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Yin Xiaoxue X Department of Orthopaedics, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, - - 2012
Tissue transglutaminase (type II, TG2) has long been postulated to directly promote skeletal matrix calcification and play an important role in ossification. However, limited information is available on the expression, function and modulating mechanism of TG2 during osteoblast differentiation and mineralization. To address these issues, we cultured the well-established human ...
Yang Min - - 2012
IL-10-producing CD1d(hi)CD5(+) B cells, also known as B10 cells, have been shown to possess a regulatory function in the inhibition of immune responses, but whether and how B10 cells suppress the development of autoimmune arthritis remain largely unclear. In this study, we detected significantly decreased numbers of IL-10-producing B cells, ...
Ton Quynh V QV Department of Biological Sciences, Lehigh University, 111 Research Drive, Iacocca B-217, Bethlehem, PA 18015, - - 2012
Gap junctions are proteinaceous channels that reside at the plasma membrane and permit the exchange of ions, metabolites, and second messengers between neighboring cells. Connexin proteins are the subunits of gap junction channels. Mutations in zebrafish cx43 cause the short fin (sof(b123)) phenotype which is characterized by short fins due ...
Finnegan Alison - - 2012
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic autoimmune immune disease affecting approximately 1% of the population. There has been a renewed interest in the role of B cells in rheumatoid arthritis based on the evidence that B cell depletion therapy is effective in the treatment of disease. This review summarizes the current ...
Abdus-Saboor Ishmail - - 2012
Cells perform wide varieties of functions that are facilitated, in part, by adopting unique shapes. Many of the genes and pathways that promote cell fate specification have been elucidated. However, relatively few transcription factors have been identified that promote shape acquisition after fate specification. Here we show that the Nkx5/HMX ...
Wilson Catherine H CH Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, - - 2012
Genetic screens in simple model organisms have identified many of the key components of the conserved signal transduction pathways that are oncogenic when misregulated. Here, we identify H37N21.1 as a gene that regulates vulval induction in let-60(n1046gf), a strain with a gain-of-function mutation in the Caenorhabditis elegans Ras orthologue, and ...
Sitnik Katarzyna M KM Immunology Section, Lund University, Lund 22184, Sweden. - - 2012
The vitamin A metabolite and transcriptional modulator retinoic acid (RA) is recognized as an important regulator of epithelial cell homeostasis in several tissues. Despite the known importance of the epithelial compartment of the thymus in T cell development and selection, the potential role of RA in the regulation of thymic ...
Bosveld Floris - - 2012
During animal development, several planar cell polarity (PCP) pathways control tissue shape by coordinating collective cell behavior. Here, we characterize epithelium morphogenesis in the Drosophila dorsal thorax by multiscale imaging and show how the Fat/Dachsous/Four-jointed PCP pathway controls morphogenesis. We find that the proto-cadherin Dachsous is polarized within a domain ...
Male Heather - - 2012
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer and relatively resistant to chemotherapy. The most prevalent molecular abnormality in NSCLC is the overactivation of K-Ras proto-oncogene; therefore, elucidating down-stream Ras signaling in NSCLC is significantly important in developing novel therapies against this malignancy. Our work ...
Borrego-Diaz Emma - - 2012
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are believed to be the regenerative pool of cells responsible for repopulating tumors. Gaining knowledge about the signaling characteristics of CSCs is important for understanding the biology of tumors and developing novel anti-cancer therapies. We have identified a subpopulation of cells positive for CD133 (a CSC ...
Chen David R - - 2012
The continued efficacy of B-cell depletion in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) depends on repeated cycles of anti-CD20 treatment to maintain low levels of B cells. It is surprising that this significant manipulation of the humoral immune system is remarkably safe with repeated treatment and that rates of adverse effects remain stable, ...
Ogbah Zighereda - - 2012
Several studies have demonstrated that different genetic profiles contribute to melanoma development and progression. To evaluate the existence of different molecular aberration patterns in melanoma associated with v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) or 9p21 locus alterations, eleven patient-derived melanoma cell lines were characterized. Multiplex ligation probe amplification ...
Saito Masaya - - 2012
Genome-wide association studies have revealed a link between autophagy-related (ATG) genes and susceptibility to Crohn's disease. This suggests underlying involvement of autophagy impairment in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease. This study was performed to investigate the pathophysiological importance of autophagy impairment in intestinal epithelial cells exposed to TNF-α. Human colonic ...
Addae Cynthia C Department of Biological Sciences and Environmental Toxicology Program, Southern University and A&M College, Baton Rouge, LA 70813, - - 2012
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent cells that can differentiate into all three main germ layers: endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. Although a number of methods have been developed to differentiate ES cells into neuronal phenotypes such as sensory and motor neurons, the efficient generation of GABAergic interneurons from ES cells ...
Hellmann-Regen Julian - - 2012
While the biological importance of the cytochrome P450 system in the liver is well established, much less is known about its role in the brain and drug interactions at the level of brain cells have hardly been investigated. Here, we show that modafinil, a well-known inducer of hepatic CYP enzymes, ...
Xu Xia X Department of Surgery, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, - - 2012
Identifying the cells of origin of lung cancer may lead to new therapeutic strategies. Previous work has focused upon the putative bronchoalveolar stem cell at the bronchioalveolar duct junction as a cancer cell of origin when a codon 12 K-Ras mutant is induced via adenoviral Cre inhalation. In the present ...
Du Juan J Departments of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, - - 2013
K-ras mutations have been identified in up to 95% of pancreatic cancers, implying their critical role in the molecular pathogenesis. Expression of K-ras oncogene in an immortalized human pancreatic ductal epithelial cell line, originally derived from normal pancreas (H6c7), induced the formation of carcinoma in mice. We hypothesized that K-ras ...
Lo Cicero Alessandra A Dipartimento di Biomedicina sperimentale e Neuroscienze cliniche, via del Vespro 129, 90127 Palermo, - - 2012
Membrane microvesicle shedding is an active process and occurs in viable cells with no signs of apoptosis or necrosis. We report here that microvesicles shed by oligodendroglioma cells contain an 'aggrecanase' activity, cleaving aggrecan at sites previously identified as targets for adamalysin metalloproteinases with disintegrin and thrombospondin domains (ADAMTSs). Degradation ...
Ge Chutian - - 2012
Numerous studies have demonstrated that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure during pregnancy is associated with negative reproductive consequences in adulthood, such as reduced sperm production and oocyte destruction in human and laboratory animals. However, the mechanism(s) underlying these epidemiological findings is still unclear, largely due to the lack of an ...
Tobimatsu Yuki - - 2012
The plasticity of lignin biosynthesis should permit the inclusion of new compatible phenolic monomers, such as rosmarinic acid (RA) and analogous catechol derivatives, into cell-wall lignins that are consequently less recalcitrant to biomass processing. In vitro lignin polymerization experiments revealed that RA readily underwent peroxidase-catalyzed copolymerization with monolignols and lignin oligomers ...
Wang Pei-Shan - - 2012
Tightly controlled termination of proliferation determines when oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) can initiate differentiation and mature into myelin-forming cells. Protein-tyrosine phosphatase α (PTPα) promotes OPC differentiation, but its role in proliferation is unknown. Here we report that loss of PTPα enhanced in vitro proliferation and survival and decreased cell cycle ...
Van Moerkercke Alex - - 2012
In which cells of the flower volatile biosynthesis takes place is unclear. In rose and snapdragon, some enzymes of the volatile phenylpropanoid/benzenoid pathway have been shown to be present in the epidermal cells of petals. It is therefore generally believed that the production of these compounds occurs in these cells. ...
Fujita Megumi - - 2012
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has been shown to be resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In order to examine the potential of zoledronate (ZOL), a bisphosphonate, as an anticancer agent, we investigated the effects of ZOL on RCC cells and the involvement of the mevalonate pathway in antiproliferative effects, as well ...
Tai Joseph - - 2012
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is a popular culinary/medicinal herb. Recent studies have shown it has pharmacologic activities for cancer chemoprevention and therapy. This study evaluated the antiproliferation activity of rosemary extract (RE) against human ovarian cancer cells, and whether the extract and its three main active ingredients carnosol (CS), carnosic ...
Xun Zhiyin Z Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Life Sciences Division, 1 Cyclotron Rd., Berkeley, CA 94720, - - 2012
Retinoic acid (RA) is used in differentiation therapy to treat a variety of cancers including neuroblastoma. The contributing factors for its therapeutic efficacy are poorly understood. However, mitochondria (MT) have been implicated as key effectors in RA-mediated differentiation process. Here we utilize the SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line as a ...
Shimanuki Miwa - - 2012
Melanocytes in the human epidermis actively produce and secrete various substances, thereby contributing to the maintenance of the skin homeostasis. Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS) that catalyzes the formation of prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2) ) may be one of such secreted molecules. Once secreted, L-PGDS functions as a transporter for lipophilic ...
Affolter Annette - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Irradiation-induced signaling via the 2 pathways, Raf-MEK-ERK and PI3K-Akt, is known to be closely associated with a limited response to radiotherapy. In the present study we analyzed the relevance of constitutively active K-Ras for postradiogenic pathway stimulation and the option of coordinated inhibition to overcome these rescue mechanisms. METHODS: ...
Watanabe Tatsuro - - 2012
PURPOSE: To understand how nanomechanical stiffness affects metastatic potential, we studied the relationship between cell migration, a characteristic of metastasis, and cell stiffness using atomic force microscopy (AFM), which can measure stiffness (elasticity) of individual living cells. METHODS: Migration and cell stiffness of three metastatic B16 melanoma variants (B16-F10, B16-BL6, ...
He Bin - - 2012
Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF or FGF2) plays diverse roles in regulating cell proliferation, migration and differentiation during embryo development. In this study, the effect of bFGF on ovarian germ cell development was investigated in the embryonic chicken by in vitro and in vivo experiments. Results showed that a remarkable ...
Kim Hwa-Ryeon - - 2012
p53 is a well-known transcription factor that controls cell cycle arrest and cell death in response to a wide range of stresses. Moreover, p53 regulates glucose metabolism and its mutation results in the metabolic switch to the Warburg effect found in cancer cells. Nucleotide biosynthesis is also critical for cell ...
Hayakawa Tohru - - 2012
The present study was aimed to evaluate the viability and total protein contents of osteoblast-like cells on the titanium surface with different surface mechanical treatment, namely, nanometer smoothing (Ra: approximately 2.0 nm) and sandblasting (Ra: approximately 1.0 μm), and biochemical treatment, namely, with or without fibronectin immobilization. Fibronectin could be easily immobilized ...
Ozel Cem - - 2012
The biological phenomenon of cell fusion has been linked to several characteristics of tumour progression, including an enhanced metastatogenic capacity and an enhanced drug resistance of hybrid cells. We demonstrated recently that M13SV1-EGFP-Neo breast epithelial cells exhibiting stem cell characteristics spontaneously fused with MDA-MB-435-Hyg breast cancer cells, thereby giving rise ...
Lim Do-Seon - - 2012
It was previously reported that in Ras transformed NIH3T3 cells, dynamin II acts as an intermediate messenger in the Ras signal transduction pathway leading to membrane ruffling and cell migration. However, these results do not provide sufficient evidence of a relationship between dynamin II and the Ras signal transduction pathway ...
Mathias Rommel A - - 2012
Metastasis remains the primary cause of cancer patient death. Although the precise molecular mechanisms at play remain largely unknown, tumor progression is currently hypothesized to follow a series of sequential steps known as the metastatic cascade. An important component, thought to be involved early in this cascade, is the process ...
Kataria Hardeep - - 2012
Glutamate neurotoxicity has been implicated in stroke, head trauma, multiple sclerosis and neurodegenerative disorders. Search for herbal remedies that may possibly act as therapeutic agents is an active area of research to combat these diseases. The present study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective role of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), also ...
Sekiguchi Yuusuke - - 2012
Salacia reticulata (SR) is a plant native to Sri Lanka. In ayurvedic medicine, SR bark preparations, taken orally, are considered effective in the treatment of rheumatism and diabetes. We investigated the ability of SR leaves (SRL) to inhibit in vitro the interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-activated proliferation of synoviocyte-like cells derived from rheumatoid ...
Zhang Lei - - 2012
T-helper (Th) 22 is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. The roles of Th22 cells in the pathophysiological of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remain unsettled. So we examined the frequencies of Th22 cells, Th17 cells and Th1 cells in peripheral blood (PB) from patients with AS ...
Justiniano Steven E - - 2012
In vivo analysis of Drosophila melanogaster has enhanced our understanding of many biological processes, notably the mechanisms of heredity and development. While in vivo analysis of mutants has been a strength of the field, analyzing fly cells in culture is valuable for cell biological, biochemical and whole genome approaches in ...
O'Donnell Edmond F - - 2012
A novel role of the dihydroorotatedehydrogenase (DHODH) inhibitor leflunomide as a potential anti-melanoma therapy was recently reported (Nature 471:518-22, 2011). We previously reported that leflunomide strongly activates the transcriptional activity of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR). We therefore tested whether the AhR regulates the anti-proliferative effects of leflunomide in melanoma. ...
Shoji Keiko - - 2012
The PI3K (phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase)/mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway is frequently activated in endometrial cancer through various PI3K/AKT-activating genetic alterations. We examined the antitumor effect of NVP-BEZ235--a dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor--and RAD001--an mTOR inhibitor--in 13 endometrial cancer cell lines, all of which possess one or more alterations in PTEN, PIK3CA, and K-Ras. ...
Benito-Miguel Marta - - 2012
The purpose of this study was to examine the role of RA Synovial Fibroblast (RASFib) IL-15 expression on B cell survival. Magnetically sorted peripheral blood memory B cells from 15 healthy subjects were cocultured with RASFib. RASFib constitutively expressed membrane IL-15. Survival of isolated B cells cultured for 6 days, ...
Torres Josema J Departamento de Biología Celular, Universidad de Valencia, Burjassot, Comunidad Valenciana, Spain. - - 2012
The ability to direct differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells into specific lineages not only provides new insights into the pathways that regulate lineage selection but also has translational applications, for example in drug discovery. We set out to develop a method of differentiating ES cells into mesodermal cells ...
Lin Yi-Fan YF Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, - - 2012
Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is a complex cellular behavior involving coordination of cell size expansion and myofibril content increase. Here, we investigate the contribution of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy to cardiac chamber emergence, the process during which the primitive heart tube transforms into morphologically distinct chambers and increases its contractile strength. Focusing on the ...
Ciofani Gianni - - 2011
This study aimed at the investigation of behavior of myoblasts in conditions of altered gravity. C2C12 cells underwent stimulations by different hypergravity intensities (2h at 5g, 10g, and 20g) in the Large Diameter Centrifuge of the European Space Agency (ESA), highlighting positive effects on both proliferation and differentiation.
White Andrew C - - 2011
The small GTPase Ras is activated in a high proportion of human cancers. Attempts to clinically block Ras activity through pharmacological means has proven largely ineffective thus far. We employed an inducible mouse model of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) to study the effect of Ras activation and show that hair ...
Parrini Maria Carla MC Institut Curie, Centre de Recherche, Inserm U830; Paris, - - 2011
The Ras proto-oncogenic proteins, prototypes of the small GTPases, work as molecular switches: they are active when bound to GTP and inactive when bound to GDP. A variety of evidence suggested that the Ras paradigm is not fully valid for the Rho-family of small GTPases. Indeed, permanent activation is not ...
Zhao Min M Department of Dermatology, UC Davis School of Medicine, 2921 Stockton Blvd., Sacramento, CA 95817, USA. - - 2012
Epithelia of the cornea, lens and retina contain a vast array of ion channels and pumps. Together they produce a polarized flow of ions in and out of cells, as well as across the epithelia. These naturally occurring ion fluxes are essential to the hydration and metabolism of the ocular ...
Wang Xihong - - 2011
rES (rhesus monkey embryonic stem) cells have similar characteristics to human ES (embryonic stem) cells, and might be useful as a substitute model for preclinical research. Before their clinical application, it is critical to understand the roles of factors that control the differentiation of ES cells into hepatocytes. Here, we ...
Cross Emily E EE Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, United - - 2011
Epicardial development is a process during which epithelial sheet movement, single cell migration, and differentiation are coordinated to generate coronary arteries. Signaling cascades regulate the concurrent and complex nature of these three events. Through simple and highly reproducible assays, we identified small organic molecules that impact signaling pathways regulating these ...
Ruder Warren C - - 2011
Biomechanical forces govern the behaviors of organisms and their environment and examining these behaviors to understand the underlying phenomena is an important challenge. One experimental approach for probing these interactions between organisms and their biomechanical environment uses biologically-inspired, artificial surrogates that reproduce organic mechanical systems. For the case of complex, ...
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