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Results 301 - 350 of 2149
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Wirt Stacey E - - 2010
p107 and its related family members Rb and p130 are critical regulators of cellular proliferation and tumorigenesis. Due to the extent of functional overlap within the Rb family, it has been difficult to assess which functions are exclusive to individual members and which are shared. Like its family members, p107 ...
Wang L - - 2010
Many previous studies have attempted to gain insight into the underlying pathophysiology of schizophrenia by studying postmortem brain tissues of schizophrenia patients. However, such analyses can be confounded by artifactual features of this approach such as lengthy agonal state and postmortem interval times. As several aspects of schizophrenia are also ...
Eymin Beatrice - - 2010
Cellular division is an ordered, tightly regulated process involving multiple checkpoints that assess extracellular growth signals, cell size and DNA integrity. Progression throughout the cell cycle is based on the activation of different CDK-cyclin complexes that prevent cells from entering into a new phase until thay have successfully complete the ...
Davis Denise M - - 2010
Neurogenesis in the retina occurs via the coordination of proliferation, cell cycle exit and differentiation of retinal progenitor cells. Until recently, it was widely assumed that once a retinal progenitor cell produced a postmitotic neuron, there was no possibility for cell-cycle re-entry. However, recent studies have shown that mature differentiated ...
Zhao Yuxia - - 2010
As a new class of xenogenous nanoparticle, quantum dots (QDs) possess the potential to co-exist with CU2+ in human liver. The combined toxicity is thus concerned. Considering QDs and Cu2+ are known ROS (reactive oxygen species) inducer, we investigated the combined oxidative stress and corresponding protective strategy using human hepatic ...
Funel Niccola - - 2010
We investigated whether the anticancer drug Ukrain (UK) is able to modulate the expression of some of the key markers of tumor progression in pancreatic cell carcinoma, in order to assess its potential therapeutic effect. Three cell lines (HPAF-II, PL45, HPAC) were treated with UK (5, 10 and 20 μM) ...
Cameroni Elisabetta - - 2010
Mutations in the human gene coding for XPD lead to segmental progeria - the premature appearance of some of the phenotypes normally associated with aging - which may or may not be accompanied by increased cancer incidence. XPD is required for at least three different critical cellular functions: in addition ...
Liu Yang - - 2010
Human cells divide and proliferate during the early stages of life to support development, and throughout adult life to support normal cellular turnover. Each dividing cell follows an orderly and tightly regulated series of events known as the cell cycle. This process ensures proper cellular division that maintains DNA and ...
Higareda-Mendoza Ana E - - 2010
Transcriptional and postranslational regulation of the cell cycle has been widely studied. However, there is scarce knowledge concerning translational control of this process. Several mammalian eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs) seem to be implicated in controlling cell proliferation. In this work, we investigated if the human eIF3f expression and function is ...
Zhang Chao - - 2010
p73, a recently described member of the p53 family of transcription factors, undergoes a number of posttranslational modifications, inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In the present study, we demonstrate that PIASy, a member of the PIAS SUMO-ligase family, interacts with p73alpha, and that PIASy-mediated sumoylation promotes proteasomal degradation of ...
Brun Jan - - 2010
The ubiquitin-based molecular switch dictating error free versus error prone repair has been conserved throughout eukaryotic evolution. A central component of this switch is the homotrimeric clamp PCNA, which is ubiquitinated in response to genotoxic stress allowing recovery of replication forks blocked at sites of DNA damage. The particulars of ...
Drouin Jacques - - 2010
As model of organogenesis, the pituitary gland is a relatively simple tissue; yet, we understand little of the mechanisms that determine organ size, cell number and allocation of cells to different lineages. While the discovery of cell-restricted transcription factors has led to significant insight into the mechanisms controlling differentiation and ...
Robbins Jonathan A - - 2010
Cdc20 is a highly conserved activator of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), promoting cell-cycle-regulated ubiquitination and proteolysis of a number of critical cell-cycle-regulatory targets including securin and mitotic cyclins. APC-Cdc20 activity is tightly regulated, and this regulation is likely important for accurate cell cycle control. One significant component of Cdc20 regulation ...
