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Nie Xinyi - - 2010
Phenotypic switching in Candida albicans spontaneously generates different cellular morphologies. The reversible switching between white and opaque phenotypes is regulated by multiple regulators including Efg1 and Wor1. In mating-type-like locus (MTL) homozygous cells, the Efg1 functions as a repressor, whereas the Wor1 acts as an activator in white-opaque switching. We ...
Bort Juan A Hernández - - 2010
During the process of recombinant cell line optimisation for production of biopharmaceuticals, multiple cellular properties like robustness against stress, the attainment of high cell concentrations and maintenance of high viability must be considered to maximize protein yield. To improve growth and viability, glutamine is supplemented as an alternative energy source ...
Rinkler Christina - - 2010
OBJECT: Environmental alterations resulting in a decrease in the nutrient supply have been associated with intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration, particularly of the nucleus pulposus (NP). The goal of the present study was to examine the hypothesis that glucose deprivation alters the metabolism of NP cells and their responsiveness to mechanical ...
Cantley J J Faculty of Medicine, Rayne Institute, University College London, London, UK. - - 2010
β-cells sense glucose and secrete appropriate amounts of insulin by coupling glucose uptake and glycolysis with quantitative ATP production via mitochondrial oxidative pathways. Therefore, oxidative phosphorylation is essential for normal β-cell function. Multiple cell types adapt to hypoxia by inducing a transcriptional programme coordinated by the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor ...
Meng Meng M Department of Biology, College of Arts & Sciences, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, - - 2010
Glutaminolysis and Warburg effect are the two most noticeable metabolic features of tumor cells whereas their biological significance in cell proliferation remains elusive. A widely accepted current hypothesis is that tumor cells use glutamine as a preferred carbon source for energy and reducing power, which has been used to explain ...
Ozalp Veli C - - 2010
Adenosine 5'-triphosphate is a universal molecule in all living cells, where it functions in bioenergetics and cell signaling. To understand how the concentration of ATP is regulated by cell metabolism and in turn how it regulates the activities of enzymes in the cell it would be beneficial if we could ...
Watanabe Masaru - - 2010
Many cancer cells exhibit increased rates of uptake and metabolism of glucose compared with normal cells. Glucose uptake in mammalian cells is mediated by the glucose transporter (GLUT) family. Here, we report that DNA-damaging anticancer agents such as Adriamycin and etoposide suppressed the expression of GLUT3, but not GLUT1, in ...
Mochizuki Hidemi - - 2011
Embryoid body (EB) formation is an important step in the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells. Although glucose concentration is physiologically maintained at 5.5mM (low glucose; LG) in vivo, a medium containing 25 mM glucose (high glucose; HG) has been widely used for forming EBs in vitro. In this study, we ...
Galdieri Luciano - - 2010
The preferred source of carbon and energy for yeast cells is glucose. When yeast cells are grown in liquid cultures, they metabolize glucose predominantly by glycolysis, releasing ethanol in the medium. When glucose becomes limiting, the cells enter diauxic shift characterized by decreased growth rate and by switching metabolism from ...
Kim Jin-Young - - 2011
Histotroph is required for survival and development of ovine conceptuses (embryo and extraembryonic membranes). Results from our laboratory indicate that arginine (Arg), leucine (Leu), glutamine (Gln), and glucose increase in the uterine lumen between Days 10 and 15 of pregnancy, coincident with increases in expression of amino acid and glucose ...
Gao Xiangwei - - 2010
Solid tumor development is frequently accompanied by energy-deficient conditions such as glucose deprivation and hypoxia. Follistatin (FST), a secretory protein originally identified from ovarian follicular fluid, has been suggested to be involved in tumor development. However, whether it plays a role in cancer cell survival under energy-deprived conditions remains elusive. ...
Hoeberichts Frank A - - 2010
Glucose, in the absence of additional nutrients, induces programmed cell death in yeast. This phenomenon is independent of yeast metacaspase (Mca1/Yca1) and of calcineurin, requires ROS production and it is concomitant with loss of cellular K(+) and vacuolar collapse. K(+) is a key nutrient protecting the cells and this effect ...
Li Jia - - 2010
Cellular energy metabolism correlates with cell fate, but the metabolic properties of chicken embryonic stem (chES) cells are poorly understood. Using a previously established chES cell model and electron microscopy (EM), we found that undifferentiated chES cells stored glycogen. Additionally, undifferentiated chES cells expressed lower levels of glucose transporter 1 ...
Zambrano Angara - - 2010
Interleukin-3 (IL-3) and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) are two of the best-characterized cell survival factors in hematopoietic cells; these factors induce an increase in Akt activity in multiple cell lines, a process thought to be involved in cellular survival. It is known that growth factors require sustained glucose metabolism to ...
White Robert H - - 2010
N-Ethylglutamate (NEG) was detected in Escherichia coli BL21 cells grown on LB broth, and it was found to occur at a concentration of ∼4 mM in these cells under these conditions. The same cells grown on M9 glucose medium contained no detectable amount of NEG. Analysis of the LB broth ...
Aston John E - - 2010
This study describes the effects of cell condition, pH, and temperature on lead, zinc, and copper sorption to Acidithiobacillus caldus strain BC13 with a Langmuir model. Copper exhibited the highest loading capacity, 4.76 ± 0.28 mmol g(-1), to viable cells at pH 5.5. The highest k(L) (binding-site affinity) observed was ...
Mulukutla Bhanu Chandra - - 2010
Cultured mammalian cells are major vehicles for producing therapeutic proteins, and energy metabolism in those cells profoundly affects process productivity. The characteristic high glucose consumption and lactate production of industrial cell lines as well as their adverse effects on productivity have been the target of both cell line and process ...
Wang Tsung-Pao - - 2010
UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (UGDH) catalyzes oxidation of UDP-glucose to yield UDP-glucuronic acid, a precursor of hyaluronic acid (HA) and other glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in extracellular matrix. Although association of extracellular matrix with cell proliferation and migration has been well documented, the importance of UGDH in these behaviors is not clear. Using UGDH-specific ...
Somjen D - - 2010
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for post-menopausal symptoms in diabetes is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Therefore, there is a need for new HRT with no adverse effects on diabetic post-menopausal women. We developed peptides as potential estrogen mimetic compounds and now we evaluated the effects ...
Fu Ya-Min - - 2010
Selective amino acid restriction targets mitochondria resulting in DU145 and PC3 prostate cancer cell death. This study shows that restriction of tyrosine and phenylalanine (Tyr/Phe), glutamine (Gln), or methionine (Met) differentially modulates glucose metabolism, glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta), p53, and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) in these two cell lines. In ...
Panieri Emiliano - - 2010
Deregulated nutrient signaling plays pivotal roles in body ageing and in diabetic complications; biochemical cascades linking energy dysmetabolism to cell damage and loss are still incompletely clarified, and novel molecular paradigms and pharmacological targets critically needed. We provide evidence that in the retrovirus-packaging cell line HEK293-T Phoenix, massive cell death ...
Losso Jack N - - 2010
The purpose of this study was to determine the inhibitory activity of trans-resveratrol against hyperglycemia-induced inflammation and degradation of gap junction intercellular communication in retinal pigment epithelial cells. Retinal (ARPE-19) cells were incubated with 5.5 mM glucose, 5.5 mM glucose and 10 microM resveratrol, 33 mM glucose, or 33 mM ...
Kim Mee-Hae - - 2010
The commitment of stem cells to different lineages is regulated by many cues in the intercellular signals from the microenvironment system. In the present study, we found that alterations in Rho family GTPase activities derived from cytoskeletal formation can lead to guidance of cardiomyogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells ...
Tanne C - - 2010
In this study a biofuel cell anode is developed on the basis of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Recombinant pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) dependent glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) is covalently coupled to a PQQ-layer which is adsorbed onto thiol-modified MWCNTs at a gold electrode. In the presence of glucose a catalytic current starts ...
Hu An-Long - - 2010
Some compounds that contain glucose groups can be transported across the plasma membrane into the cells through hexose transporters. To test the hypothesis that glucose-conjugated insecticides also have similar uptake and translocation properties, a novel fluorescent conjugate (12) was prepared by conjugating glucose and 7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole with 4-iodo-1-phenylpyrazoles. Its fluorescence spectra ...
Khodse Vishwas B - - 2010
Diatoms are abundant in biofilms developed on surfaces immersed in sunlit waters. In both the planktonic and the biofilm mode of growth, diatoms produce carbohydrate polymers which perform several functions including motility, protection, production of macro-aggregates and detoxification. However, little is known about the differences, if any, in the production ...
Rong Xi - - 2010
Glucose acts as a beta-cell stimulus factor and leads to cellular responses that involve a large amount of biomolecule formation, relocation, and transformation. We hypothesize that information about these changes can be obtained in real-time by laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy. To test this hypothesis, repeated measurements designs in accordance with ...
Richter Nina - - 2010
A whole-cell catalyst using Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) as a host, co-expressing glycerol dehydrogenase (GlyDH) from Gluconobacter oxydans and glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) from Bacillus subtilis for cofactor regeneration, has been successfully constructed and used for the reduction of aliphatic aldehydes, such as hexanal or glyceraldehyde to the corresponding alcohols. This catalyst ...
Piela Piotr - - 2010
Bacteria, fungi and protozoa inhabiting the rumen, the largest chamber of the ruminants' stomach, release large quantities of hydrogen during the fermentation of carbohydrates. The hydrogen is used by coexisting methanogens to produce methane in energy-yielding processes. This work shows, for the first time, a fundamental possibility of using a ...
Carr Erikka L EL Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics, Maryland Pathogen Research Institute, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, - - 2010
Activation of a naive T cell is a highly energetic event, which requires a substantial increase in nutrient metabolism. Upon stimulation, T cells increase in size, rapidly proliferate, and differentiate, all of which lead to a high demand for energetic and biosynthetic precursors. Although amino acids are the basic building ...
Zheng Xin Ting - - 2010
Sensitive detection of extracellular lactate concentrations at a single cell level is of importance for studying the metabolic alterations in tumor progression. A unique nanoscale optical fiber lactate sensor was developed to monitor the extracellular lactate concentrations of cancer cells by immobilizing its nanotip with lactate dehydrogenases, which could catalyze ...
Rodrigues Debora F - - 2010
The impact of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) on the different developmental stages of biofilms has been investigated using E. coli K12 as a model organism. Specifically, we investigated (i) the impact of SWNT concentration on cell growth and biofilm formation, (ii) toxic effects of SWNTs on mature biofilms, and (iii) ...
Vinci Bruna - - 2010
Static cell culture has serious limitations in its ability to represent cellular behaviour within a live organism. In vivo, cells are constantly exposed to the flow of bodily fluids and contact with other cell types. Bioreactors provide the opportunity to study cells in an environment that more closely resembles the ...
Shutt Damon C DC Free Radical and Radiation Biology Program, Department of Radiation Oncology and Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA, USA. - - 2010
Malignant cells have a demonstrably greater sensitivity to glucose deprivation-induced cytotoxicity than normal cells. This has been hypothesized to be due to a higher level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in cancer cells leading to the increased need for reducing equivalents, produced by glucose metabolism, to detoxify hydroperoxides. Because ...
Abraham Robert T - - 2010
Cells lacking a functional tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) heterodimer are sensitized to glucose starvation-induced death. In this issue of Molecular Cell, Choo et al. (2010) report that reducing energy consumption allows these cells to survive on glutamine as an alternative energy source.
Badisa Ramesh B - - 2010
Impaired mitochondrial function in glial and neuronal cells in the substantia nigra is one of the most likely causes of Parkinson's disease. In this study, we investigated the protective role of glucose on early key events associated with MPP(+)-induced changes in rat C6 astroglial cells. Studies were carried out to ...
Choo Andrew Y AY Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, - - 2010
The mTORC1-signaling pathway integrates environmental conditions into distinct signals for cell growth by balancing anabolic and catabolic processes. Accordingly, energetic stress inhibits mTORC1 signaling predominantly through AMPK-dependent activation of TSC1/2. Thus, TSC1/2-/- cells are hypersensitive to glucose deprivation, and this has been linked to increased p53 translation and activation of ...
Jin Jian-Zhong - - 2010
Bioreduction of 1-phenyl-2-propanone to prepare (S)-1-phenyl-2-propanol, a useful pharmaceutical intermediate, was performed with growing cells of Rhodococcus erythropolis JX-021, giving 14 mM (1.9 g/L) product in 99% e.e. at 5 h in the catalysis of 15 mM substrate. The reduction stopped afterwards due to strong inhibition of substrate and formed ...
