Search Results
Results 1 - 50 of 2155
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Prestwich Glenn D GD The University of Utah, Department of Medicinal Chemistry , 419 Wakara Way, Suite 205, Salt Lake City, UT 84108-1257 , USA - - 2015
Regenerative medicine is now coming of age. Many attempts at cell therapy have failed to show significant efficacy, and the umbrella term 'stem cell therapy' is perceived in some quarters as hype or just expensive and unnecessary medical tourism. Here we present a short editorial in three parts. First, we ...
Strandkvist Charlotte C CoMPLEX , University College London , Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT , - - 2014
Our current understanding of cell sorting relies on physical difference, either in the interfacial properties or motile force, between cell types. But is such asymmetry a prerequisite for cell sorting? We test this using a minimal model in which the two cell populations are identical with respect to their physical ...
Karimi A A Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115, - - 2014
Bacteria in natural and artificial environments often reside in self-organized, integrated communities known as biofilms. Biofilms are highly structured entities consisting of bacterial cells embedded in a matrix of self-produced extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The EPS matrix acts like a biological 'glue' enabling microbes to adhere to and colonize a ...
Liu Yang Ming - - 2014
A major challenge to the clinical utility of let-7 for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) therapy is the lack of an effective carrier to target tumours. We confirmed the high transfection efficiency of cholesterol-conjugated let-7a miRNA mimics (Chol-let-7a) in human HCC cells, as well as their high affinity for liver tissue in ...
Dichtl Karl K Max von Pettenkofer-Institut für Hygiene und Medizinische Mikrobiologie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, 80336 Munich, - - 2014
Echinocandins inhibit β-1,3-glucan synthesis and are one of the few antimycotic drug classes effective against Aspergillus spp. In this study we characterized the β-1,3-glucan synthase Fks1 of Aspergillus fumigatus, the putative target of echinocandins. Data obtained with a conditional mutant suggest that fks1 is not essential. In agreement, we successfully ...
Chon S S Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, DHU FIRE, Lariboisière Hospital, University Paris Diderot Paris-7, 2, rue Ambroise-Paré, 75010 Paris, France; Inserm UMRS 1138, Centre de recherche des Cordeliers, 15, rue de l'École de Médecine, 75006 Paris, - - 2014
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex, progressive disease with life-threatening complications and one of the most serious public-health problems worldwide. The two main mechanisms of T2D pathogenesis are pancreatic beta cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. It is now recognized that pancreatic beta cell dysfunction is a necessary factor for ...
Huber Florian F FOM Institute AMOLF, 1098XG Amsterdam, The - - 2014
Cell shape and mechanics are determined by the interplay of three distinct cytoskeletal networks, made of actin filaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments. These three types of cytoskeletal polymers have rather different structural and physical properties, enabling specific cellular functions. However, there is growing evidence that the three cytoskeletal subsystems also ...
Tsai Shang-Ru SR Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Department of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, - - 2014
Low-Level Light Therapy (LLLT) is used to stimulate healing, reduce pain and inflammation, and preserve tissue from dying. LLLT has been shown to protect cells in culture from dying after various cytotoxic insults, and LLLT is known to increase the cellular ATP content. Previous studies have demonstrated that maintaining a ...
Pederson Thoru T Program in Cell and Developmental Dynamics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605 thoru.pederson@umassmed.edu - - 2014
The nucleus is physically distinct from the cytoplasm in ways that suggest new ideas and approaches for interrogating the operation of this organelle. Chemical bond formation and breakage underlie the lives of cells, but as this special issue of Molecular Biology of the Cell attests, the nonchemical aspects of cell ...
Lin Qiuning Q Shanghai Key Laboratory of Functional Materials Chemistry, Institute of Fine Chemicals, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai, 200237 (P. R. - - 2014
A novel photoconvertible fluorescent probe, which can be activated by intracellular thiols, has been synthesized. Such a molecular probe comprises three parts: a 7-aminocoumarin phototrigger, a thiol-removable energy acceptor, and a caged fluorescein scaffold with intracellular thiols reactivity as the fluorescent reporter. Extracellularly, the energy acceptor blocks the emission of ...
- - 2014
Cell based therapy for the bladder has its beginnings in the 90s with the successful isolation and culture of bladder smooth muscle cells. Since then several attempts have been made to artificially implant native cell-types and stem cell-derived cells into damaged bladders in the form of single-cell injectables or as ...
