Search Results
Results 101 - 150 of 1834
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Coulon Jo?l - - 2010
Highly fluorescent CdTe quantum dots (QDs) stabilized by thioglycolic acid (TGA) were prepared by an aqueous solution approach and used as fluorescent labels in detecting yeast cells. Sugars (mannose, galactose or glucose) were adsorbed on CdTe@TGA QDs and the interaction of these nanoparticles with yeast cells was studied by fluorescence ...
Karaca Melis - - 2010
The concept of functional heterogeneity among β-cells proposes that each cell differs in its sensitivity to glucose and is recruited in a glucose-dependent manner into both biosynthetic and secretory active states in order to adapt insulin secretion to the metabolic environment. Therefore, characterization of β-cell populations with different metabolic sensitivities ...
van Eunen K - - 2010
In this study, the authors investigated how the glycolytic flux was regulated in time upon nitrogen starvation of cells with different growth histories. We have compared cells grown in glucose-limited chemostat cultures under respiratory conditions (low dilution rate of 0.1/h) to cells grown under respirofermentative conditions (high dilution rate of ...
Ducommun Rapha?l - - 2010
A Janus head-like bi-cathodic microbial fuel cell was constructed to monitor the electron transfer from Saccharomyces cerevisiae to a woven carbon anode. The experiments were conducted during an ethanol cultivation of 170 g/l glucose in the presence and absence of yeast-peptone medium. First, using a basic fuel-cell type activity sensor, ...
Kumar Yogesh - - 2010
In tumour cells, the tetramer/dimer ratio of the pyruvate kinase isoenzyme type M2 (M2-PK) determines whether glucose carbons are degraded to lactate with production of energy (tetrameric form) or are channelled into synthetic processes (dimeric form). The influence of different tumour microenvironment conditions on the tetramer/dimer ratio of M2-PK and ...
Bisicchia Paola - - 2010
In Bacillus subtilis, the WalRK (YycFG) two-component system controls peptidoglycan metabolism in exponentially growing cells while PhoPR controls the response to phosphate limitation. Here we examine the roles of WalRK and PhoPR in peptidoglycan metabolism in phosphate-limited cells. We show that B. subtilis cells remain viable in a phosphate-limited state ...
Lee G-H - - 2010
The anti-apoptotic protein, BAX inhibitor-1 (BI-1), has a role in cancer/tumor progression. BI-1-overexpressing HT1080 and B16F10 cells produced higher lung weights and tumor volumes after injection into the tail veins of mice. Transfection of BI-1 siRNA into cells before injection blocked lung metastasis. in vitro, the overexpression of BI-1 increased ...
Keshari Kayvan R KR Department of Radiology, University of California San Francisco, SanFrancisco, California, - - 2010
The purpose of this study was to combine a three-dimensional NMR-compatible bioreactor with hyperpolarized (13)C NMR spectroscopy in order to probe cellular metabolism in real time. JM1 (immortalized rat hepatoma) cells were cultured in a three-dimensional NMR-compatible fluidized bioreactor. (31)P spectra were acquired before and after each injection of hyperpolarized ...
Parker Helen E - - 2010
The incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are released from enteroendocrine cells in the intestinal epithelium in response to nutrient ingestion. The actions of GLP-1 and GIP - not only on local gut physiology but also on glucose homeostasis, appetite control and fat metabolism - ...
Fiume Luigi - - 2010
by reducing the number of ATP molecules produced via aerobic glycolysis, the inhibition of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) should hinder the growth of neoplastic cells without damaging the normal cells which do not rely on this metabolic pathway for their energetic needs. Here, we studied the effect of oxamic and tartronic ...
Cheung Linda - - 2010
c-Myc (Myc) is a mediator of glucotoxicity but could also independently compromise β-cell survival and function. We have shown that after Myc activation in adult β-cells in vivo, apoptosis is preceded by hyperglycemia, suggesting glucotoxicity might contribute to Myc-induced apoptosis. To address this question conditional Myc was activated in β-cells ...
Sharma Ramaswamy - - 2010
It is not known why the ameloblasts responsible for dental enamel formation are uniquely sensitive to fluoride (F(-)). Herein, we present a novel theory with supporting data to show that the low pH environment of maturating stage ameloblasts enhances their sensitivity to a given dose of F(-). Enamel formation is ...