Taberner Francisco José - - 2010
The control of the subcellular localization of cell cycle regulators has emerged as a crucial mechanism in cell division regulation. The active transport of proteins between the nucleus and the cytoplasm is mediated by the transport receptors of the beta-karyopherin family. In this work we characterized the terminal phenotype of ...
Peng Bin - - 2010
Because some of heat shock protein 90's (HSP90) clients are key cell cycle regulators, HSP90 inhibition can affect the cell cycle. Recently, celastrol is identified both as a novel inhibitor of HSP90 and as a potential anti-tumor agent. However, this agent's effects on the cell cycle are rarely investigated. In ...
Karkoulis Panagiotis K - - 2010
17-Allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), a benzoquinone ansamycin antibiotic, specifically targets heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and interferes with its function as a molecular chaperone that maintains the structural and functional integrity of various protein clients involved in cellular signaling. In this study, we have investigated the effect of 17-AAG on the regulation ...
Chin Cheen Fei - - 2010
Maintenance of genomic stability is needed for cells to survive many rounds of division throughout their lifetime. Key to the proper inheritance of intact genome is the tight temporal and spatial coordination of cell cycle events. Moreover, checkpoints are present that function to monitor the proper execution of cell cycle ...
Lorenzi T - - 2010
The syndecan family consists of four distinct membrane glycoproteins in mammals. Syndecans control cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion and migration through participation in cell-cell interactions, anchorage of cells to the extracellular environment, and modulation of multiple growth factors. Therefore, syndecans may play a pivotal role in the regulation of cell behaviour ...
Seifert Ashley W - - 2010
During embryonic development, cells are instructed which position to occupy, they interpret these cues as differentiation programmes, and expand these patterns by growth. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) specifies positional identity in many organs; however, its role in growth is not well understood. In this study, we show that inactivation of Shh ...
Xu Hui - - 2010
MS4a4B, a CD20 homologue in T cells, is a novel member of the MS4A gene family in mice. The MS4A family includes CD20, FcεRIβ, HTm4 and at least 26 novel members that are characterized by their structural features: with four membrane-spanning domains, two extracellular domains and two cytoplasmic regions. CD20, ...
Pop Ramona - - 2010
Hematopoietic progenitors undergo differentiation while navigating several cell division cycles, but it is unknown whether these two processes are coupled. We addressed this question by studying erythropoiesis in mouse fetal liver in vivo. We found that the initial upregulation of cell surface CD71 identifies developmentally matched erythroblasts that are tightly ...
Bryant Christopher S CS Department of Surgery, Wayne State University, 4100 John R Street, Detroit, MI 48201, - - 2010
Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate phytochemical present predominantly in cruciferous vegetables such as brussels sprout and broccoli, is considered a promising chemo-preventive agent against cancer. In-vitro exposure to SFN appears to result in the induction of apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest in a variety of tumor types. However, the molecular mechanisms leading ...
Enserink Jorrit M JM Department of Molecular Biology, Institute of Medical Microbiology and Centre of Molecular Biology and Neuroscience, Oslo University Hospital, Sognsvannsveien 20, N-0027 Oslo, Norway. - - 2010
The cyclin dependent kinase Cdk1 controls the cell cycle, which is best understood in the model organism S. cerevisiae. Research performed during the past decade has significantly improved our understanding of the molecular machinery of the cell cycle. Approximately 75 targets of Cdk1 have been identified that control critical cell ...
Bonda David J DJ Department of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, - - 2010
The complex neurodegeneration underlying Alzheimer disease (AD), although incompletely understood, is characterised by an aberrant re-entry into the cell cycle in neurons. Pathological evidence, in the form of cell cycle markers and regulatory proteins, suggests that cell cycle re-entry is an early event in AD, which precedes the formation of ...
Mana-Capelli Sebastian - - 2010
Recently, we have reported the initial characterization of a novel centrin from Dictyostelium discoideum (DdCenB).1 Sequence and phylogenetic analyses clearly establish DdCenB as a centrin, yet further characterization revealed some interesting peculiarities about this novel centrin. Figure 1 depicts the localization of DdCenB at three points in the cell cycle: ...
