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Results 301 - 350 of 2133
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Taberner Francisco José - - 2010
The control of the subcellular localization of cell cycle regulators has emerged as a crucial mechanism in cell division regulation. The active transport of proteins between the nucleus and the cytoplasm is mediated by the transport receptors of the beta-karyopherin family. In this work we characterized the terminal phenotype of ...
Peng Bin - - 2010
Because some of heat shock protein 90's (HSP90) clients are key cell cycle regulators, HSP90 inhibition can affect the cell cycle. Recently, celastrol is identified both as a novel inhibitor of HSP90 and as a potential anti-tumor agent. However, this agent's effects on the cell cycle are rarely investigated. In ...
Karkoulis Panagiotis K - - 2010
17-Allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), a benzoquinone ansamycin antibiotic, specifically targets heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and interferes with its function as a molecular chaperone that maintains the structural and functional integrity of various protein clients involved in cellular signaling. In this study, we have investigated the effect of 17-AAG on the regulation ...
Mana-Capelli Sebastian - - 2010
Recently, we have reported the initial characterization of a novel centrin from Dictyostelium discoideum (DdCenB).1 Sequence and phylogenetic analyses clearly establish DdCenB as a centrin, yet further characterization revealed some interesting peculiarities about this novel centrin. Figure 1 depicts the localization of DdCenB at three points in the cell cycle: ...
Chin Cheen Fei - - 2010
Maintenance of genomic stability is needed for cells to survive many rounds of division throughout their lifetime. Key to the proper inheritance of intact genome is the tight temporal and spatial coordination of cell cycle events. Moreover, checkpoints are present that function to monitor the proper execution of cell cycle ...
Bryant Christopher S - - 2010
Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate phytochemical present predominantly in cruciferous vegetables such as brussels sprout and broccoli, is considered a promising chemo-preventive agent against cancer. In-vitro exposure to SFN appears to result in the induction of apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest in a variety of tumor types. However, the molecular mechanisms leading ...
Lorenzi T - - 2010
The syndecan family consists of four distinct membrane glycoproteins in mammals. Syndecans control cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion and migration through participation in cell-cell interactions, anchorage of cells to the extracellular environment, and modulation of multiple growth factors. Therefore, syndecans may play a pivotal role in the regulation of cell behaviour ...
Seifert Ashley W - - 2010
During embryonic development, cells are instructed which position to occupy, they interpret these cues as differentiation programmes, and expand these patterns by growth. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) specifies positional identity in many organs; however, its role in growth is not well understood. In this study, we show that inactivation of Shh ...
Xu Hui - - 2010
MS4a4B, a CD20 homologue in T cells, is a novel member of the MS4A gene family in mice. The MS4A family includes CD20, FcεRIβ, HTm4 and at least 26 novel members that are characterized by their structural features: with four membrane-spanning domains, two extracellular domains and two cytoplasmic regions. CD20, ...
Pop Ramona - - 2010
Hematopoietic progenitors undergo differentiation while navigating several cell division cycles, but it is unknown whether these two processes are coupled. We addressed this question by studying erythropoiesis in mouse fetal liver in vivo. We found that the initial upregulation of cell surface CD71 identifies developmentally matched erythroblasts that are tightly ...
Huang Cheng - - 2010
Mutations in SMARCAL1 cause Schimke Immuno-Osseous Dysplasia (SIOD), an autosomal recessive multisystem developmental disease characterized by growth retardation, T-cell deficiency, bone marrow failure, anemia and renal failure. SMARCAL1 encodes an ATP-driven annealing helicase. However, the biological function of SMARCAL1 and the molecular basis of SIOD remain largely unclear. In this ...
Airoldi Chiara A - - 2010
Bromodomain and Extra Terminal domain (BET) proteins are characterized by the presence of two types of domains, the bromodomain and the extra terminal domain. They bind to acetylated lysines present on histone tails and control gene transcription. They are also well known to play an important role in cell cycle ...