Upreti M - - 2010
Pegylated Interferon-α2b (pIFN-α) is an integral part of the drug regimen currently employed against melanoma. Interferon Regulatory Factor-1 (IRF-1) plays an important role in the transcriptional regulation of the IFN response, cell cycle and apoptosis. We have studied pIFN-α induced responses when combined with the chemotherapy agent, vinblastine in tumor ...
Bittner Carla X - - 2010
The glycolytic rate is sensitive to physiological activity, hormones, stress, aging, and malignant transformation. Standard techniques to measure the glycolytic rate are based on radioactive isotopes, are not able to resolve single cells and have poor temporal resolution, limitations that hamper the study of energy metabolism in the brain and ...
Ezeji Thaddeus - - 2010
Anaerobic bacteria such as the solventogenic clostridia can ferment a wide range of carbon sources (e.g., glucose, galactose, cellobiose, mannose, xylose, and arabinose) to produce carboxylic acids (acetic and butyric) and solvents such as acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE). The fermentation process typically proceeds in two phases (acidogenic and solventogenic) ...
Li Yuanyuan - - 2010
Cancer cells metabolize glucose at elevated rates and have a higher sensitivity to glucose reduction. However, the precise molecular mechanisms leading to different responses to glucose restriction between normal and cancer cells are not fully understood. We analyzed normal WI-38 and immortalized WI-38/S fetal lung fibroblasts and found that glucose ...
Fan Yongjun - - 2010
The high glucose consumption of tumor cells even in an oxygen-rich environment, referred to as the Warburg effect, has been noted as a nearly universal biochemical characteristic of cancer cells. Targeting the glycolysis pathway has been explored as an anti-cancer therapeutic strategy to eradicate cancer based on this fundamental biochemical ...
Vander Heiden Matthew G MG Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115, United - - 2010
A common feature of tumors arising from diverse tissue types is a reliance on aerobic glycolysis for glucose metabolism. This metabolic difference between cancer cells and normal cells could be exploited for therapeutic benefit in patients. Cancer cells universally express the M2 isoform of the glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase (PKM2), ...
Han Junkyu - - 2009
Capsaicin is the major pungent component in hot chili pepper. It is known that capsaicin induces the increase of energy metabolism through adrenaline activation. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism underlying the effect of capsaicin on energy metabolism in human intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2). To clarify ...
Tong Xuemei - - 2009
Tumor cells are metabolically reprogrammed to fuel cell proliferation. Most transformed cells take up high levels of glucose and produce ATP through aerobic glycolysis. In cells exhibiting aerobic glycolysis, a significant fraction of glucose carbon is also directed into de novo lipogenesis and nucleotide biosynthesis. The glucose-responsive transcription factor carbohydrate ...
Sato Takaki - - 2010
PURPOSE: To determine whether retinal neurons become more susceptible to injury by nitric oxide (NO) under hypoxic conditions. METHODS: Cells from the RGC-5 line were exposed to different concentrations (0.1-100 microM) of S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP), an NO donor, under normoxic and hypoxic (1.0% O(2)) conditions with 5.5 mM glucose or with ...
Rodríguez-Enríquez Sara - - 2009
Metabolic control analysis of tumor glycolysis has indicated that hexokinase (HK) and glucose transporter (GLUT) exert the main flux control (71%). To understand why they are the main controlling steps, the GLUT and HK kinetics and the contents of GLUT1, GLUT2, GLUT3, GLUT4, HKI, and HKII were analyzed in rat ...
Zhou Shui-Hong - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Malignant cells show increased glucose uptake in vitro and in vivo, which is thought to be mediated by glucose transporters. In this study, we investigated the effect of plasmid-derived antisense RNA against the Glut-l gene on proliferation and glucose uptake in laryngeal carcinoma Hep-2 cells. METHODS: The expression plasmids ...
Kojima Hidefumi - - 2010
Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha plays a central role in oxygen homeostasis and energy supply by glycolysis in many cell types. We previously reported that an HIF-1alpha gene deficiency caused abnormal B cell development and autoimmunity. In this study we show that HIF-1alpha-enabled glycolysis during B cell development is required in a ...
Yego E Chepchumba K - - 2010
The translocation and accumulation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) in the nucleus has closely been associated with cell death induction. However, the mechanism of this process has not been completely understood. The E3 ubiquitin ligase siah-1 (seven in absentia homolog 1) has recently been identified as a potential shuttle protein to ...
