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Hellmann-Regen Julian - - 2012
While the biological importance of the cytochrome P450 system in the liver is well established, much less is known about its role in the brain and drug interactions at the level of brain cells have hardly been investigated. Here, we show that modafinil, a well-known inducer of hepatic CYP enzymes, ...
Xu Xia X Department of Surgery, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, - - 2012
Identifying the cells of origin of lung cancer may lead to new therapeutic strategies. Previous work has focused upon the putative bronchoalveolar stem cell at the bronchioalveolar duct junction as a cancer cell of origin when a codon 12 K-Ras mutant is induced via adenoviral Cre inhalation. In the present ...
Du Juan J Departments of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, - - 2013
K-ras mutations have been identified in up to 95% of pancreatic cancers, implying their critical role in the molecular pathogenesis. Expression of K-ras oncogene in an immortalized human pancreatic ductal epithelial cell line, originally derived from normal pancreas (H6c7), induced the formation of carcinoma in mice. We hypothesized that K-ras ...
Lo Cicero Alessandra A Dipartimento di Biomedicina sperimentale e Neuroscienze cliniche, via del Vespro 129, 90127 Palermo, - - 2012
Membrane microvesicle shedding is an active process and occurs in viable cells with no signs of apoptosis or necrosis. We report here that microvesicles shed by oligodendroglioma cells contain an 'aggrecanase' activity, cleaving aggrecan at sites previously identified as targets for adamalysin metalloproteinases with disintegrin and thrombospondin domains (ADAMTSs). Degradation ...
Ge Chutian - - 2012
Numerous studies have demonstrated that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure during pregnancy is associated with negative reproductive consequences in adulthood, such as reduced sperm production and oocyte destruction in human and laboratory animals. However, the mechanism(s) underlying these epidemiological findings is still unclear, largely due to the lack of an ...
Tobimatsu Yuki - - 2012
The plasticity of lignin biosynthesis should permit the inclusion of new compatible phenolic monomers, such as rosmarinic acid (RA) and analogous catechol derivatives, into cell-wall lignins that are consequently less recalcitrant to biomass processing. In vitro lignin polymerization experiments revealed that RA readily underwent peroxidase-catalyzed copolymerization with monolignols and lignin oligomers ...
Wang Pei-Shan - - 2012
Tightly controlled termination of proliferation determines when oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) can initiate differentiation and mature into myelin-forming cells. Protein-tyrosine phosphatase α (PTPα) promotes OPC differentiation, but its role in proliferation is unknown. Here we report that loss of PTPα enhanced in vitro proliferation and survival and decreased cell cycle ...
Van Moerkercke Alex - - 2012
In which cells of the flower volatile biosynthesis takes place is unclear. In rose and snapdragon, some enzymes of the volatile phenylpropanoid/benzenoid pathway have been shown to be present in the epidermal cells of petals. It is therefore generally believed that the production of these compounds occurs in these cells. ...
Fujita Megumi - - 2012
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has been shown to be resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In order to examine the potential of zoledronate (ZOL), a bisphosphonate, as an anticancer agent, we investigated the effects of ZOL on RCC cells and the involvement of the mevalonate pathway in antiproliferative effects, as well ...
Tai Joseph - - 2012
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is a popular culinary/medicinal herb. Recent studies have shown it has pharmacologic activities for cancer chemoprevention and therapy. This study evaluated the antiproliferation activity of rosemary extract (RE) against human ovarian cancer cells, and whether the extract and its three main active ingredients carnosol (CS), carnosic ...
Xun Zhiyin - - 2012
Retinoic acid (RA) is used in differentiation therapy to treat a variety of cancers including neuroblastoma. The contributing factors for its therapeutic efficacy are poorly understood. However, mitochondria (MT) have been implicated as key effectors in RA-mediated differentiation process. Here we utilize the SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line as a ...
Shimanuki Miwa - - 2012
Melanocytes in the human epidermis actively produce and secrete various substances, thereby contributing to the maintenance of the skin homeostasis. Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS) that catalyzes the formation of prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2) ) may be one of such secreted molecules. Once secreted, L-PGDS functions as a transporter for lipophilic ...
Affolter Annette - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Irradiation-induced signaling via the 2 pathways, Raf-MEK-ERK and PI3K-Akt, is known to be closely associated with a limited response to radiotherapy. In the present study we analyzed the relevance of constitutively active K-Ras for postradiogenic pathway stimulation and the option of coordinated inhibition to overcome these rescue mechanisms. METHODS: ...
Watanabe Tatsuro - - 2012
PURPOSE: To understand how nanomechanical stiffness affects metastatic potential, we studied the relationship between cell migration, a characteristic of metastasis, and cell stiffness using atomic force microscopy (AFM), which can measure stiffness (elasticity) of individual living cells. METHODS: Migration and cell stiffness of three metastatic B16 melanoma variants (B16-F10, B16-BL6, ...
He Bin - - 2012
Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF or FGF2) plays diverse roles in regulating cell proliferation, migration and differentiation during embryo development. In this study, the effect of bFGF on ovarian germ cell development was investigated in the embryonic chicken by in vitro and in vivo experiments. Results showed that a remarkable ...
Kim Hwa-Ryeon - - 2012
p53 is a well-known transcription factor that controls cell cycle arrest and cell death in response to a wide range of stresses. Moreover, p53 regulates glucose metabolism and its mutation results in the metabolic switch to the Warburg effect found in cancer cells. Nucleotide biosynthesis is also critical for cell ...
Hayakawa Tohru - - 2012
The present study was aimed to evaluate the viability and total protein contents of osteoblast-like cells on the titanium surface with different surface mechanical treatment, namely, nanometer smoothing (Ra: approximately 2.0 nm) and sandblasting (Ra: approximately 1.0 μm), and biochemical treatment, namely, with or without fibronectin immobilization. Fibronectin could be easily immobilized ...
Ozel Cem - - 2012
The biological phenomenon of cell fusion has been linked to several characteristics of tumour progression, including an enhanced metastatogenic capacity and an enhanced drug resistance of hybrid cells. We demonstrated recently that M13SV1-EGFP-Neo breast epithelial cells exhibiting stem cell characteristics spontaneously fused with MDA-MB-435-Hyg breast cancer cells, thereby giving rise ...
Lim Do-Seon - - 2012
It was previously reported that in Ras transformed NIH3T3 cells, dynamin II acts as an intermediate messenger in the Ras signal transduction pathway leading to membrane ruffling and cell migration. However, these results do not provide sufficient evidence of a relationship between dynamin II and the Ras signal transduction pathway ...
Mathias Rommel A - - 2012
Metastasis remains the primary cause of cancer patient death. Although the precise molecular mechanisms at play remain largely unknown, tumor progression is currently hypothesized to follow a series of sequential steps known as the metastatic cascade. An important component, thought to be involved early in this cascade, is the process ...
Kataria Hardeep - - 2012
Glutamate neurotoxicity has been implicated in stroke, head trauma, multiple sclerosis and neurodegenerative disorders. Search for herbal remedies that may possibly act as therapeutic agents is an active area of research to combat these diseases. The present study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective role of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), also ...
Sekiguchi Yuusuke - - 2012
Salacia reticulata (SR) is a plant native to Sri Lanka. In ayurvedic medicine, SR bark preparations, taken orally, are considered effective in the treatment of rheumatism and diabetes. We investigated the ability of SR leaves (SRL) to inhibit in vitro the interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-activated proliferation of synoviocyte-like cells derived from rheumatoid ...
Zhang Lei - - 2012
T-helper (Th) 22 is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. The roles of Th22 cells in the pathophysiological of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remain unsettled. So we examined the frequencies of Th22 cells, Th17 cells and Th1 cells in peripheral blood (PB) from patients with AS ...
Justiniano Steven E - - 2012
In vivo analysis of Drosophila melanogaster has enhanced our understanding of many biological processes, notably the mechanisms of heredity and development. While in vivo analysis of mutants has been a strength of the field, analyzing fly cells in culture is valuable for cell biological, biochemical and whole genome approaches in ...
O'Donnell Edmond F - - 2012
A novel role of the dihydroorotatedehydrogenase (DHODH) inhibitor leflunomide as a potential anti-melanoma therapy was recently reported (Nature 471:518-22, 2011). We previously reported that leflunomide strongly activates the transcriptional activity of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR). We therefore tested whether the AhR regulates the anti-proliferative effects of leflunomide in melanoma. ...
Shoji Keiko - - 2012
The PI3K (phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase)/mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway is frequently activated in endometrial cancer through various PI3K/AKT-activating genetic alterations. We examined the antitumor effect of NVP-BEZ235--a dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor--and RAD001--an mTOR inhibitor--in 13 endometrial cancer cell lines, all of which possess one or more alterations in PTEN, PIK3CA, and K-Ras. ...
Benito-Miguel Marta - - 2012
The purpose of this study was to examine the role of RA Synovial Fibroblast (RASFib) IL-15 expression on B cell survival. Magnetically sorted peripheral blood memory B cells from 15 healthy subjects were cocultured with RASFib. RASFib constitutively expressed membrane IL-15. Survival of isolated B cells cultured for 6 days, ...
Torres Josema J Departamento de Biología Celular, Universidad de Valencia, Burjassot, Comunidad Valenciana, Spain. - - 2012
The ability to direct differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells into specific lineages not only provides new insights into the pathways that regulate lineage selection but also has translational applications, for example in drug discovery. We set out to develop a method of differentiating ES cells into mesodermal cells ...
Lin Yi-Fan - - 2012
Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is a complex cellular behavior involving coordination of cell size expansion and myofibril content increase. Here, we investigate the contribution of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy to cardiac chamber emergence, the process during which the primitive heart tube transforms into morphologically distinct chambers and increases its contractile strength. Focusing on the ...
Ciofani Gianni - - 2011
This study aimed at the investigation of behavior of myoblasts in conditions of altered gravity. C2C12 cells underwent stimulations by different hypergravity intensities (2h at 5g, 10g, and 20g) in the Large Diameter Centrifuge of the European Space Agency (ESA), highlighting positive effects on both proliferation and differentiation.
Parrini Maria Carla - - 2011
The Ras proto-oncogenic proteins, prototypes of the small GTPases, work as molecular switches: they are active when bound to GTP and inactive when bound to GDP. A variety of evidence suggested that the Ras paradigm is not fully valid for the Rho-family of small GTPases. Indeed, permanent activation is not ...
White Andrew C - - 2011
The small GTPase Ras is activated in a high proportion of human cancers. Attempts to clinically block Ras activity through pharmacological means has proven largely ineffective thus far. We employed an inducible mouse model of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) to study the effect of Ras activation and show that hair ...
Zhao Min - - 2012
Epithelia of the cornea, lens and retina contain a vast array of ion channels and pumps. Together they produce a polarized flow of ions in and out of cells, as well as across the epithelia. These naturally occurring ion fluxes are essential to the hydration and metabolism of the ocular ...
Wang Xihong - - 2011
rES (rhesus monkey embryonic stem) cells have similar characteristics to human ES (embryonic stem) cells, and might be useful as a substitute model for preclinical research. Before their clinical application, it is critical to understand the roles of factors that control the differentiation of ES cells into hepatocytes. Here, we ...
Cross Emily E EE Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, United - - 2011
Epicardial development is a process during which epithelial sheet movement, single cell migration, and differentiation are coordinated to generate coronary arteries. Signaling cascades regulate the concurrent and complex nature of these three events. Through simple and highly reproducible assays, we identified small organic molecules that impact signaling pathways regulating these ...
Ruder Warren C - - 2011
Biomechanical forces govern the behaviors of organisms and their environment and examining these behaviors to understand the underlying phenomena is an important challenge. One experimental approach for probing these interactions between organisms and their biomechanical environment uses biologically-inspired, artificial surrogates that reproduce organic mechanical systems. For the case of complex, ...
Toner Emma - - 2011
Sheep infected with the Cullompton isolate of Fasciola hepatica were treated with triclabendazole at a concentration of 10 mg/kg at 12 weeks post-infection. Adult flukes were recovered from the liver and, where present, from the gall bladder at 48, 72 and 96 h post-treatment (pt). Gross changes to the spermatogenic cells of the ...
Raynaud Peggy - - 2011
Ductal plate malformations (DPMs) are developmental anomalies considered to result from lack of ductal plate remodeling during bile duct morphogenesis. In mice, bile duct development is initiated by the formation of primitive ductal structures lined by two cell types, namely ductal plate cells and hepatoblasts. During ductal plate remodeling, the ...
Omenetti Alessia - - 2011
Cells lining the biliary tree are targets of injury, but also orchestrate liver repair. The latter involves autocrine/paracrine signaling that enhances the viability and growth of residual ductular cells and promotes accumulation of inflammatory and myofibroblastic cells. The mechanisms mediating this so-called 'ductular reaction' need to be better understood to ...
Thenappan Arun - - 2011
Liver regeneration, following partial hepatectomy (PHx), occurs through precisely controlled and synchronized cell proliferation, in which quiescent hepatocytes undergo one to two rounds of replication, with restoration of liver mass and function. We previously demonstrated that loss of the Smad3/4 adaptor protein β-2 spectrin (β2SP) is associated with faster entry ...
Iordanskaia Tatiana - - 2011
Immaculate and complete palatal seam disintegration, which takes place at the last phase of palate development, is essential for normal palate development. And in absence of palatal midline epithelial seam (MES) disintegration, cleft palate may arise. It has been established that transforming growth factor (TGF) β induces both epithelial mesenchymal ...
Ghule Prachi N - - 2011
Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells derived from terminally differentiated human fibroblasts are reprogrammed to possess stem cell like properties. However, the extent to which iPS cells exhibit unique properties of the human embryonic stem (hES) cell cycle remains to be established. hES cells are characterized by an abbreviated G1 phase ...
Wang Yashu - - 2011
Tubeimoside I (TBMS I) is a natural compound extracted from Bolbostemma paniculatum (Maxim.) Franquet (Cucurbitaceae), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine widely used for the treatment of inflammation. Recently, it has been suggested that TBMS I may be a potent anticancer agent for a variety of human cancers. However, TBMS I ...
Picard Nicolas - - 2011
The goal of this study was to assess the interaction of the mTOR inhibitors (ImTORs) sirolimus and everolimus with the human organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs) expressed in hepatocytes and enterocytes by conducting uptake experiments using (i) transfected HEK293T cells, (ii) the hepatocyte-like HepaRG cell line and (iii) the enterocyte-like Caco-2 ...
Yang Quan-hui - - 2011
Hepatocytes emerge from a quiescent state into a proliferative state to recover from septic injury. We hypothesize that hepatocyte cell cycle regulation after sepsis potentially contributes to the recovery of liver function. An animal model of sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in rats. At serial time ...
Khare Reeti - - 2011
As much as 90% of an intravenously (i.v.) injected dose of adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) is absorbed and destroyed by liver Kupffer cells. Viruses that escape these cells can then transduce hepatocytes after binding factor X (FX). Given that interactions with FX and Kupffer cells are thought to occur on ...
Brimo Fadi - - 2011
The histogenesis of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the bladder/urethra is uncertain. Hepatocyte nuclear factor-1β is a homeodomain protein that has been reported to be frequently overexpressed in ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma in comparison with rare or no expression in other types of epithelial ovarian tumors. We assessed the expression of ...
Sunagozaka Hajime - - 2011
The identification of genes involved in tumor growth is crucial for the development of inventive anticancer treatments. Here, we have cloned a 17-kDa secretory protein encoded by c19orf10 from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) serial analysis of gene expression libraries. Gene expression analysis indicated that c19orf10 was overexpressed in approximately two-thirds of ...
Nussler Andreas K - - 2011
Although significant progress has been made in the field of orthotopic liver transplantation, cell-based therapies seem to be a promising alternative to whole-organ transplantation. The reasons are manifold but organ shortage is the main cause for this approach. However, many problems such as the question which cell type should be ...
Shamis Yulia - - 2011
In light of the increasing need for differentiated primary cells for cell therapy and the rapid de-differentiation occurring during standard in vitro cultivation techniques, there is an urgent need for developing 3-dimensional in vitro systems where expanded cells display in vivo-like differentiated phenotypes. It is becoming clear that the natural ...
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