Masuda K - - 2010
The F-box protein Fbxw7 (also known as Fbw7, SEL-10, hCdc4 or hAgo) mediates the ubiquitylation and thereby contributes to the degradation of proteins that positively regulate cell cycle. Conditional ablation of Fbxw7 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) induces cell-cycle arrest accompanied by abnormal accumulation of the intracellular domain of Notch1 ...
Chong Jean-Leon JL Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology and Medical Genetics, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, - - 2009
In the established model of mammalian cell cycle control, the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) functions to restrict cells from entering S phase by binding and sequestering E2f activators (E2f1, E2f2 and E2f3), which are invariably portrayed as the ultimate effectors of a transcriptional program that commit cells to enter and progress ...
McAdams Harley H HH Department of Developmental Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. - - 2009
Understanding of the cell cycle control logic in Caulobacter has progressed to the point where we now have an integrated view of the operation of an entire bacterial cell cycle system functioning as a state machine. Oscillating levels of a few temporally-controlled master regulator proteins in a cyclical circuit drive ...
Jia Kun-Zhi - - 2010
Cellular adenosine accumulates under stress conditions. Few papers on adenosine are concerned with its function in the cell cycle. The cell cycle is the essential mechanism by which all living things reproduce and the target machinery when cells encounter stresses, so it is necessary to examine the relationship between adenosine ...
Gauthaman Kalamegam - - 2010
The Rho associated coiled coil protein kinase (ROCK) dependent signaling pathway plays an important role in numerous physiological functions such as cell proliferation, adhesion, migration and inflammation. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) undergo differentiation and poor survival after single cell dissociation in culture thus limiting their expansion for cell based ...
Hister C A L - - 2009
Aloysia gratissima is used in Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of digestive and respiratory diseases. The infusions (6 and 24 g L-1) and essential oils (0.25%, on ethanol) were prepared and we used groups of five Allium cepa bulbs for each treatment. A total of 2500 cells per treatment ...
Oser Matthew M Department of Anatomy and Structural Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York 10461, USA. - - 2009
The actin severing protein cofilin is essential for directed cell migration and chemotaxis, in many cell types and is also important for tumor cell invasion during metastasis. Through its severing activity, cofilin increases the number of free barbed ends to initiate actin polymerization for actin-based protrusion in two distinct subcellular ...
Resende R R - - 2010
Spontaneous Ca(2+) events have been observed in diverse stem cell lines, including carcinoma and mesenchymal stem cells. Interestingly, during cell cycle progression, cells exhibit Ca(2+) transients during the G(1) to S transition, suggesting that these oscillations may play a role in cell cycle progression. We aimed to study the influence ...
Biggar Kyle K - - 2009
The ability of an animal, normally dependent on aerobic respiration, to suspend breathing and enter an anoxic state for long term survival is clearly a fascinating feat, and has been the focus of numerous biochemical studies. When anoxia tolerant turtles are faced with periods of oxygen deprivation, numerous physiological and ...
San Martin Inga A - - 2009
Bone formation and osteoblast differentiation require the functional expression of the Runx2/Cbfbeta heterodimeric transcription factor complex. Runx2 is also a suppressor of proliferation in osteoblasts by attenuating cell cycle progression in G(1). Runx2 levels are modulated during the cell cycle, which are maximal in G(1) and minimal beyond the G(1)/S ...
Sarsour Ehab H - - 2009
The cellular oxidation and reduction (redox) environment is influenced by the production and removal of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In recent years, several reports support the hypothesis that cellular ROS levels could function as ''second messengers'' regulating numerous cellular processes, including proliferation. Periodic oscillations in the cellular redox environment, a ...
Bunderson-Schelvan Melisa - - 2009
The TP53 tumor suppressor gene is the most frequently inactivated gene in human cancer identified to date. However, TP53 mutations are rare in human mesotheliomas, as well as in many other types of cancer, suggesting that aberrant TP53 function may be due to alterations in its regulatory pathways. Mouse double ...
Gauthier Nicholas Paul - - 2010
Cell division involves a complex series of events orchestrated by thousands of molecules. To study this process, researchers have employed mRNA expression profiling of synchronously growing cell cultures progressing through the cell cycle. These experiments, which have been carried out in several organisms, are not easy to access, combine and ...
Liu Da-Zhi - - 2010
Classically, the cell cycle is regarded as the process leading to cellular proliferation. However, increasing evidence over the last decade supports the notion that neuronal cell cycle re-entry results in post-mitotic death. A mature neuron that re-enters the cell cycle can neither advance to a new G0 quiescent state nor ...
Zhang Heyu - - 2010
NSA2 (Nop seven-associated 2) was previously identified in a high throughput screen of novel human genes associated with cell proliferation, and the NSA2 protein is evolutionarily conserved across different species. In this study, we revealed that NSA2 is broadly expressed in human tissues and cultured cell lines, and located in ...
Sugiyama Mayu - - 2009
By exploiting the cell-cycle-dependent proteolysis of two ubiquitination oscillators, human Cdt1 and geminin, which are the direct substrates of SCF(Skp2) and APC(Cdh1) complexes, respectively, Fucci technique labels mammalian cell nuclei in G(1) and S/G(2)/M phases with different colors. Transgenic mice expressing these G(1) and S/G(2)/M markers offer a powerful means ...
Duan Huihan - - 2010
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNA molecules with profound impact on various biological processes. Some miRNAs are involved in tumorigenesis by regulation of cell cycle progression. Here, we cultured primary murine bronchial epithelial cells and then examined the expression of miR-320 and miR-494 in cells exposed to ...
Barhoover Melissa A - - 2010
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor with constitutive activities and those induced by xenobiotic ligands, such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). One unexplained cellular role for the AHR is its ability to promote cell cycle progression in the absence of exogenous ligands, whereas treatment with exogenous ligands induces ...
Reddy Akhilesh B - - 2010
Circadian rhythms permeate mammalian biology. They are manifested in the temporal organisation of behavioural, physiological, cellular and neuronal processes. Whereas it has been shown recently that these approximately 24-hour cycles are intrinsic to the cell and persist in vitro, internal synchrony in mammals is largely governed by the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic ...
Martin Sophie G - - 2009
How do cells sense their own size and shape? And how does this information regulate progression of the cell cycle? Our group, in parallel to that of Paul Nurse, have recently demonstrated that fission yeast cells use a novel geometry-sensing mechanism to couple cell length perception with entry into mitosis. ...
van Duursen Majorie B M - - 2010
Cytochrome P450c17 (CYP17) has been linked to various hormone-related diseases, including breast cancer, thus being a potential target for cancer chemoprevention. We studied the naturally occurring phytochemical enterolactone (ENL) and 13 VIOXX-related lactone derivatives (CRI-1 to CRI-13) for their effects on CYP17 activity and expression and on cell cycle status ...
Ka┼║mierczak Andrzej - - 2010
Analyses of DNA content using fluorescence microcytophotometry showed that development of Anemia phyllitidis gametophytes coincided with endoreduplication process. The level of this process shown by the number of endopolyploid cells studied at the I-V arbitrarily established cellular gametophyte stages, was 3%, while at the VI-VII and VII* (male stages) were ...
Angelastro Peter S - - 2010
The phosphorylated form of the response regulator CtrA represses DNA replication initiation and regulates the transcription of about 100 cell cycle-regulated genes in Caulobacter crescentus. CtrA activity fluctuates during the cell cycle, and its periodicity is a key element of the engine that drives cell cycle progression. The histidine kinase ...
Daigle Derek - - 2010
A fundamental problem in studying the latent-to-lytic switch of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and the viral lytic cycle itself is the lack of a culture system fully permissive to lytic cycle induction. Strategies to target EBV-positive tumors by inducing the viral lytic cycle with chemical agents are hindered by inefficient responses ...
Lin Wei - - 2009
MSP58, a 58-kD nuclear microspherule protein, is an evolutionarily conserved nuclear protein implicated in the regulation of gene transcription as well as in malignant transformation. An analysis of mRNA expression by real-time PCR revealed that MSP58 was significantly up-regulated in 29% of high-grade glioblastoma tissues as well as in four ...
Liu Da-Zhi - - 2009
Ahead of Print article withdrawn by publisher. Classically, the cell cycle is regarded as the central process leading to cellular proliferation. However, increasing evidence has substantiated the concept that cell cycle re-entry by neurons leads to post-mitotic death. A neuron that re-enters the cell cycle can neither advance to a ...
Dissmeyer Nico - - 2009
Entry into mitosis is universally controlled by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). A key regulatory event in metazoans and fission yeast is CDK activation by the removal of inhibitory phosphate groups in the ATP binding pocket catalyzed by Cdc25 phosphatases. In contrast with other multicellular organisms, we show here that in the ...
Mat?a Isabel - - 2010
Seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana were sent to space and germinated in orbit. Seedlings grew for 4d and were then fixed in-flight with paraformaldehyde. The experiment was replicated on the ground in a Random Positioning Machine, an effective simulator of microgravity. In addition, samples from a different space experiment, processed in ...
Adams Tom - - 2010
A population of peripheral retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells in mature pigmented rats are retained in the cell cycle and divide, as determined by Ki67 and BrdU labeling. Their cell cycle rate is approximately 5 days. Ten times as many Ki67 positive cells are found in albinos compared with pigmented ...
Wang Peng - - 2009
microRNAs (miRNA) are small noncoding RNAs that participate in diverse biological processes by suppressing target gene expression. Altered expression of miR-21 has been reported in cancer. To gain insights into its potential role in tumorigenesis, we generated miR-21 knockout colon cancer cells through gene targeting. Unbiased microarray analysis combined with ...
Wäsch R - - 2010
Deregulation of the G1/G0 phase of the cell cycle can lead to cancer. During G1, most cells commit alternatively to DNA replication and division, or to cell-cycle exit and differentiation. The anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) activated by Cdh1 coordinately eliminates positive cell-cycle regulators as well as inhibitors of differentiation, ...
Pomerening Joseph R - - 2009
A positive-feedback loop is a simple motif that is ubiquitous to the modules and networks that comprise cellular signaling systems. Signaling behaviors that are synonymous with positive feedback include amplification and rapid switching, maintenance, and the coherence of outputs. Recent advances have been made towards understanding how positive-feedback loops function, ...
Wang Jue D - - 2009
Adaptation to fluctuations in nutrient availability is a fact of life for single-celled organisms in the 'wild'. A decade ago our understanding of how bacteria adjust cell cycle parameters to accommodate changes in nutrient availability stemmed almost entirely from elegant physiological studies completed in the 1960s. In this Opinion article ...
Li Wan-Feng - - 2009
Climate change such as changing temperature and increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO(2), are likely to drive significant modifications in forests. While many studies have demonstrated the responses and adoptions of tree to fluctuations in climatic and environmental conditions, the impact of environmental signals on trees is complex and poorly understood ...
Ninov Nikolay - - 2009
Although the molecular elements controlling cell cycle progression are well established, the mechanisms regulating how cell proliferation is triggered in response to extrinsic stimuli and how cell divisions change speed, particularly in stem or tumor cells or regenerative tissues, are poorly understood. One exceptional model system in which these events ...
Boheler Kenneth R - - 2009
Embryonic stem (ES) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells self-renew and are pluripotent. Differentiation of these cells can yield over 200 somatic cell types, making pluripotent cells an obvious source for regenerative medicine. Before the potential of these cells can be maximally harnessed for clinical applications, it will be necessary ...
Zhou Jue-Yu - - 2009
Cell cycle progression is regulated by both transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) emerge as a new class of small non-coding RNA regulators of cell cycle as recent evidence suggests. It is hypothesized that expression of specific miRNAs oscillates orderly along with cell cycle progression. However, the oscillated expression patterns ...
Jenal Urs - - 2009
Caulobacter crescentus cell cycle progression is implemented by oscillating global transcriptional regulators that establish temporal and spatial control of modular genetic subsystems during the cell cycle. The hierarchy of this regulatory circuit is established through a combination of gene expression control and regulated proteolysis. Recent results highlight the importance of ...
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