Wen Dan - - 2010
Single-walled carbon nanohorns (SWNHs), a new type of carbon nanomaterials, possess excellent catalytic properties, high-purity, and low toxicities, which make them suitable for bioelectrochemical application. Here a biofuel cell anode has been developed by using SWNHs as the support for redox mediator and biocatalyst for the first time. Cyclic voltammetric ...
James Leighton R - - 2010
Cells exposed to high glucose may undergo hypertrophy, proliferation, and apoptosis, but the role of hexosamine flux in mediating these effects has not been fully elucidated. Accordingly, we studied the effects of glucose and glucosamine on rat glomerular mesangial cells (MC) turnover. Compared with physiological glucose (5.6 mM), treatment with ...
Chandrasekaran Karthikeyan - - 2010
Hyperglycemia which characterizes diabetes, leads to several abnormalities in the cellular pathways. We examined the toxicity of glucose in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. HepG2 cells when incubated with 50mM glucose for 72h showed altered morphology i.e. presence of detached and shrunken rounded cells. Glucose treated HepG2 cells also exhibited a ...
Tang Bingfeng - - 2009
To investigate metabolic behavior of aggressive peripheral T-cell (PTC) lymphoma compared with other aggressive T-cell (OTC) nonHodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs) and the various grades (1, 2, 3) of follicular B-cell (FC) NHL as a reference cell type for indolent to aggressive behavior. Pretreatment 2-deoxy-2-[¹⁸F] fluoro-d-glucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography scans of ...
Zheng Yan - - 2009
Full T cell activation requires TCR engagement (signal 1) in the context of costimulation (signal 2). Costimulation is required for maximal expression of effector cytokines and prevention of T cell anergy. It has become increasingly clear that another major function of costimulation is to up-regulate the metabolic machinery necessary for ...
Gottschamel Johanna - - 2009
An under recognized cause of preventable mortality is healthcare-associated (nosocomial) infections such as biofilms found on implants and catheters. About 5% of U.S. and E.U. patients acquire nosocomial infections leading to prolonged hospitalization, increased patient suffering, and mortality rates. To date, no satisfactory solutions are available to monitor biofilm formation ...
Kang Jeong Gu - - 2009
When cellular glucose concentrations fall below normal levels, in general the extent of protein O-GlcNAc modification (O-GlcNAcylation) decreases. However, recent reports demonstrated increased O-GlcNAcylation by glucose deprivation in HepG2 and Neuro-2a cells. Here, we report increased O-GlcNAcylation in non-small cell lung carcinoma A549 cells and various other cells in response ...
Durner J?rgen - - 2010
Previous in vivo studies have shown that the comonomers triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) from dental materials can be metabolised to CO(2) by two postulated pathways: an epoxide and a valine pathway. In the epoxide pathway the formation of pyruvate is postulated and in valine pathway the ...
Martinez V - - 2010
The HEK293 cell line has been used for the production of adenovirus vectors to be used in the potential treatment of alcoholism using a gene therapy strategy. Culture optimization and scale-up has been achieved by first adapting the cells to serum-free media and secondly by growing them in suspension. Adenovirus ...
Ali Syed A - - 2009
The formation of biofilm communities enhances the persistence of Vibrio cholerae in aquatic environments. Biofilm production is repressed by the quorum-sensing regulator HapR in response to the accumulation of CAI-1 and AI-2. CAI-1 is the strongest input signal activating HapR, whereas the role of AI-2 remains ill-defined. In the present ...
Bester Elanna - - 2009
We report on the ability of surface-associated microbes to produce and release single planktonic cells to the bulk liquid as early as 6 h after attachment, with pure culture and mixed-species biofilms yielding up to approximately 1 x 10(6) cells/cm(2) of attachment area per hour to the effluent after 24 ...
Zhang Hong-bo - - 2009
Proteinase A (PrA), encoded by PEP4 gene, is a key enzyme in the vacuoles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We characterized the effects of PrA on cell growth and glucose metabolism in the industrial S. cerevisiae WZ65. It was observed that the lag phase of cell growth of partial PEP4 gene deletion ...