Iwashita Misato M Department of Anatomy, Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki 701-0192, - - 2014
Accumulating evidence implicates the significance of the physical properties of the niche in influencing the behavior, growth and differentiation of stem cells. Among the physical properties, extracellular stiffness has been shown to have direct effects on fate determination in several cell types in vitro. However, little evidence exists concerning whether ...
Ott Heidi M HM Oncology R&D, - - 2014
The EZH2 methyltransferase silences gene expression through methylation of histone H3 on lysine 27 (H3K27). Recently, EZH2 mutations have been reported at Y641, A677, and A687 in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. While the Y641F/N/S/H/C and A677G mutations exhibit clearly increased activity with substrates di-methylated at lysine 27 (H3K27me2), the A687V mutant has ...
Petrie Ryan J RJ Laboratory of Cell and Developmental Biology, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-4370, USA. petrier@mail.nih.gov - - 2014
Cells use actomyosin contractility to move through three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrices. Contractility affects the type of protrusions cells use to migrate in 3D, but the mechanisms are unclear. In this work, we found that contractility generated high-pressure lobopodial protrusions in human cells migrating in a 3D matrix. In these cells, ...
Maloney John M JM Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. - - 2014
Biological cells can be characterized as "soft matter" with mechanical characteristics potentially modulated by external cues such as pharmaceutical dosage or fever temperature. Further, quantifying the effects of chemical and physical stimuli on a cell's mechanical response informs models of living cells as complex materials. Here, we investigate the mechanical ...
Wang Hong H Division of Chemistry & Biological Chemistry, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371, Singapore. - - 2014
We report a facile platform for mass production of robust self-propelled tubular microengines. Tissue cells extracted from fruits of banana and apple, Musa acuminata and Malus domestica, are used as the support on which a thin platinum film is deposited by means of physical vapor deposition. Upon sonication of the ...
Kosaka Takeo T Department of Urology, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
Although accumulating evidence indicates high expression of CYP17A1(P45017A1) allows castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) to maintain high intratumoral androgen levels, the potential P45017A1 activity has not been characterized yet. The aim of this study was to examine the potential CYP17A1 activity including 17α-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activities in human CRPC and ...
Chang Fred - - 2014
The rod is a ubiquitous shape adopted by walled cells from diverse organisms ranging from bacteria to fungi to plants. Although rod-like shapes are found in cells of vastly different sizes and are constructed by diverse mechanisms, the geometric similarities among these shapes across kingdoms suggest that there are common ...
Liu Congyan C Key Laboratory of New Drug Delivery System of Chinese Meteria Medica, Jiangsu Provincial Academy of Chinese Medicine, 210028, Nanjing, P. R. - - 2014
The skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor, rich in bufadienolides, peptides, and alkaloids, has approved pharmacological activity for preliminary anti-liver and lung tumor treatment. However, few studies have systematically focused on the influence of the producing regions on the content and antitumor activity of the active constituents in toad skins. ...
Chen Shiju - - 2014
Primary Sjogren's Syndrome (pSS) is a systemic inflammatory autoimmune of unknown aetiology affecting exocrine glands, particularly the lacrimal and salivary glands. Growing evidence that B-cell depletion therapies are remarkably efficacious in the disorder indicate a major role for B-cell in the immunopathogenesis of pSS. B cell-targeted therapies have raised new ...
Polka Jessica K JK Systems Biology Department, Harvard Medical School , - - 2014
Bacteria from several taxa, including Kurthia zopfii, Myxococcus xanthus, and Bacillus mycoides, have been reported to align growth of their colonies to small features on the surface of solid media, including anisotropies created by compression. While the function of this phenomenon is unclear, it may help organisms navigate on solid ...
Abbaszadeh Sepideh S Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, - - 2013
In this study chitosan-coated alginate beads were produced with different concentrations of chitosan and alginate to evaluated survival of encapsulated Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG during exposure to adverse conditions in gastrointestinal simulated juice and heat processing as well. The Encapsulation Yield of different encapsulation treatments was between 25 to 53.2%. Although ...
Li Hongjie - - 2013
The gastrointestinal tract is lined by a series of epithelia that share functional requirements but also have distinct, highly specialized roles. Distinct populations of somatic stem cells (SCs) regenerate these epithelia, yet the mechanisms that maintain regional identities of these SCs are not well understood. Here, we identify a role ...
