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Results 251 - 300 of 2155
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Johnston Amal J - - 2010
The plant life cycle alternates between two distinct multi-cellular generations, the reduced gametophytes and the dominant sporophyte. Little is known about how generation-specific cell fate, differentiation, and development are controlled by the core regulators of the cell cycle. In Arabidopsis, RETINOBLASTOMA RELATED (RBR), an evolutionarily ancient cell cycle regulator, controls ...
Baek Sungmin - - 2010
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is the second most common subtype of primary hepatobilliary cancer. Despite advances in surgical and medical therapy, its survival rate remains poor. Compared to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common liver malignancy, the underlying mechanisms of cholangiocarcinoma carcinogenesis are poorly characterized. P-cadherin (CDH3) is a cadherin super family ...
Burkhart Deborah L DL Departments of Pediatrics and Genetics, Stanford Medical School, Stanford, California, United States of - - 2010
The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (Rb) is a potent and ubiquitously expressed cell cycle regulator, but patients with a germline Rb mutation develop a very specific tumor spectrum. This surprising observation raises the possibility that mechanisms that compensate for loss of Rb function are present or activated in many cell types. ...
Cova Emanuela - - 2010
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative multifactorial disease characterized, like other diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) or frontotemporal dementia (FTD), by the degeneration of specific neuronal cell populations. Motor neuron loss is distinctive of ALS. However, the causes of onset and progression of motor neuron ...
Dowling Ryan J O RJ Department of Biochemistry and Goodman Cancer Research Centre, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 1A3, - - 2010
The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) integrates mitogen and nutrient signals to control cell proliferation and cell size. Hence, mTORC1 is implicated in a large number of human diseases--including diabetes, obesity, heart disease, and cancer--that are characterized by aberrant cell growth and proliferation. Although eukaryotic translation initiation factor ...
Camins Antoni - - 2010
In the present study we demonstrated that neurotoxin MPP(+)-induced DNA damage is followed by ataxia telangiectasia muted (ATM) activation either in cerebellar granule cells (CGC) or in B65 cell line. In CGC, the selective ATM inhibitor KU-55933 showed neuroprotective effects against MPP(+)-induced neuronal cell loss and apoptosis, lending support to ...
Kurzawa Laetitia - - 2010
Since the first schematic illustrations of dividing cells, we have come a long way in characterising eukaryotic cells and defining their cell-cycle status thanks to a number of complementary approaches. Although most of these approaches rely on cell-fixation procedures to identify molecular components in cell lysates, cultured cells or tissues, ...
Caldon C Elizabeth - - 2010
Proliferation and differentiation are tightly coupled processes, so that a final cell cycle is often linked to the initiation of cell differentiation. The flux in cell cycle proteins during this process is commonly assumed to simply control the final cell cycle exit. However it now appears that cell cycle proteins ...
Chan Kin - - 2010
The orderly progression through the cell division cycle is of paramount importance to all organisms, as improper progression through the cycle could result in defects with grave consequences. Previously, our lab has shown that model eukaryotes such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Danio rerio all retain high viability after ...
Hah Nasun N Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics and Graduate Field of Biochemistry, Molecular and Cell Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, - - 2010
The SWI/SNF complex is an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex that plays pivotal roles in gene regulation and cell cycle control. In the present study, we explored the molecular functions of the BAF57 subunit of SWI/SNF in cell cycle control via transcriptional regulation of cell cycle-related genes. We affinity purified SWI/SNF ...
Yeom Mijung - - 2010
Two prominent timekeeping systems, the cell cycle, which controls cell division, and the circadian system, which controls 24-h rhythms of physiology and behavior, are found in nearly all living organisms. A distinct feature of circadian rhythms is that they are temperature-compensated such that the period of the rhythm remains constant ...
Towata Tomomi - - 2010
Specific accumulation and cell cycle arrest were observed in human cholangiocarcinoma cells by hybrid liposomes composed of 90 mol% L-alpha-dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and 10 mol% polyoxyethylene(21)dodecyl ether (C(12)(EO)(21)) without affecting normal cholangiocytes.
Badouel Caroline - - 2010
MELK (maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase) is a cell cycle dependent protein kinase involved in diverse cell processes including cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle and mRNA processing. Noticeably, MELK expression is increased in cancerous tissues, upon cell transformation and in mitotically-blocked cells. The question of how MELK protein level is ...
Papoff Giuliana - - 2010
Analyses of knockout and mutant transgenic mice as well as in vitro studies demonstrated a complex role of FADD in the regulation of cell fate. FADD is involved in death receptor induced apoptosis, cell cycle progression and cell proliferation. In a search for mechanisms that might regulate FADD functions, we ...
Wang Jin - - 2010
Studying the cell cycle process is crucial for understanding cell growth, proliferation, development, and death. We uncovered some key factors in determining the global robustness and function of the budding yeast cell cycle by exploring the underlying landscape and flux of this nonequilibrium network. The dynamics of the system is ...
Zhang Jie J Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, - - 2010
Neurons that reenter a cell cycle after maturation are at increased risk for death, yet the mechanisms by which a normal neuron suppresses the cycle remain mostly unknown. Our laboratory has shown that cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a potent cell cycle suppressor, and we report here on the molecular ...
Kaake Robyn M RM Departments of Physiology & Biophysics and Developmental & Cell Biology, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-4560, - - 2010
Ubiquitin-proteasome dependent protein degradation plays a fundamental role in the regulation of the eukaryotic cell cycle. Cell cycle transitions between different phases are tightly regulated to prevent uncontrolled cell proliferation, which is characteristic of cancer cells. To understand cell cycle phase specific regulation of the 26S proteasome and reveal the ...
Gerashchenko Bogdan I - - 2010
Unicellular green alga is a very convenient object for flow cytometric characterization. Flow cytometry has been proposed as a quick and reliable tool for studying life cycle and growth of unicellular algae. Cell size of vegetating algae can be monitored in association with their DNA and endogenous chlorophyll content. Cells ...
Kwok Alvin C M - - 2010
Cellulose synthesis, but not its degradation, is generally thought to be required for plant cell growth. In this work, we cloned a dinoflagellate cellulase gene, dCel1, whose activities increased significantly in G(2)/M phase, in agreement with the significant drop of cellulose content reported previously. Cellulase inhibitors not only caused a ...
Lee Carol Yee-Ki - - 2010
Given the reported side effects associated with chemotherapy and surgical resection, dietary intervention with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) has been postulated to be an alterative way to prevent liver cancer progression and metastasis. We studied the effects of an omega-3 PUFA, docahexaenoic acid (DHA) on COX-2 expression and the ...
Calvert Meredith E K - - 2010
In studies of eukaryotic cell cycle regulation, the budding yeast Saccharoymyces cerevisiae offers many advantages as a model system. Due to its simple growth requirements and genetic tractability, this organism is a powerful tool for investigating the molecular regulation of cell cycle control. One earlier disadvantage to performing cell cycle ...
Quesenberry Peter J PJ Rhode Island Hospital and the Brown Medical School, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Providence, Rhode Island 02903, USA. - - 2010
Primitive marrow lineage-negative rhodamine low and Hoechst low (LRH) stem cells isolated on the basis of quiescence respond to the cytokines thrombopoietin, FLT3L, and steel factor by synchronously progressing through cell cycle. We have now profiled the mRNA expression, as determined by real-time RT-PCR, of 47 hematopoietic or cell cycle-related ...
Guo Qingwei - - 2010
In the present study, we show that the treatment of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latently infected Raji cells with TPA/SB caused the cell growth arrest. The Zta-positive cells were predominantly enriched in G0/G1 phase of cell cycle. When Zta expression reached a maximal level, a fraction of Zta expressing cell population ...
Stefanić Sasa - - 2010
Synthesis of glucosylceramide via glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) is a crucial event in higher eukaryotes, both for the production of complex glycosphingolipids and for regulating cellular levels of ceramide, a potent antiproliferative second messenger. In this study, we explored the dependence of the early branching eukaryote Giardia lamblia on GCS activity. ...
Chang Ping-An - - 2011
Neuropathy target esterase (NTE) is a novel phospholipase B and plays a role in phospholipid homeostasis. Although over-expression of NTE inhibits cell division, the role of NTE in cell proliferation is still unknown. In the current study, we firstly used synchronous HeLa cells to study the expression profile of NTE ...
Terradas Mariona - - 2010
Micronuclei are good markers of genotoxic exposure in humans and their scoring has been extensively used to identify potential genotoxic agents. Micronuclei are also indicators of chromosomal instability, since the frequency of micronuclei is higher in tumour cells and cells with a defective DNA damage repair system or disrupted cell ...
Joseph Bertrand - - 2010
The proper development of the brain and other organs depends on multiple parameters, including strictly controlled expansion of specific progenitor pools. The regulation of such expansion events includes enzymatic activities that govern the correct number of specific cells to be generated via an orchestrated control of cell proliferation, cell cycle ...
Yang Qiong Q Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, - - 2010
Although major progress has been made in uncovering the machinery that underlies individual biological clocks, much less is known about how multiple clocks coordinate their oscillations. We simultaneously tracked cell division events and circadian phases of individual cells of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus and fit the data to a model ...
Charong Nurdina - - 2011
ST7 has been proposed to be a tumor suppressor gene in the chromosome region 7q31.1-q31.2. In order to gain some insight into its role in cancer, the localization and verification of the ST7 expression levels were determined. Various types of ST7 expression vectors tagged with the sequences of GFP, YFP ...
Bedelbaeva Khamilia K Cellular and Molecular Oncogenesis and Gene Expression, The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, PA 19104, - - 2010
Animals capable of regenerating multiple tissue types, organs, and appendages after injury are common yet sporadic and include some sponge, hydra, planarian, and salamander (i.e., newt and axolotl) species, but notably such regenerative capacity is rare in mammals. The adult MRL mouse strain is a rare exception to the rule ...
Joe Yeonsoo - - 2010
Fenofibrate is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) agonist that has been widely used to treat dyslipidemia. Previous studies have suggested that fenofibrate plays a role in cell proliferation and the development of hepatocarcinoma, but the underlying mechanism has not been fully characterized. In this report, we investigated whether fenofibrate ...
Rosenberg N - - 2010
Animal studies have previously shown that activin A enhances osteoblast proliferation IN VITRO and increases bone formation and bone mechanical strength IN VIVO. For the further understanding of its action in human osteoblast, we studied the pattern of a cell cycle response to the treatment with activin A. We hypothesize ...
Larson Jennifer R - - 2010
Septin complexes at the bud neck in Saccharomyces cerevisiae serve as a scaffold for proteins involved in signaling, cell cycle control, and cell wall synthesis. Many of these bind asymmetrically, associating with either the mother- or daughter-side of the neck. Septin structures are inherently apolar so the basis for the ...
Koelink Pim J - - 2010
INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological data suggests that 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases, prevents colorectal cancer development in these patients, although the mechanisms remain incompletely understood. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here we report that 5-ASA prevents growth of several colorectal cancer cell lines by ...
Bilitou Aikaterini - - 2010
The mature retina is formed through multi-step developmental processes, including eye field specification, optic vesicle evagination, and cell-fate determination. Co-ordination of these developmental events with cell-proliferative activity is essential to achieve formation of proper retinal structure and function. In particular, the molecular and cellular dynamics of the final cell cycle ...
Xu Yunyuan - - 2010
Protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system is necessary for a normal cell cycle. As compared with knowledge of the mechanism in animals and yeast, that in plants is less known. Here we summarize research into the regulatory mechanism of protein degradation in the cell cycle in plants. Anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC), ...
Quan Zhi Wei - - 2010
Gallbladder carcinoma is known to be an aggressive malignancy and nonsensitive to routine chemotherapy. Its prognosis is quite poor. We have illustrated that somatostatin (SST) can enhance chemosensitivity of gallbladder cancer to Doxorubicin (DOX) in our precious studies. Here, we explored the possible mechanisms by which SST used to enhance ...
Bai Haibo H Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201, - - 2010
In eukaryotic cells, the cell cycle checkpoint proteins Rad9, Rad1, and Hus1 form the 9-1-1 complex which is structurally similar to the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) sliding clamp. hMSH2/hMSH6 (hMutS alpha) and hMSH2/hMSH3 (hMutS beta) are the mismatch recognition factors of the mismatch repair pathway. hMutS alpha has been ...
Morf J?rg - - 2010
In cyanobacteria cell division is intimately linked with the circadian cycle. Dong et al. (2010) now identify components of the circadian clock that regulate the formation of the midcell ring for cytokinesis, revealing a critical link between the circadian cycle and the control of cell division.
Massie Thomas M - - 2010
Complex dynamics, such as population cycles, can arise when the individual members of a population become synchronized. However, it is an open question how readily and through which mechanisms synchronization-driven cycles can occur in unstructured microbial populations. In experimental chemostats we studied large populations (>10(9) cells) of unicellular phytoplankton that ...
Seeley E Scott ES Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University, Stanford, 94305 CA, - - 2010
Primary cilia contain signaling receptors of diverse classes, and ciliary dysfunction results in a variety of developmental defects. Thus, primary cilia are thought to have an important role in sensing and transducing cellular signals. Although there is clear evidence demonstrating that these organelles are assembled and disassembled dynamically as cells ...
Afonso Bruno B Department of Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, - - 2010
The ability to engineer genetic programs governing cell fate will permit new safeguards for engineered organisms and will further the biological understanding of differentiation and aging. Here, we have designed, built and implemented a genetic device in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that controls cell-cycle progression selectively in daughter cells. ...
Lee Jungwoon - - 2010
Mouse and human ES (embryonic stem) cells display unusual proliferative properties and can produce pluripotent stem cells indefinitely. Both processes might be important for maintaining the 'stemness' of ES cells; however, little is known about how the cell-cycle fate is regulated in ES cells. Oct-4, a master switch of pluripotency, ...
Manchado Eusebio E Cell Division and Cancer Group, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncológicas, Melchor Fernández Almagro 3, E-28029 Madrid, - - 2010
The APC/C (anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets specific substrates for degradation by the 26S proteasome. APC/C activity depends on two cofactors, namely Cdc20 (cell division cycle 20) and Cdh1, which select the appropriate targets for ubiquitination. It is well established that APC/C is a target of ...
Miguel-Velado Eduardo - - 2010
AIMS: Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation is involved in cardiovascular pathologies associated with unwanted arterial wall remodelling. Coordinated changes in the expression of several K+ channels have been found to be important elements in the phenotypic switch of VSMCs towards proliferation. We have previously demonstrated the association of functional ...
Radhakrishnan Sunish Kumar - - 2010
NAD(H)-binding proteins play important roles in cell-cycle and developmental signaling in eukaryotes. We identified a bifunctional NAD(H)-binding regulator (KidO) that integrates cell-fate signaling with cytokinesis in the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus. KidO stimulates the DivJ kinase and directly acts on the cytokinetic tubulin, FtsZ, to tune cytokinesis with the cell cycle. ...
Song Libing - - 2010
Previously, we have identified a novel centrosomal protein centrobin that asymmetrically localizes to the daughter centriole. We found that depletion of centrobin expression inhibited the centriole duplication and impaired cytokinesis. However, the biological significance of centrobin in the cell cycle remains unknown. In the current study, we observed that silencing ...
Li Jin-Xia - - 2010
In the present study, we demonstrated that gadolinium-containing particles formed in cell culture medium acted as a biologically active entity to mediate cell cycle progression in NIH3T3 cells. The particles were observed to accumulate at the cell surface by scanning electron microscopy. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis was undertaken and confirmed that ...
Walsh Stuart - - 2010
AIMS: Adult mammalian cardiomyocytes are traditionally viewed as being permanently withdrawn from the cell cycle. Whereas some groups have reported none, others have reported extensive mitosis in adult myocardium under steady-state conditions. Recently, a highly specific assay of 14C dating in humans has suggested a continuous generation of cardiomyocytes in ...
Xia Dianren D Department of Cancer Biology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, - - 2010
Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), one of the downstream products of cyclooxygenase-2 enzymatic activity, promotes colorectal carcinogenesis in part by stimulating cell division. In this study, we define a critical mechanism in this process by showing that the prometastatic adapter protein human enhancer of filamentation 1 (HEF1; NEDD9) links PGE(2) to the ...
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