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Petrie Ryan J RJ Laboratory of Cell and Developmental Biology, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-4370, USA. petrier@mail.nih.gov - - 2014
Cells use actomyosin contractility to move through three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrices. Contractility affects the type of protrusions cells use to migrate in 3D, but the mechanisms are unclear. In this work, we found that contractility generated high-pressure lobopodial protrusions in human cells migrating in a 3D matrix. In these cells, ...
Maloney John M JM Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. - - 2014
Biological cells can be characterized as "soft matter" with mechanical characteristics potentially modulated by external cues such as pharmaceutical dosage or fever temperature. Further, quantifying the effects of chemical and physical stimuli on a cell's mechanical response informs models of living cells as complex materials. Here, we investigate the mechanical ...
Wang Hong H Division of Chemistry & Biological Chemistry, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371, Singapore. - - 2014
We report a facile platform for mass production of robust self-propelled tubular microengines. Tissue cells extracted from fruits of banana and apple, Musa acuminata and Malus domestica, are used as the support on which a thin platinum film is deposited by means of physical vapor deposition. Upon sonication of the ...
Kosaka Takeo T Department of Urology, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
Although accumulating evidence indicates high expression of CYP17A1(P45017A1) allows castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) to maintain high intratumoral androgen levels, the potential P45017A1 activity has not been characterized yet. The aim of this study was to examine the potential CYP17A1 activity including 17α-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activities in human CRPC and ...
Kuan Chien-Tsun CT Duke University Medical Center; National Cancer Institute, - - 2014
Glioblastoma (GBM) remains uniformly lethal despite the progress of conventional therapies, which lack specificity and thus result in high toxicity to normal cells. Immunotargeting therapy such as recombinant immunotoxin (RIT) is an alternative and a Phase I clinical trial of MR1-1-PE38KDEL is undergoing at Duke University Medical Center. To avoid ...
Abbaszadeh Sepideh S Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, - - 2013
In this study chitosan-coated alginate beads were produced with different concentrations of chitosan and alginate to evaluated survival of encapsulated Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG during exposure to adverse conditions in gastrointestinal simulated juice and heat processing as well. The Encapsulation Yield of different encapsulation treatments was between 25 to 53.2%. Although ...
Li Hongjie - - 2013
The gastrointestinal tract is lined by a series of epithelia that share functional requirements but also have distinct, highly specialized roles. Distinct populations of somatic stem cells (SCs) regenerate these epithelia, yet the mechanisms that maintain regional identities of these SCs are not well understood. Here, we identify a role ...
Bitar Khalil N - - 2013
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a complex system characterized by multiple cell types with a determined architectural arrangement. Tissue engineering of the GI tract aims to reinstate the architecture and function of all structural layers. The key point for successful tissue regeneration includes the use of cells/biomaterials that elucidate minimal ...
Misso Gabriella - - 2013
Advanced head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) is currently treated with taxane-based chemotherapy. We have previously shown that docetaxel (DTX) induces a ras-dependent survival signal that can be antagonized by farnesyl transferase inhibitors (FTI) such as tipifarnib (TIP). Here we show that the synergistic TIP/DTX combination determines synergistic apoptotic ...
Al-Shboul Othman A - - 2013
Gastrointestinal (GI) motility function and its regulation is a complex process involving collaboration and communication of multiple cell types such as enteric neurons, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), and smooth muscle cells. Recent advances in GI research made a better understanding of ICC function and their role in the GI ...
Luo Yuchun Y Department of Dermatology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado 80045, - - 2012
Although the concept of cancer stem cells (CSCs) is well-accepted for many tumors, the existence of such cells in human melanoma has been the subject of debate. In this study, we demonstrate the existence of human melanoma cells that fulfill the criteria for CSCs (self-renewal and differentiation) by serially xenotransplanting ...
Herman Sonja - - 2012
Hydrocarbon oils such as pristane or hexadecane induce arthritis and lupus in rodents sharing clinical and pathological features with the human diseases rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus, respectively. In pristane-induced lupus in the mouse induction of apoptosis and augmentation of type-I Interferon signalling by pristane have been suggested contributing ...