Bitar Khalil N KN Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27101, United States; Virginia Tech-Wake Forest School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC 27101, United States. Electronic address: - - 2013
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a complex system characterized by multiple cell types with a determined architectural arrangement. Tissue engineering of the GI tract aims to reinstate the architecture and function of all structural layers. The key point for successful tissue regeneration includes the use of cells/biomaterials that elucidate minimal ...
Misso Gabriella - - 2013
Advanced head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) is currently treated with taxane-based chemotherapy. We have previously shown that docetaxel (DTX) induces a ras-dependent survival signal that can be antagonized by farnesyl transferase inhibitors (FTI) such as tipifarnib (TIP). Here we show that the synergistic TIP/DTX combination determines synergistic apoptotic ...
Al-Shboul Othman A - - 2013
Gastrointestinal (GI) motility function and its regulation is a complex process involving collaboration and communication of multiple cell types such as enteric neurons, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), and smooth muscle cells. Recent advances in GI research made a better understanding of ICC function and their role in the GI ...
Luo Yuchun Y Department of Dermatology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado 80045, - - 2012
Although the concept of cancer stem cells (CSCs) is well-accepted for many tumors, the existence of such cells in human melanoma has been the subject of debate. In this study, we demonstrate the existence of human melanoma cells that fulfill the criteria for CSCs (self-renewal and differentiation) by serially xenotransplanting ...
Herman Sonja - - 2012
Hydrocarbon oils such as pristane or hexadecane induce arthritis and lupus in rodents sharing clinical and pathological features with the human diseases rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus, respectively. In pristane-induced lupus in the mouse induction of apoptosis and augmentation of type-I Interferon signalling by pristane have been suggested contributing ...
Wang Jianhong - - 2012
Investigation on designed polyaminoanthraquinones revealed that the anthraquinones bearing triamine motifs are generally more potent than their counterparts with diamine or tetraamine motifs. Compared to the reference drug Mitoxantrone (MTX), 9b and 9c exhibited better inhibitory activity on cancerous HepG2 cells and preferable cell selectivity in the further screen of ...
Güney G - - 2012
Extracts of Aesculus hippocastanum L. (horse chestnut) seed have been used in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency, edema and hemorrhoids. Most of the beneficial effects of horse chestnut are attributed to its principal component β-escin or escin. We have evaluated the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of escin in the ...
Neff Brian A - - 2012
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Ras GTPase (Ras) to extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway in vestibular schwannoma (VS) cell cultures and patient excised schwannoma tumors. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor CI-1040 (PD184352) was utilized to evaluate the effect of specific MEK inhibition on benign ...
Jin Un-Ho - - 2012
Leflunomide, flutamide, nimodipine, mexiletine, sulindac, tranilast, 4-hydroxytamoxifen, and omeprazole are pharmaceuticals previously characterized as aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonists in various cell lines and animal models. In this study, the eight AHR-active pharmaceuticals were investigated in highly aggressive aryl hydrocarbon (Ah)-responsive BT474 and MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cell lines, and their ...
Mu Xinyi - - 2012
Meiotic initiation of germ cells at 13.5 dpc (days post-coitus) indicates female sex determination in mice. Recent studies reveal that mesonephroi-derived retinoic acid (RA) is the key signal for induction of meiosis. However, whether the mesonephroi is dispensable for meiosis is unclear and the role of the ovary in this ...
Olive Peggy L - - 2012
A method for measuring DNA damage to individual cells, based on the technique of microelectrophoresis, was described by Ostling and Johanson in 1984 (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 123, 291-298). Cells embedded in agarose are lysed, subjected briefly to an electric field, stained with a fluorescent DNA-binding stain, and viewed using ...
Hamza Nishath - - 2012
Sjögren's Syndrome (SS) is a chronic inflammatory disorder affecting exocrine glands, in particular the lacrimal and salivary glands. The disease can be primary (pSS) or secondary to other systemic autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and others. The systemic autoimmune character of pSS is also apparent from ...
Sakurai Atsuro - - 2012
In a number of human cancer cells, K-RAS is frequently mutated and activated constitutively, culminating in the induction of continuous cell growth, a hallmark of cancer cells. It is still unclear, however, how the mutated K-RAS induces morphological abnormalities in cancerous tissues. To investigate the mechanism underlying the K-RAS-induced morphological ...
Van Steendam Katleen - - 2012
Antibodies against citrullinated proteins are highly specific for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and are currently used as a diagnostic marker. In this study, we wanted to quantify the numbers of T cells that react to a wide range of citrullinated proteins in a wide range of HLA-DR subtypes in order to ...
