDA/GOD/AER) was then packed into a home-made amperometric cell for flow injection analysis (FIA) of glucose. This ...
Singh G - - 2009
Optimum time points for oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and re-oxygenation have been identified to suggest the suitability of PC-12 cells as rapid and sensitive in vitro model of cerebral stroke. Further, the precise role of glucose as one of the limiting factors was ascertained. PC-12 cells were subjected to receive OGD ...
Sampaio Fábio Coelho - - 2009
To develop a new enzymatic xylose-to-xylitol conversion, deeper knowledge on the regulation of xylose reductase (XR) is needed. To this purpose, a new strain of Debaryomyces hansenii (UFV-170), which proved a promising xylitol producer, was cultivated in semi-synthetic media containing different carbon sources, specifically three aldo-hexoses (D-glucose, D-galactose and D-mannose), ...
Beauvais Anne - - 2009
Like bacteria, fungi growing in biofilms are often embedded in a so-called extracellular matrix (ECM), a complex and species-specific mixture of compounds secreted by cells in the biofilm. The precise physiological role of this ECM and its importance for the stress and drug resistance that is so characteristic of biofilms ...
Hara Kiyotaka Y - - 2009
"Permeable Cell Assay" is an efficient method to measure cellular activity of ATP synthesis. Although ATP is a major energy source for biological reactions, it has been difficult to measure cellular ATP synthetic activity quantitatively. In this assay, bioluminescence from the luciferin-luciferase reaction is used for the quantitative measurement. Under ...
Hoogenkamp M A - - 2009
The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of vanadium chloroperoxidase (VCPO) reaction products on planktonic and biofilm cells of Streptococcus mutans C180-2. Planktonic and biofilm cells were incubated in a buffered reaction mixture containing VCPO, halide (either chloride or bromide) and hydrogen peroxide, and the killing ...
Takemura Genzou - - 2009
We induced autophagy in isolated adult rat ventricular cardiomyocytes by incubating them in glucose-free medium supplemented with mannitol for up to 4 days. The upregulation of LC3 and vacuoles containing partially degraded subcellular organelles were readily apparent in glucose-starved cells. Most dead cells in both groups showed features of necrosis, ...
Sakagami Hiroshi - - 2009
Amino acid utilization of mouse macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells was investigated. During the logarithmic growth stage, RAW264.7 cells grew very fast, with an approximate doubling time of 11 hours, in DMEM supplemented with 10% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum. RAW264.7 cells consumed glutamine at the fastest rate, followed by serine, leucine, isoleucine, ...
Gadau Sergio - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: Diabetic complications can often affect the central nervous system since the chronic exposure to hyperglycemia can result in the production of high concentration of reactive oxygen species with subsequent damage of several cell structures such as the cytoskeleton. In order to antagonize the oxidative status many substances have been ...
Skinner Robert - - 2009
PURPOSE: Recent studies have shown that brain tumor cells, unlike normal brain cells, are largely dependent upon glucose for energy and are not able to use ketone bodies as a primary energy source. These findings are thought to be because of decreased expression of succinyl-coenzyme A:3-oxoacid coenzyme A transferase (SCOT), ...
Nieuwoudt Martin - - 2009
In vitro hepatocyte bioreactor functionality depends particularly on maintaining appropriate oxygen levels and exposure to nonparenchymal cells. An attractive solution without immunological consequences to the patient is incorporating a perfluorocarbon oxygen carrier in the circulating medium and co-culturing hepatocytes with stellate cells. Since bioreactors are normally sealed sterile units, demonstrating ...
Scaglia Natalia - - 2009
Cancer cells activate the biosynthesis of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in order to sustain an increasing demand for phospholipids with appropriate acyl composition during cell replication. We have previously shown that a stable knockdown of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), the main Delta9-desaturase that converts SFA ...
Payyavula Raja S - - 2009
Phenylpropanoid-derived phenolic glycosides (PGs) and condensed tannins (CTs) comprise large, multi-purpose non-structural carbon sinks in Populus. A negative correlation between PG and CT concentrations has been observed in several studies. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the relationship is not known. Populus cell cultures produce CTs but not PGs under normal ...
Affourtit Charles C MRC Dunn Human Nutrition Unit, Cambridge, United - - 2009
Pancreatic beta cells secrete insulin in response to raised blood glucose levels. This glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) depends on mitochondrial function and is regulated by the efficiency with which oxidative metabolism is coupled to ATP synthesis. Uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) affects this coupling efficiency and is therefore a plausible pathological and ...
Young Christian D CD Department of Pathology, Mailstop 8104, University of Colorado Denver, University of Colorado School of Medicine, P,O, Box 6511, Anshutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, USA. - - 2009
The high rate of glucose utilization by cancer cells has been well characterized. Recent data suggest that when normal mammary epithelial cells are cultured under nonadherent conditions, glucose consumption decreases, ATP levels fall, and concentrations of reactive oxygen species rise. The rise in reactive oxygen species causes death of nonadherent ...
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