Huang Cheng - - 2010
Mutations in SMARCAL1 cause Schimke Immuno-Osseous Dysplasia (SIOD), an autosomal recessive multisystem developmental disease characterized by growth retardation, T-cell deficiency, bone marrow failure, anemia and renal failure. SMARCAL1 encodes an ATP-driven annealing helicase. However, the biological function of SMARCAL1 and the molecular basis of SIOD remain largely unclear. In this ...
Airoldi Chiara A - - 2010
Bromodomain and Extra Terminal domain (BET) proteins are characterized by the presence of two types of domains, the bromodomain and the extra terminal domain. They bind to acetylated lysines present on histone tails and control gene transcription. They are also well known to play an important role in cell cycle ...
Masuda K - - 2010
The F-box protein Fbxw7 (also known as Fbw7, SEL-10, hCdc4 or hAgo) mediates the ubiquitylation and thereby contributes to the degradation of proteins that positively regulate cell cycle. Conditional ablation of Fbxw7 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) induces cell-cycle arrest accompanied by abnormal accumulation of the intracellular domain of Notch1 ...
Chong Jean-Leon JL Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology and Medical Genetics, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, - - 2009
In the established model of mammalian cell cycle control, the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) functions to restrict cells from entering S phase by binding and sequestering E2f activators (E2f1, E2f2 and E2f3), which are invariably portrayed as the ultimate effectors of a transcriptional program that commit cells to enter and progress ...
McAdams Harley H HH Department of Developmental Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. - - 2009
Understanding of the cell cycle control logic in Caulobacter has progressed to the point where we now have an integrated view of the operation of an entire bacterial cell cycle system functioning as a state machine. Oscillating levels of a few temporally-controlled master regulator proteins in a cyclical circuit drive ...
Jia Kun-Zhi - - 2010
Cellular adenosine accumulates under stress conditions. Few papers on adenosine are concerned with its function in the cell cycle. The cell cycle is the essential mechanism by which all living things reproduce and the target machinery when cells encounter stresses, so it is necessary to examine the relationship between adenosine ...
Gauthaman Kalamegam - - 2010
The Rho associated coiled coil protein kinase (ROCK) dependent signaling pathway plays an important role in numerous physiological functions such as cell proliferation, adhesion, migration and inflammation. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) undergo differentiation and poor survival after single cell dissociation in culture thus limiting their expansion for cell based ...
Hister C A L - - 2009
Aloysia gratissima is used in Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of digestive and respiratory diseases. The infusions (6 and 24 g L-1) and essential oils (0.25%, on ethanol) were prepared and we used groups of five Allium cepa bulbs for each treatment. A total of 2500 cells per treatment ...
Oser Matthew M Department of Anatomy and Structural Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York 10461, USA. - - 2009
The actin severing protein cofilin is essential for directed cell migration and chemotaxis, in many cell types and is also important for tumor cell invasion during metastasis. Through its severing activity, cofilin increases the number of free barbed ends to initiate actin polymerization for actin-based protrusion in two distinct subcellular ...
Resende R R - - 2010
Spontaneous Ca(2+) events have been observed in diverse stem cell lines, including carcinoma and mesenchymal stem cells. Interestingly, during cell cycle progression, cells exhibit Ca(2+) transients during the G(1) to S transition, suggesting that these oscillations may play a role in cell cycle progression. We aimed to study the influence ...
Biggar Kyle K - - 2009
The ability of an animal, normally dependent on aerobic respiration, to suspend breathing and enter an anoxic state for long term survival is clearly a fascinating feat, and has been the focus of numerous biochemical studies. When anoxia tolerant turtles are faced with periods of oxygen deprivation, numerous physiological and ...
Bunderson-Schelvan Melisa - - 2009
The TP53 tumor suppressor gene is the most frequently inactivated gene in human cancer identified to date. However, TP53 mutations are rare in human mesotheliomas, as well as in many other types of cancer, suggesting that aberrant TP53 function may be due to alterations in its regulatory pathways. Mouse double ...
San Martin Inga A IA Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Biomedical Sciences ICBM, University of Chile, Santiago, - - 2009
Bone formation and osteoblast differentiation require the functional expression of the Runx2/Cbfbeta heterodimeric transcription factor complex. Runx2 is also a suppressor of proliferation in osteoblasts by attenuating cell cycle progression in G(1). Runx2 levels are modulated during the cell cycle, which are maximal in G(1) and minimal beyond the G(1)/S ...