Wang Jianhong - - 2012
Investigation on designed polyaminoanthraquinones revealed that the anthraquinones bearing triamine motifs are generally more potent than their counterparts with diamine or tetraamine motifs. Compared to the reference drug Mitoxantrone (MTX), 9b and 9c exhibited better inhibitory activity on cancerous HepG2 cells and preferable cell selectivity in the further screen of ...
Güney G - - 2012
Extracts of Aesculus hippocastanum L. (horse chestnut) seed have been used in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency, edema and hemorrhoids. Most of the beneficial effects of horse chestnut are attributed to its principal component β-escin or escin. We have evaluated the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of escin in the ...
Neff Brian A - - 2012
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Ras GTPase (Ras) to extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway in vestibular schwannoma (VS) cell cultures and patient excised schwannoma tumors. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor CI-1040 (PD184352) was utilized to evaluate the effect of specific MEK inhibition on benign ...
Jin Un-Ho - - 2012
Leflunomide, flutamide, nimodipine, mexiletine, sulindac, tranilast, 4-hydroxytamoxifen, and omeprazole are pharmaceuticals previously characterized as aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonists in various cell lines and animal models. In this study, the eight AHR-active pharmaceuticals were investigated in highly aggressive aryl hydrocarbon (Ah)-responsive BT474 and MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cell lines, and their ...
Mu Xinyi - - 2012
Meiotic initiation of germ cells at 13.5 dpc (days post-coitus) indicates female sex determination in mice. Recent studies reveal that mesonephroi-derived retinoic acid (RA) is the key signal for induction of meiosis. However, whether the mesonephroi is dispensable for meiosis is unclear and the role of the ovary in this ...
Olive Peggy L - - 2012
A method for measuring DNA damage to individual cells, based on the technique of microelectrophoresis, was described by Ostling and Johanson in 1984 (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 123, 291-298). Cells embedded in agarose are lysed, subjected briefly to an electric field, stained with a fluorescent DNA-binding stain, and viewed using ...
Hamza Nishath - - 2012
Sjögren's Syndrome (SS) is a chronic inflammatory disorder affecting exocrine glands, in particular the lacrimal and salivary glands. The disease can be primary (pSS) or secondary to other systemic autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and others. The systemic autoimmune character of pSS is also apparent from ...
Sakurai Atsuro - - 2012
In a number of human cancer cells, K-RAS is frequently mutated and activated constitutively, culminating in the induction of continuous cell growth, a hallmark of cancer cells. It is still unclear, however, how the mutated K-RAS induces morphological abnormalities in cancerous tissues. To investigate the mechanism underlying the K-RAS-induced morphological ...
Van Steendam Katleen - - 2012
Antibodies against citrullinated proteins are highly specific for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and are currently used as a diagnostic marker. In this study, we wanted to quantify the numbers of T cells that react to a wide range of citrullinated proteins in a wide range of HLA-DR subtypes in order to ...
Peacock Ryan W S - - 2012
Flow cytometry is a powerful tool for quantitative biology because it can perform single-cell analysis of large cell populations using multiple parameters. Results are often visualized as a two-dimensional scatter or contour plot. Because these plots can be relatively diffuse, it is not always straightforward to discern a relationship between ...
Savickiene Jurate - - 2012
DNMT inhibitors are promising new drugs for cancer therapies. In this study, we have observed the antileukemic action of two diverse DNMT inhibitors, the nucleoside agent zebularine and the non-nucleoside agent RG108, in human promyelocytic leukemia (PML) HL-60 cells. Zebularine but not RG108 caused dose- and time-dependent cell growth inhibition ...
Soman Pranav - - 2012
Our current understanding of 3-dimensional (3D) cell migration is primarily based on results from fibrous scaffolds with randomly organized internal architecture. Manipulations that change the stiffness of these 3D scaffolds often alter other matrix parameters that can modulate cell motility independently or synergistically, making observations less predictive of how cells ...
Qiao Jingbo - - 2012
Neuroblastoma, the most common extra-cranial solid tumor in infants and children, is characterized by a high rate of spontaneous remissions in infancy. Retinoic acid (RA) has been known to induce neuroblastoma differentiation; however, the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways that are responsible for RA-mediated neuroblastoma cell differentiation remain unclear. Here, ...