Peacock Ryan W S - - 2012
Flow cytometry is a powerful tool for quantitative biology because it can perform single-cell analysis of large cell populations using multiple parameters. Results are often visualized as a two-dimensional scatter or contour plot. Because these plots can be relatively diffuse, it is not always straightforward to discern a relationship between ...
Savickiene Jurate - - 2012
DNMT inhibitors are promising new drugs for cancer therapies. In this study, we have observed the antileukemic action of two diverse DNMT inhibitors, the nucleoside agent zebularine and the non-nucleoside agent RG108, in human promyelocytic leukemia (PML) HL-60 cells. Zebularine but not RG108 caused dose- and time-dependent cell growth inhibition ...
Soman Pranav - - 2012
Our current understanding of 3-dimensional (3D) cell migration is primarily based on results from fibrous scaffolds with randomly organized internal architecture. Manipulations that change the stiffness of these 3D scaffolds often alter other matrix parameters that can modulate cell motility independently or synergistically, making observations less predictive of how cells ...
Qiao Jingbo - - 2012
Neuroblastoma, the most common extra-cranial solid tumor in infants and children, is characterized by a high rate of spontaneous remissions in infancy. Retinoic acid (RA) has been known to induce neuroblastoma differentiation; however, the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways that are responsible for RA-mediated neuroblastoma cell differentiation remain unclear. Here, ...
Pigott Elizabeth - - 2012
To define the role of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in driving pathogenic B cell responses that lead to arthritis and to determine if inhibitors of the IDO pathway can be used in conjunction with therapeutic B cell depletion to prevent the reemergence of autoantibodies and arthritis following reconstitution of the B ...
Capilla Amalia A Developmental Cell Biology Unit, Instituto de Biomedicina de Valencia, Valencia, - - 2012
The generation of functional structures during development requires tight spatial regulation of signaling pathways. Thus, in Drosophila legs, in which Notch pathway activity is required to specify joints, only cells distal to ligand-producing cells are capable of responding. Here, we show that the asymmetric distribution of planar cell polarity (PCP) ...
Skouta Rachid - - 2012
A series of Pictet-Spengler condensation derivatives (tetrahydro-β-carbolines) was designed, synthesized and evaluated for lethality against a panel of seven cancer cell lines. Seven compounds (2a, 13, 20, 21, 27, 29 and 34) showed lethality in at least five cell lines. Among these, compound 27 showed a unique selectivity towards oncogenic-RAS ...
Tarnowski Maciej - - 2012
The involvement of the Ras superfamily of GTPases in the pathogenesis of rhabdomysarcoma (RMS) is not well understood. While mutant H-Ras leads to embryonal RMS (ERMS) formation in experimental animals and in Costello syndrome patients, no data exists on the potential role of Ras GTPases in the pathogenesis of alveolar ...
Zhang Bei-Bei - - 2012
Phytochemical investigation of the ethanol extract of Euphorbia kansuensis Proch. led to the isolation of three new triterpenoids, along with ten known compounds. Their structures were established by extensive 1D and 2D NMR, as well as other spectrum analysis. Biological activities of the three new compounds against Hela cell, Hep-G2 ...
Carneiro Paula F - - 2012
New oxirane derivatives were synthesized using six naphthoquinones as the starting materials. Our biological results showed that these oxiranes acted as trypanocidal agents against Trypanosoma cruzi with minimal cytotoxicity in the VERO cell line compared to naphthoquinones. In particular, oxirane derivative 14 showed low cytotoxicity in a mammalian cell line ...
Lv Min - - 2012
Graphene oxide (GO), has created an unprecedented opportunity for development and application in biology, due to its abundant functional groups and well water solubility. Recently, the potential toxicity of GO in the environment and in humans has garnered more and more attention. In this paper, we systematically studied the cytotoxicity ...
Franklin Renty B RB Department of Oncology and Diagnostic Sciences, University of Maryland Dental School, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA. - - 2012
Hepatocellular cancer (HCC) is a deadly and most rapidly increasing cancer in the USA and worldwide. The etiology and factors involved in development of HCC remain largely unknown. A marked decrease in zinc occurs in HCC. Its role and involvement in HCC has not been identified. We investigated the relationship ...
Carmena Ana - - 2012
Members of the Ras superfamily of small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) function as key nodes within signaling networks in a remarkable range of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, growth, cell-cell adhesion and apoptosis. We recently described a novel role for the Ras-like small GTPases Rap1 and Ral in regulating cortical ...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >