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Results 401 - 450 of 2155
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Fujikawa-Yamamoto Kohzaburo - - 2009
To examine the alteration of cellular characteristics on ploidy transition of embryonic stem (ES) cells, octaploid cells (8H1 cells) were established from tetraploid H-1 (ES) cells, and compared with tetraploid and diploid H-1 (ES) cells (4H1 and 2H1 cells, respectively). The duration of G(1), S, and G(2)/M phases were essentially ...
Goranov Alexi I - - 2009
Cell growth is an essential requirement for cell cycle progression. While it is often held that growth is independent of cell cycle position, this relationship has not been closely scrutinized. Here we show that in budding yeast, the ability of cells to grow changes during the cell cycle. We find ...
Zolochevska Olga O Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, 70803, United - - 2009
We evaluated the effect of expressing the cell cycle regulator cdk2ap1 in epithelial or stromal cell compartments to reduce SCC growth in vitro and in vivo. Cell-autonomous and/or non-cell-autonomous expression of cdk2ap1 reduced tumor growth and invasion and altered cell cycle, adhesion, invasion, angiogenesis, and apoptotic gene expression, as assessed ...
Alev Cantas - - 2009
NFATc2, also known as NFAT1 or NFATp, is a member of NFAT (calcineurin-dependent nuclear factor of activated T cells) family of transcription factors. As one of major targets for immunosuppressive drugs, NFATc2 has been studied largely in the context of T cell activation and proliferation. Recent evidence suggested that it ...
Lopes J P - - 2009
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an irreversible, progressive brain disease that slowly destroys memory and thinking skills. With over 26 million patients in 2006, AD is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease worldwide. Different hypotheses have been suggested to explain the pathogenesis of AD, like those involving inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction or oxidative ...
Tu Ya-Hong - - 2009
Food allergy and chronic intestinal inflammation are common in western countries. The complex of antigen/IgE is taken up into the body from the gut lumen with the aid of epithelial cell-derived CD23 (low affinity IgE receptor II) that plays an important role in the pathogenesis of intestinal allergy. This study ...
Zwolak Jason - - 2009
A critical goal in cell biology is to develop a systems-level perspective of eukaryotic cell cycle controls. Among these controls, a complex signaling network (called 'checkpoints') arrests progression through the cell cycle when there is a threat to genomic integrity such as unreplicated or damaged DNA. Understanding the regulatory principles ...
Burhans William C - - 2009
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulate the strength and duration of signaling through redox-dependent signal transduction pathways via the cyclic oxidation/reduction of cysteine residues in kinases, phosphatases, and other regulatory factors. Signaling circuits may be segregated in organelles or other subcellular domains with distinct redox states, permitting them to respond independently ...
Alberghina Lilia - - 2009
Following a brief description of the operational procedures of systems biology (SB), the cell cycle of budding yeast is discussed as a successful example of a top-down SB analysis. After the reconstruction of the steps that have led to the identification of a sizer plus timer network in the G1 ...
Mitsuhashi Takayuki - - 2009
Brain size variation among different mammals is tightly associated with different levels of cerebral function. Mechanisms that regulate the number of neurons and hence the size of the brain must be at least partially embedded within the very early phase of neocortical development, that is, embedded in proliferation/differentiation characteristics of ...
Russa Afadhali Denis - - 2009
Ca(2+) signaling controls a wide range of cellular functions such as division, fertilization, apoptosis and necrosis. Specifically, calcium signaling is thought to play a crucial role in driving cells through the different stages of the cell-division cycle. In most cells, however, this fact is far from being established. Few studies ...
Tallack Michael R - - 2009
Differentiation of erythroid cells requires precise control over the cell cycle to regulate the balance between cell proliferation and differentiation. The zinc finger transcription factor, erythroid Krüppel-like factor (EKLF/KLF1), is essential for proper erythroid cell differentiation and regulates many erythroid genes. Here we show that loss of EKLF leads to ...
Shen Y - - 2009
Process oscillation characterized by long oscillation period and large oscillation amplitude was observed in continuous ethanol fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae under very high gravity conditions. Metabolic flux analysis was applied to the fermentation system, and the results indicated that carbon flux distributions at the metabolic notes oscillated, correspondingly, and the ...
Wang Yangming Y The Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, - - 2009
The cell cycle is tightly orchestrated during normal development. Embryonic stem (ES) cells have a unique cell cycle structure, in which the G1/S restriction is largely absent, enabling cells to rapidly move through the G1 phase and enter the S phase. This hastened cell cycle allows the early embryo to ...
Chen Bo-Ruei BR Department of Molecular Genetics, Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine at CWRU, 9500 Euclid Avenue NE 20, Cleveland, OH 44195, - - 2009
We describe a new chronological lifespan (CLS) assay for the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Yeast CLS assays monitor the loss of cell viability in a culture over time, and this new assay shows a continuous decline in viability without detectable regrowth until all cells in the culture are dead. Thus, the ...
Hirata Yuko - - 2009
D-Allose, the C-3 epimer of D-glucose, is one of the rare sugars found in nature. In the present study, we have elucidated for the first time that various leukemia cell lines have different susceptibility to anti-proliferative activity of D-allose, and that this difference is related to the difference in induction ...
Kang Hara - - 2009
Due to their characteristic inaccessibility and low numbers, little is known about the cell-cycle dynamics of most stem cells in vivo. A powerful, established methodology to study cell-cycle dynamics is flow cytometry, which is used routinely to study the cell-cycle dynamics of proliferating cells in vitro. Its use in heterogeneous ...
Hackenbeck Thomas - - 2009
Hypoxia is a severe stress which induces physiological and molecular adaptations, where the latter is dominated by the Hypoxia-inducible transcription Factor (HIF). A well described response on cellular level upon exposure to hypoxia is a reversible cell cycle arrest, which probably renders the cells more resistant to the difficult environment. ...
Zhang Yadong Y The Laboratory of Cancer Signaling and Epigenetics, The Health Effects Laboratory Division, Pathology and Physiology Research Branch, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, West Virginia 26505, - - 2009
A new GADD45alpha isoform, GADD45alpha1, was identified in the cellular response to arsenic. DNA sequencing and biochemical analyses suggested that GADD45alpha1 is derived from an alternative splicing of the GADD45alpha mRNA by skipping the region corresponding to exon2 of the gadd45alpha gene during mRNA maturation. In addition to the size ...
Sun Qian - - 2009
The mammalian heart lacks intrinsic ability to replace diseased myocardium with newly divided myocytes. There is scant information on mechanisms regulating cell cycle exit in cardiomyocytes. We cloned a splice variant of cyclin D2 (D2SV) from the mouse heart and found a novel role for this protein in cardiomyocyte cell ...
Stoica Bogdan A - - 2009
Although traditionally it was believed that adult neurons have entered a permanent post-mitotic phase, the latest experimental data indicate that cell cycle constituents critically affect normal functions of the adult central nervous system (CNS), as well as contribute to the pathophysiology of both acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders. Recent study ...
Ma Tianhua - - 2009
Overexpression of Nanog in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells has been shown to abrogate the requirement of leukemia inhibitory factor for self-renewal in culture. Little is known about the molecular mechanism of Nanog function. Here we describe the role of the tryptophan repeat (WR) domain, one of the two transactivators ...
Ninov Nikolay - - 2009
Regulation of cell proliferation has been extensively studied in cultured cell systems that are characterized by coordinated growth and cell-cycle progression and relatively uniform cell size distribution. During the development of multicellular organisms, however, growth and division can be temporally uncoupled, and the signaling pathways that regulate these growth programs ...
Zhu Wuqiang W The Riley Heart Research Center, Herman B Wells Center for Pediatric Research, Indiana University School of Medicine, 1044 West Walnut Street, R4 Building Room W376, Indianapolis, IN 46202-5225, - - 2009
Cardiomyocytes exhibit robust proliferative activity during development. After birth, cardiomyocyte proliferation is markedly reduced. Consequently, regenerative growth in the postnatal heart via cardiomyocyte proliferation (and, by inference, proliferation of stem-cell-derived cardiomyocytes) is limited and often insufficient to affect repair following injury. Here, we review studies wherein cardiomyocyte cell cycle proliferation ...
Wu Bill X BX Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, 29425, - - 2009
Gemcitabine (GMZ) is a chemotherapeutic agent with well established effects on cell growth arrest and apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the potential roles of bioactive sphingolipids in mediating the growth suppressing effects of GMZ on a polyoma middle T transformed murine endothelial cell line. After 12-hour GMZ (0.6 microM) ...
Hahn Angela T AT Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, - - 2009
Cell cycle analysis typically relies on fixed time-point measurements of cells in particular phases of the cell cycle. The cell cycle, however, is a dynamic process whose subtle shifts are lost by fixed time-point methods. Live-cell fluorescent biosensors and time-lapse microscopy allows the collection of temporal information about real time ...
Laguens Rub??n P - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Ischemic heart disease often results in myocardial infarction, after which surviving tissue undergoes remodeling. Unfortunately, the regenerative capacity of adult cardiomyocytes is poor. Repopulating myocardium with contractile cells is an objective of regenerative medicine. The most investigated strategy is implantation of stem cells. An alternative approach is stimulating cardiomyocytes ...
Moser Sandra C - - 2009
CLK-2/TEL2 is essential for viability from yeasts to vertebrates, but its essential functions remain ill defined. CLK-2/TEL2 was initially implicated in telomere length regulation in budding yeast, but work in Caenorhabditis elegans has uncovered a function in DNA damage response signalling. Subsequently, DNA damage signalling defects associated with CLK-2/TEL2 have ...
Boumendjel Ahcene - - 2009
Chalcones (1,3-diphenylpropen-1-ones) are naturally occurring compounds belonging to the flavonoid family and are largely investigated in various therapeutic area and especially as antitumor drugs. In the latter field, the literature survey indicates that effect on the cell cycle is one of the most important targets domains of chalcones. In this ...
Currais Antonio - - 2009
Differentiated neurons display specific biochemical, physiological and morphological properties that apparently prevent them from further cell division. Nevertheless, expression of cell cycle modulators persists after neuronal differentiation and is upregulated under stress conditions, such as trophic factor deprivation, oxidative stress and the presence of DNA damaging agents. This apparent reactivation ...
Orlofsky Amos - - 2009
The regulation and function of autophagy in response to metabolic signals is not yet well understood. A recent study from our laboratory indicates that an intracellular parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, derives nutritive benefit from the upregulation of host cell autophagy. We discuss this and related findings suggesting that autophagy in infected ...
Fuhler Gwenny M - - 2009
During megakaryopoiesis, hematopoietic progenitor cells in the bone marrow proliferate and ultimately differentiate in mature megakaryocytes (MK). We and others have recently described a role for the mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR) in proliferation and differentiation of MK cells. Two non-redundant complexes of mTOR have been described; mTORC1 containing rapamycin-associated ...
Meyer-Bahlburg Almut A Seattle Children's Research Institute, WA 98101, - - 2009
The splenic B cell compartment is comprised of two major, functionally distinct, mature B cell subsets, i.e., follicular mature (FM) and marginal zone (MZ) B cells. Whereas MZ B cells exhibit a robust proliferative response following stimulation with the TLR4 ligand LPS, FM B cells display markedly delayed and reduced ...
Noy-Lotan Sharon - - 2009
Congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type I is an inherited autosomal recessive macrocytic anemia associated with ineffective erythropoiesis and the development of secondary hemochromatosis. Distinct erythroid precursors with internuclear chromatin bridges and spongy heterochromatin are pathognomonic for the disease. The mutated gene (CDAN1) encodes a ubiquitously expressed protein of unknown function, codanin-1. ...
Dong Zizheng - - 2009
Translational control is an essential process in regulation of gene expression, which occurs at the initiation step performed by a number of translation initiation factor complexes. eIF3a (eIF3 p170) is the largest subunit of the eIF3 complex. eIF3a has been suggested to play roles in regulating translation of a subset ...
Liu Xiaolin - - 2009
The cell cycle needs to strictly coordinate with developmental processes to ensure correct generation of the body plan and different tissues. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the coordination remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigate how the cell cycle coordinates gastrulation cell movements in zebrafish. We present a system ...
Borgs Laurence - - 2009
In mammals, 24 hours rhythms are organized as a biochemical network of molecular clocks that are operative in all tissues, with the master clock residing in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The core pacemakers of these clocks consist of auto-regulatory transcriptional/post-transcriptional feedback loops. Several lines of evidence suggest the existence ...
Leung-Pineda Van - - 2009
The Chk1 protein kinase preserves genome integrity in normal proliferating cells and in cells experiencing replicative and genotoxic stress. Chk1 is currently being targeted in anticancer regimens. Here, we identify damaged DNA-binding protein 1 (DDB1) as a novel Chk1-interacting protein. DDB1 is part of an E3 ligase complex that includes ...
Loddo M - - 2009
Multiparameter analysis of core regulatory proteins involved in G1-S and G2-M cell-cycle transitions provides a powerful biomarker readout for assessment of the cell-cycle state. We have applied this algorithm to breast cancer to investigate how the cell cycle impacts on disease progression. Protein expression profiles of key constituents of the ...
Lee Wen-Bin - - 2009
Yeast cell cycle Boolean network was used as a case study of robustness to protein noise. Robustness was interpreted as involving stability of G1 steady state and sequence of gene expression from cell cycle START to stationary G1. A robustness measure to evaluate robustness strength of a network was proposed. ...
Lam Connie M C - - 2009
Cellular metabolism is required for cell proliferation. However, the way in which metabolic signals are conveyed to cell cycle decisions is unclear. Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR), the NAD(+) metabolite, mobilizes calcium from calcium stores in many cells. We found that dinoflagellate cells with higher metabolic rate underwent multiple fission (MF), a ...
Wang Wei - - 2009
The cell cycle is a delicately manipulated process essential for the development, differentiation, proliferation and death of cells. Inappropriate activation of cell cycle regulators is implicated in the pathophysiology of a wide range of central nervous system (CNS) diseases, including both acute damage and chronic neurodegenerative disorders. Cell cycle activation ...
Kotwica Joanna - - 2009
The period (per) gene is 1 of the core elements of the circadian clock mechanism in animals from insects to mammals. In clock cells of Drosophila melanogaster, per mRNA and PER protein oscillate in daily cycles. Consistent with the molecular clock model, PER moves to cell nuclei and acts as ...
Koulaouzidou Elisabeth A - - 2009
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 3 dentin bonding agents on cell survival and proliferation and on cell cycle progression of cultured cells. The experiments were performed on RPC-C2A and L929 cells. Specimens of the 3 dentin bonding agents (Clearfil Tri-S, AdheSE, and XP BOND) ...
Chakraborty Abhishek A AA Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1 Bungtown Road, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724, - - 2009
Mechanisms that couple protein turnover to cell cycle progression are critical for coordinating the events of cell duplication and division. Despite the importance of cell cycle-regulated proteolysis, however, technologies to measure this phenomenon are limited, and typically involve monitoring cells that are released back into the cell cycle after synchronization. ...
Rossi Sergio - - 2009
We determined the cambial sensitivity and quantified the anatomical differences in xylem of Abies balsamea (L.) Mill. seedlings subjected to artificial defoliation to simulate spruce budworm feeding. Defoliation was performed by removing two-thirds of needles of all current-year shoots for up to four consecutive growth cycles to account for inter- ...
Schnäbele Kerstin - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a chronic sub-inflammatory condition which is a risk factor for several cancer diseases, e.g. colon cancer. Adipose tissue secretes biologically active factors like leptin with a known pro-inflammatory or mitogenic activity. Both, chronic inflammation and an increased cell proliferation are considered to play an important role in ...
Lee Hyoung-gon - - 2009
Many different proteins associated with the cell cycle, including cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases, and proto-oncogenes such as c-MYC (MYC), are increased in degenerating neurons. Consequently, an ectopic activation of the cell cycle machinery in neurons has emerged as a potential pathogenic mechanism of neuronal dysfunction and death in many neurodegenerative diseases, ...
Alderson Nathan L - - 2009
Sphingolipids are ubiquitous components of eukaryotic cells that regulate various cellular functions. In many cell types, a fraction of sphingolipids contain 2-hydroxy fatty acids, produced by fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H), as the N-acyl chain of ceramide [hydroxyl fatty acid (hFA)-sphingolipids]. FA2H is highly expressed in myelin-forming cells of the nervous ...
Matmati Nabil - - 2009
Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking ISC1 (inositol phosphosphingolipase C) exhibit sensitivity to genotoxic agents such as methyl methanesulfonate and hydroxyurea (HU). Cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry revealed a G(2)/M block in isc1Delta cells when treated with methyl methanesulfonate or HU. Further investigation revealed that the levels of Cdc28 phosphorylated on ...
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