D'Anselmi Fabrizio - - 2011
Fractal analysis in cancer cell investigation provided meaningful insights into the relationship between morphology and phenotype. Some reports demonstrated that changes in cell shape precede and trigger dramatic modifications in both gene expression and enzymatic function. Nonetheless, metabolomic pattern in cells undergoing shape changes have been not still reported. Our ...
Matsushika Akinori - - 2010
Different initial cell concentrations of a recombinant flocculent Saccharomyces cerevisiae MA-R4 were evaluated for their effects on xylose fermentation and glucose-xylose cofermentation. A high initial cell concentration greatly increased both the substrate utilization and ethanol production rates. During xylose fermentation, the highest rates of xylose consumption (2.58 g/L h) and ...
Prabakaran Daniel - - 2010
Although numerous epidemiological studies have provided convincing evidence for an increase in the prevalence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in obese individuals, the precise mechanisms involved have not been elucidated. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is a gastrointestinal regulatory peptide whose primary physiologic role is to stimulate postprandial pancreatic insulin secretion. Like ...
Ta Thi Minh Ngoc - - 2010
In hydrophobic compounds biotechnology, medium-chain-length metabolites often perturb cell activity. Their effect is usually studied in model conditions of growth in glucose media. Here, we study whether culture on lipids has an impact on the resistance of Yarrowia lipolytica to such compounds: Cells were cultured on glucose or oleate and ...
Aki Toshihiko - - 2010
We investigated the effect of glucose on hypoxic death of rat cardiomyocyte-derived H9c2 cells and found that there is an optimal glucose concentration for protection against hypoxic cell death. Hypoxic cell death in the absence of glucose is accompanied by rapid ATP depletion, release of apoptosis-inducing factor from mitochondria, and ...
Mazzio Elizabeth A - - 2010
Immortal cell lines are used to investigate various aspects of neurodegeneration. These cells display high glycolytic turnover rate and produce an abundant amounts of lactate. Our previous studies indicate that these cells survive the loss of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) with ample glucose supply. In the current study, we investigate ...
Dake M S - - 2010
Glycogen, a major reservoir of energy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is found to be present as soluble and membrane-bound insoluble pools. Yeast cells can store excess glycogen when grown in media with higher concentration of sugar or when subjected to nutritional stress conditions. Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCIM-3300 was grown in media having ...
David Lior - - 2010
Despite their evolutionary significance, little is known about the adaptation dynamics of genomically rewired cells in evolution. We have confronted yeast cells carrying a rewired regulatory circuit with a severe and unforeseen challenge. The essential HIS3 gene from the histidine biosynthesis pathway was placed under the exclusive regulation of the ...
Meyer-Hermann Michael - - 2010
Pancreatic β-cells release insulin in response to increased glucose levels. Compared to isolated β-cells, β-cells embedded within the islets of Langerhans network exhibit a coordinated and greater insulin secretion response to glucose. This coordinated activity is considered to rely on gap-junctions. We investigated the β-cell electrophysiology and the calcium dynamics ...
Knouzy Burhan - - 2010
Chloroacetaldehyde (CAA), a product of hepatic metabolism of the widely used anticancer drug ifosfamide (IFO), has been reported to decrease cancer cell proliferation. The basis of this effect is not completely known but has been attributed to a drop of cellular ATP content. Given the importance of glucose metabolism and ...
Belur Prasanna D - - 2010
Five strains of tannic acid degrading bacteria were isolated and identified by phenotypic characterization. All the five isolates showed cell-associated activity, where as only three showed extracellular activity. Serratia ficaria DTC showing highest cell-associated activity (0.29 U/l) was selected for further shake flask studies. Tannase synthesis was growth associated and ...
Neary Catherine L CL Department of Molecular Biology, School of Osteopathic Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Stratford, NJ 08084, USA. - - 2010
In yeast, the hexokinase type II enzyme (HXKII) translocates to the nucleus in the presence of excess glucose, and participates in glucose repression. However, no evidence has suggested a nuclear function for HXKII in mammalian cells. Herein, we present data showing nuclear localization of HXKII in HeLa cells, both by ...
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