Pigott Elizabeth - - 2012
To define the role of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in driving pathogenic B cell responses that lead to arthritis and to determine if inhibitors of the IDO pathway can be used in conjunction with therapeutic B cell depletion to prevent the reemergence of autoantibodies and arthritis following reconstitution of the B ...
Capilla Amalia A Developmental Cell Biology Unit, Instituto de Biomedicina de Valencia, Valencia, - - 2012
The generation of functional structures during development requires tight spatial regulation of signaling pathways. Thus, in Drosophila legs, in which Notch pathway activity is required to specify joints, only cells distal to ligand-producing cells are capable of responding. Here, we show that the asymmetric distribution of planar cell polarity (PCP) ...
Skouta Rachid - - 2012
A series of Pictet-Spengler condensation derivatives (tetrahydro-β-carbolines) was designed, synthesized and evaluated for lethality against a panel of seven cancer cell lines. Seven compounds (2a, 13, 20, 21, 27, 29 and 34) showed lethality in at least five cell lines. Among these, compound 27 showed a unique selectivity towards oncogenic-RAS ...
Tarnowski Maciej - - 2012
The involvement of the Ras superfamily of GTPases in the pathogenesis of rhabdomysarcoma (RMS) is not well understood. While mutant H-Ras leads to embryonal RMS (ERMS) formation in experimental animals and in Costello syndrome patients, no data exists on the potential role of Ras GTPases in the pathogenesis of alveolar ...
Zhang Bei-Bei - - 2012
Phytochemical investigation of the ethanol extract of Euphorbia kansuensis Proch. led to the isolation of three new triterpenoids, along with ten known compounds. Their structures were established by extensive 1D and 2D NMR, as well as other spectrum analysis. Biological activities of the three new compounds against Hela cell, Hep-G2 ...
Carneiro Paula F - - 2012
New oxirane derivatives were synthesized using six naphthoquinones as the starting materials. Our biological results showed that these oxiranes acted as trypanocidal agents against Trypanosoma cruzi with minimal cytotoxicity in the VERO cell line compared to naphthoquinones. In particular, oxirane derivative 14 showed low cytotoxicity in a mammalian cell line ...
Lv Min - - 2012
Graphene oxide (GO), has created an unprecedented opportunity for development and application in biology, due to its abundant functional groups and well water solubility. Recently, the potential toxicity of GO in the environment and in humans has garnered more and more attention. In this paper, we systematically studied the cytotoxicity ...
Franklin Renty B RB Department of Oncology and Diagnostic Sciences, University of Maryland Dental School, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA. - - 2012
Hepatocellular cancer (HCC) is a deadly and most rapidly increasing cancer in the USA and worldwide. The etiology and factors involved in development of HCC remain largely unknown. A marked decrease in zinc occurs in HCC. Its role and involvement in HCC has not been identified. We investigated the relationship ...
Carmena Ana - - 2012
Members of the Ras superfamily of small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) function as key nodes within signaling networks in a remarkable range of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, growth, cell-cell adhesion and apoptosis. We recently described a novel role for the Ras-like small GTPases Rap1 and Ral in regulating cortical ...
Wang Y - - 2012
OBJECTIVES: The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is implicated in placentation. We determined which RAS pathways are present in two trophoblast cell lines (HTR-8/SVneo and BeWo cells) and the effects of cAMP, which stimulates renal renin. STUDY DESIGN: The effect of cAMP on RAS gene expression and on prorenin and angiotensin peptides ...
Chen Yong Y Division of Allergy and Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, - - 2012
γδ T (γδT) cells belong to a distinct T cell lineage that performs immune functions different from αβ T (αβT) cells. Previous studies established that Erk1/2 MAPKs are critical for positive selection of αβT cells. Additional evidence suggests that increased Erk1/2 activity promotes γδT cell generation. RasGRP1, a guanine nucleotide-releasing ...
Tawfeeq Mohammad Monir - - 2012
A 12-month-old Holstein heifer with anorexia, lameness, and enlargement of peripheral lymph nodes was suspected of having bovine leukosis. Although lymphocytosis was not observed, cytology of fine needle aspirate from a superficial cervical node, and increased serum lactate dehydrogenase and thymidine kinase activities, strongly suggested lymphosarcoma. Increased numbers of mononuclear ...
Nara Akina - - 2012
Although various cytotoxic effects on neuronal cells caused by methamphetamine (METH) have been investigated, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of METH-induced neurotoxicity remain to be elucidated. We previously reported that METH-induced cytomorphological effects on retinoic acid (RA)-differentiated SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells involved macropinocytosis, which is an actin-dependent endocytic pathway. We ...
Khera Shagun - - 2012
Retinal pigment epithelia (RPE) and retinal neurons (RN) arise from the same underlying precursor cell population. It is worthwhile to explore the transdifferentiation potential of RPE cells, given the benefits that could accrue from turning RPE into neural retina containing all its normal cellular subpopulations. Factors such as retinoic acid ...
Liu Keyi - - 2012
Examination of genomic and proteomic changes associated with ras-driven epithelial to mesenchymal transformation (EMT) of polarized epithelial cells has led to an improved understanding of surface-expressed structures and alterations in components involved in intracellular trafficking events that are altered as normal cells become cancerous. We have previously identified a mechanism ...
de Vries Hilbert S - - 2012
Infliximab-induced hepatotoxicity is reported in several case studies involving patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and a direct hepatotoxic effect has been proposed. The aim of this study was to determine the direct in vitro toxicity of infliximab. As a proof of principle the in vitro toxicity of thiopurines and ...
Yin Xiaoxue X Department of Orthopaedics, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, - - 2012
Tissue transglutaminase (type II, TG2) has long been postulated to directly promote skeletal matrix calcification and play an important role in ossification. However, limited information is available on the expression, function and modulating mechanism of TG2 during osteoblast differentiation and mineralization. To address these issues, we cultured the well-established human ...
Yang Min - - 2012
IL-10-producing CD1d(hi)CD5(+) B cells, also known as B10 cells, have been shown to possess a regulatory function in the inhibition of immune responses, but whether and how B10 cells suppress the development of autoimmune arthritis remain largely unclear. In this study, we detected significantly decreased numbers of IL-10-producing B cells, ...
Ton Quynh V - - 2012
Gap junctions are proteinaceous channels that reside at the plasma membrane and permit the exchange of ions, metabolites, and second messengers between neighboring cells. Connexin proteins are the subunits of gap junction channels. Mutations in zebrafish cx43 cause the short fin (sof(b123)) phenotype which is characterized by short fins due ...
Finnegan Alison - - 2012
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic autoimmune immune disease affecting approximately 1% of the population. There has been a renewed interest in the role of B cells in rheumatoid arthritis based on the evidence that B cell depletion therapy is effective in the treatment of disease. This review summarizes the current ...
Abdus-Saboor Ishmail - - 2012
Cells perform wide varieties of functions that are facilitated, in part, by adopting unique shapes. Many of the genes and pathways that promote cell fate specification have been elucidated. However, relatively few transcription factors have been identified that promote shape acquisition after fate specification. Here we show that the Nkx5/HMX ...
Wilson Catherine H CH Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, - - 2012
Genetic screens in simple model organisms have identified many of the key components of the conserved signal transduction pathways that are oncogenic when misregulated. Here, we identify H37N21.1 as a gene that regulates vulval induction in let-60(n1046gf), a strain with a gain-of-function mutation in the Caenorhabditis elegans Ras orthologue, and ...
Sitnik Katarzyna M KM Immunology Section, Lund University, Lund 22184, Sweden. - - 2012
The vitamin A metabolite and transcriptional modulator retinoic acid (RA) is recognized as an important regulator of epithelial cell homeostasis in several tissues. Despite the known importance of the epithelial compartment of the thymus in T cell development and selection, the potential role of RA in the regulation of thymic ...
Bosveld Floris - - 2012
During animal development, several planar cell polarity (PCP) pathways control tissue shape by coordinating collective cell behavior. Here, we characterize epithelium morphogenesis in the Drosophila dorsal thorax by multiscale imaging and show how the Fat/Dachsous/Four-jointed PCP pathway controls morphogenesis. We find that the proto-cadherin Dachsous is polarized within a domain ...
Male Heather - - 2012
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer and relatively resistant to chemotherapy. The most prevalent molecular abnormality in NSCLC is the overactivation of K-Ras proto-oncogene; therefore, elucidating down-stream Ras signaling in NSCLC is significantly important in developing novel therapies against this malignancy. Our work ...
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