Sarsour Ehab H EH Free Radical and Radiation Biology Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa , Iowa City, Iowa, - - 2009
The cellular oxidation and reduction (redox) environment is influenced by the production and removal of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In recent years, several reports support the hypothesis that cellular ROS levels could function as ''second messengers'' regulating numerous cellular processes, including proliferation. Periodic oscillations in the cellular redox environment, a ...
Gauthier Nicholas Paul - - 2010
Cell division involves a complex series of events orchestrated by thousands of molecules. To study this process, researchers have employed mRNA expression profiling of synchronously growing cell cultures progressing through the cell cycle. These experiments, which have been carried out in several organisms, are not easy to access, combine and ...
Liu Da-Zhi DZ Department of Neurology and the M.I.N.D. Institute, University of California at Davis, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA. - - 2010
Classically, the cell cycle is regarded as the process leading to cellular proliferation. However, increasing evidence over the last decade supports the notion that neuronal cell cycle re-entry results in post-mitotic death. A mature neuron that re-enters the cell cycle can neither advance to a new G0 quiescent state nor ...
Zhang Heyu - - 2010
NSA2 (Nop seven-associated 2) was previously identified in a high throughput screen of novel human genes associated with cell proliferation, and the NSA2 protein is evolutionarily conserved across different species. In this study, we revealed that NSA2 is broadly expressed in human tissues and cultured cell lines, and located in ...
Sugiyama Mayu - - 2009
By exploiting the cell-cycle-dependent proteolysis of two ubiquitination oscillators, human Cdt1 and geminin, which are the direct substrates of SCF(Skp2) and APC(Cdh1) complexes, respectively, Fucci technique labels mammalian cell nuclei in G(1) and S/G(2)/M phases with different colors. Transgenic mice expressing these G(1) and S/G(2)/M markers offer a powerful means ...
Duan Huihan - - 2010
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNA molecules with profound impact on various biological processes. Some miRNAs are involved in tumorigenesis by regulation of cell cycle progression. Here, we cultured primary murine bronchial epithelial cells and then examined the expression of miR-320 and miR-494 in cells exposed to ...
Barhoover Melissa A - - 2010
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor with constitutive activities and those induced by xenobiotic ligands, such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). One unexplained cellular role for the AHR is its ability to promote cell cycle progression in the absence of exogenous ligands, whereas treatment with exogenous ligands induces ...
Reddy Akhilesh B - - 2010
Circadian rhythms permeate mammalian biology. They are manifested in the temporal organisation of behavioural, physiological, cellular and neuronal processes. Whereas it has been shown recently that these approximately 24-hour cycles are intrinsic to the cell and persist in vitro, internal synchrony in mammals is largely governed by the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic ...
Martin Sophie G - - 2009
How do cells sense their own size and shape? And how does this information regulate progression of the cell cycle? Our group, in parallel to that of Paul Nurse, have recently demonstrated that fission yeast cells use a novel geometry-sensing mechanism to couple cell length perception with entry into mitosis. ...
van Duursen Majorie B M - - 2010
Cytochrome P450c17 (CYP17) has been linked to various hormone-related diseases, including breast cancer, thus being a potential target for cancer chemoprevention. We studied the naturally occurring phytochemical enterolactone (ENL) and 13 VIOXX-related lactone derivatives (CRI-1 to CRI-13) for their effects on CYP17 activity and expression and on cell cycle status ...
Ka┼║mierczak Andrzej - - 2010
Analyses of DNA content using fluorescence microcytophotometry showed that development of Anemia phyllitidis gametophytes coincided with endoreduplication process. The level of this process shown by the number of endopolyploid cells studied at the I-V arbitrarily established cellular gametophyte stages, was 3%, while at the VI-VII and VII* (male stages) were ...
Angelastro Peter S - - 2010
The phosphorylated form of the response regulator CtrA represses DNA replication initiation and regulates the transcription of about 100 cell cycle-regulated genes in Caulobacter crescentus. CtrA activity fluctuates during the cell cycle, and its periodicity is a key element of the engine that drives cell cycle progression. The histidine kinase ...
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