Yano Naohiro - - 2009
Diabetic nephropathy is associated with mesangial ECM (extracellular matrix) accumulation. We have shown that AT-1R [Ang II (angiotensin II) type I receptor] signalling induces ECM proteins via transactivation of PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) in mesangial cells. In the present study, we examined the mechanisms underlying the effect of high ambient glucose ...
Blouin Marie-Jos? - - 2010
PTEN loss of function enhances proliferation, but effects on cellular energy metabolism are less well characterized. We used an inducible PTEN expression vector in a PTEN-null glioma cell line to examine this issue. While proliferation of PTEN-positive cells was insensitive to increases in glucose concentration beyond 2.5mM, PTEN-null cells significantly ...
Zhang Fanjie - - 2009
Accelerated glucose uptake for anaerobic glycolysis is one of the major metabolic changes found in malignant cells. This property has been exploited for imaging malignancies and as a possible anticancer therapy. The nonmetabolizable glucose analog 2-deoxyglucose (2 DG) interferes with glucose metabolism leading to breast cancer cell death. To determine ...
Fernandes Tiago G - - 2010
There is a need for a deeper understanding of the biochemical events affecting embryonic stem (ES) cell culture by analyzing the expansion of mouse ES cells in terms of both cell growth and metabolic kinetics. The influence of the initial cell density on cell expansion was assessed. Concomitantly, the biochemical ...
Mustafa Natali Rianika - - 2009
The effect of salicylic acid (SA) on the metabolic profile of Catharanthus roseus suspension cells throughout a time course (0, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment) was investigated using NMR spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis. When compared to control cell lines, SA-treated cells showed a high level ...
Schafer Zachary T - - 2009
Normal epithelial cells require matrix attachment for survival, and the ability of tumour cells to survive outside their natural extracellular matrix (ECM) niches is dependent on acquisition of anchorage independence. Although apoptosis is the most rapid mechanism for eliminating cells lacking appropriate ECM attachment, recent reports suggest that non-apoptotic death ...
Pierucci-Alves Fernando - - 2010
Data are accumulating to demonstrate that pH regulation in the male reproductive tract has a vital role in modulating sperm cell fertilizing capacity, and therefore male fertility. Bicarbonate uptake by sperm cells is required for the achievement of motility levels required for fertilization. Vas deferens epithelial cells can carry out ...
Tsai Shen-Long - - 2009
We demonstrated the functional display of a miniscaffoldin on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell surface consisting of three divergent cohesin domains from Clostridium thermocellum (t), Clostridium cellulolyticum (c), and Ruminococcus flavefaciens (f). Incubation with Escherichia coli lysates containing an endoglucanase (CelA) fused with a dockerin domain from C. thermocellum (At), an ...
Raybould Helen E - - 2010
Chemosensing in the gastrointestinal tract is less well understood than many aspects of gut mechanosensitivity; however, it is important in the overall function of the GI tract and indeed the organism as a whole. Chemosensing in the gut represents a complex interplay between the function of enteroendocrine (EEC) cells and ...
Smigic Nada - - 2009
The aim of the study was to determine intracellular pH (pH(i)) as an indicator of the physiological state of two Campylobacter jejuni strains (603 and 608) at the single cell level after bactericidal treatment with lactic acid (3% v/v lactic acid, pH 4.0, 0.85% w/v NaCl) and during recovery and ...
Mangalappalli-Illathu Anil K - - 2009
Cellular morphology, exopolymer chemistry, and protein expression of shearable and nonshearable fractions of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis biofilms were examined. Biofilms were grown at a laminar flow velocity of 0.07 cm.s-1 for ~120 h, resulting in biofilms with a thickness (mean +/- SD) of 43 +/- 24 microm. An empirically ...
Seo Jeong Yeon - - 2009
Previously we showed that the underlying mechanism of oxidative stress-induced apoptosis is nuclear loss of DNA repair protein Ku70 and Ku80, which are involved in the DNA repair process of double-strand breaks. Lycopene acts as an antioxidant and a singlet oxygen quencher. In the present study, we aim to investigate ...
Riera María F - - 2009
Sertoli cells provide the physical support and the necessary environment for germ cell development. Among the products secreted by Sertoli cells, lactate, the preferred energy substrate for spermatocytes and spermatids, is present. Considering the essential role of lactate on germ cell metabolism, it is supposed that Sertoli cells must ensure ...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >