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Results 451 - 500 of 2133
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Takahashi Yukari - - 2009
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short single stranded noncoding RNAs that suppress gene expression through either translational repression or degradation of target mRNAs. The annealing between messenger RNAs and 5' seed region of miRNAs is believed to be essential for the specific suppression of target gene expression. One miRNA can have ...
Duerig Anna - - 2009
Second messengers control a wide range of important cellular functions in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Here we show that cyclic di-GMP, a global bacterial second messenger, promotes cell cycle progression in Caulobacter crescentus by mediating the specific degradation of the replication initiation inhibitor CtrA. During the G1-to-S-phase transition, both CtrA and ...
Antezana Erick - - 2009
The Cell Cycle Ontology (http://www.CellCycleOntology.org) is an application ontology that automatically captures and integrates detailed knowledge on the cell cycle process. Cell Cycle Ontology is enabled by semantic web technologies, and is accessible via the web for browsing, visualizing, advanced querying, and computational reasoning. Cell Cycle Ontology facilitates a detailed ...
Zinser Erik R - - 2009
The marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus MED4 has the smallest genome and cell size of all known photosynthetic organisms. Like all phototrophs at temperate latitudes, it experiences predictable daily variation in available light energy which leads to temporal regulation and partitioning of key cellular processes. To better understand the tempo and choreography ...
Brown Pamela J B - - 2009
Caulobacter crescentus has become the predominant bacterial model system to study the regulation of cell-cycle progression. Stage-specific processes such as chromosome replication and segregation, and cell division are coordinated with the development of four polar structures: the flagellum, pili, stalk, and holdfast. The production, activation, localization, and proteolysis of specific ...
Schuyler Scott C SC Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, - - 2009
Cell cycle transitions are controlled, in part, by ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. In mitosis, the metaphase to anaphase transition is governed by an E3 ubiquitin ligase called the cyclosome or Anaphase-Promoting Complex (APC), and a WD40-repeat protein co-factor called Cdc20. In vitro Cdc20-dependent APC (APC(Cdc20)) assays have been useful in the identification ...
Plotnikova Olga V OV Program in Molecular and Translational Medicine, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111, - - 2009
Cilia are microtubule-based structures that protrude from the cell surface and function as sensors for mechanical and chemical environmental cues that regulate cellular differentiation or division. In metazoans, ciliary signaling is important during organismal development and in the homeostasis controls of adult tissues, with receptors for the Hedgehog, platelet derived ...
Depuydt Stephen - - 2009
The phytopathogenic actinomycete Rhodococcus fascians induces neoplastic shooty outgrowths on infected hosts. Upon R. fascians infection of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), leaves are formed with small narrow lamina and serrated margins. These symptomatic leaves exhibit reduced tissue differentiation, display more but smaller cells that do not endoreduplicate, and accumulate in the ...
Olsen Petter Angell - - 2009
Single-stranded oligonucleotides (ssODNs) and zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) are two approaches that are being pursued to achieve sequence specific genome modification. ZFNs induce high rates of homologous recombination (HR) between the target sequence and a given donor by introducing site-specific genomic double-strand breaks (DSBs). The mode of action that is used ...
Lee Hyoung-Gon - - 2009
As one of the earliest pathologic changes, the aberrant re-expression of many cell cycle-related proteins and inappropriate cell cycle control in specific vulnerable neuronal populations in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is emerging as an important component in the pathogenesis leading to AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. These events are clearly representative ...
Zhu Na - - 2009
The Gadd45 family of proteins, which includes alpha, beta, and gamma isoforms, has recently been shown to play a role in the G2/M cell cycle checkpoint in response to DNA damage; however, the mechanisms by which Gadd45 proteins inhibit cell cycle control are not fully understood. Using immunohistochemical analysis, we ...
Hu Junbo - - 2008
p55PIK, a regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), specifically interacts with retinoblastoma protein (Rb) through the unique NH2 terminus of p55PIK, N24. This interaction is critical for cell proliferation and cell cycle progression. To examine p55PIK as a potential target for cancer therapy, we generated an adenovirus expressing N24 (Ad-N24-GFP) ...
Seo Young Ho - - 2009
We have developed an improved synthesis for the cell-permeable, sulfenic acid probe DAz-1. Using DAz-1, we detect sulfenic acid modifications in the cell-cycle regulatory phosphatase Cdc25A. In addition, we show that DAz-1 has superior potency in cells compared to a biotinylated derivative. Collectively, these findings set the stage for the ...
Kamel Suzan - - 2009
Numerous experiments in mutant and transgenic mice have implicated Hox transcription factors in development of the skeletal system, postulating a role for these proteins in cell proliferation of precursor cells and regulation of cell differentiation. Our own data from Hoxc8 and Hoxd4 transgenic mice suggest that Hoxc8 is involved in ...
Dalle Nogare Damian E - - 2009
Following fertilization of many animal embryos, rapid synchronous cleavage divisions give way to longer, asynchronous cell cycles at the midblastula transition (MBT). The cell cycle changes at the MBT, including the addition of gap phases and checkpoint controls, are accompanied by activation of the zygotic genome and the onset of ...
Dey Sanjib - - 2009
J-domain containing co-chaperone Mrj (mammalian relative to DnaJ) has been implicated in diverse cellular functions including placental development and inhibition of Huntingtin mediated cytotoxicity. It has also been shown to interact with keratin intermediate filaments. Since keratins undergo extensive reorganization during cell division, its interactor Mrj might also play an ...
Santos Joana M - - 2009
Protozoan parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa undergo a lytic cycle whereby a single zoite produced by the previous cycle has to encounter a host cell, invade it, multiply to differentiate into a new zoite generation and escape to resume a new cycle. At every step of this lytic cycle, the ...
Li Ju-mei - - 2008
The Dpb11 and Drc1/Sld2 proteins form a complex that is critical for the initiation of DNA replication. In this study we identify MSA1 as a high copy suppressor of a drc1-1 mutant. MSA1 overproduction can also suppress the temperature sensitivity of dpb11-1 and pol2-12 mutants. Reciprocally, msa1 deletion exacerbates the ...
Onoyama Ichiro - - 2008
Regulation of the exit of cells from the cell cycle is important in the development of multicellular organisms and is also implicated in the maintenance of stem cells. Furthermore, defects in cell cycle exit are thought to be a major cause of cancer. However, the mechanisms responsible for regulation of ...
Pulliam Kanika F - - 2009
There is significant evidence linking nucleocytoplasmic transport to cell cycle control. The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, serves as an ideal model system for studying transport events critical to cell cycle progression because the nuclear envelope remains intact throughout the cell cycle. Previous studies linked the classical nuclear localization signal (cNLS) ...
Bowers Lisa M - - 2008
Recent studies have illuminated key features of the transcriptional and signal transduction networks governing the cell division cycle of Caulobacter crescentus. These mechanisms generate oscillations in the activity of CtrA, a key regulator of DNA replication and transcription of cell cycle regulated genes. ctrA transcription is itself regulated as part ...
Yu, Lisa
Proper progression through the cell cycle is critical for cell growth and survival. Disruption of cell cycle progression can lead to cell cycle arrest and cell death. In addition, uncontrolled cell cycle progression can lead to cancer. Cells have evolved complex mechanisms to regulate each phase of the cell cycle ...
Chao Dennis L - - 2008
Elevated cellular proliferation and cell cycle abnormalities, which have been associated with premalignant lesions, may be caused by inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. We measured proliferative and cell cycle fractions of biopsies from a cohort of patients with Barrett's esophagus to better understand the role of proliferation in early neoplastic ...
Chakraborty Papia - - 2008
The Nup107-160 complex, the largest subunit of the nuclear pore, is multifunctional. It mediates mRNA export in interphase, and has roles in kinetochore function, spindle assembly, and postmitotic nuclear pore assembly. We report here that the levels of constituents of the Nup107-160 complex are coordinately cell cycle-regulated. At mitosis, however, ...
Maaser K - - 2008
Expression of the epithelial cell adhesion molecule EpCAM is upregulated in a variety of carcinomas. This antigen is therefore explored in tumour diagnosis, and clinical trials have been initiated to examine EpCAM-based therapies. Notably, the possible intracellular effects and signalling pathways triggered by EpCAM-specific antibodies are unknown. Here, we show ...
Cooper Stephen - - 2009
It has been proposed that cyclical gene expression occurs at a large number of different times during the cell cycle. The existence of a large number of cycle-specific variations in mRNA and protein during the eukaryotic cell cycle raises the problem of how cell-cycle variations are regulated. This is the ...
Iniesta Antonio A - - 2008
Dynamic protein localization is an integral component of the regulatory circuit that drives the Caulobacter cell cycle. The ClpXP protease is localized to the Caulobacter cell pole, where it catalyzes the degradation of the CtrA master regulator at specific times in the cell cycle. Clearance of active CtrA at the ...
Lee Sang Bae - - 2008
B23/NPM is a major nucleolar phosphoprotein that has a critical role in cell proliferation and cell death. Here, we show that it forms a complex with Akt on growth factor (GF) stimulation in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus, for which Akt activation is indispensable. The C terminus of B23 ...
Dori-Bachash Mally - - 2008
Bdellovibrio and like organisms are obligate predators of bacteria that are ubiquitously found in the environment. Most exhibit a peculiar dimorphic life cycle during which free-swimming attack-phase (AP) cells search for and invade bacterial prey cells. The invader develops in the prey as a filamentous polynucleoid-containing cell that finally splits ...
Cooper Stephen - - 2008
The Schaechter-Maaløe-Kjeldgaard papers, which have their 50(th) anniversary this year, have major implications for understanding the cell cycle, control of cell growth, control of cell size, metabolic control, the basic bacterial growth curve, and myriad other bacterial and eukaryotic growth phenomena. These ideas have broad applications that should be considered ...
Barquilla Antonio - - 2008
Target of rapamycin (TOR) kinases control cell growth through two functionally distinct multiprotein complexes. TOR complex 1 (TORC1) controls temporal cell growth and is sensitive to rapamycin, whereas TOR complex 2 (TORC2) is rapamycin resistant and regulates spatial cell growth. Here, we identified two TOR orthologues, TbTOR1 and TbTOR2, in ...
Wei Shuo - - 2009
The thiazolidinedione (TZD) family of PPARgamma agonists, especially troglitazone and ciglitazone, induce cell cycle arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis in cancer cells. Mounting evidence indicates that TZDs interfere with multiple signaling mechanisms independently of PPARgamma activation, which affect many aspects of cellular functions governing cell cycle progression and survival of cancer ...
Kloc Anna - - 2008
For many decades after its initial characterization, heterochromatin was considered to be transcriptionally inert, but newer work indicates that this highly condensed chromosomal material is transcribed, and rapidly silenced, by an orchestrated sequence of events directed by RNA interference (RNAi). Recent studies shed light on the timely assembly and inheritance ...
Chivukula Raghu R - - 2008
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have attracted considerable attention because of their important roles in development, normal physiology, and disease states including cancer. Recent studies have identified specific miRNAs that regulate the cell cycle and have documented that the loss or gain of miRNA-mediated cell-cycle control contributes to malignancy. miRNAs regulate classic cell-cycle ...
Skirycz Aleksandra - - 2008
In contrast to animal growth, plant growth is largely post-embryonic. Therefore plants have developed new mechanisms to precisely regulate cell proliferation by means of internal and external stimuli whilst the general core cell cycle machinery is conserved between eukaryotes. In this work we demonstrate a role for the Arabidopsis thaliana ...
Wanzel Michael - - 2008
The Myc-associated zinc-finger protein, Miz1, is a negative regulator of cell proliferation and induces expression of the cell-cycle inhibitors p15(Ink4b) and p21(Cip1). Here we identify the ribosomal protein L23 as a negative regulator of Miz1-dependent transactivation. L23 exerts this function by retaining nucleophosmin, an essential co-activator of Miz1 required for ...
Calvert Meredith E K - - 2008
Budding yeast Saccharoymyces cerevisiae is a powerful model system for analyzing eukaryotic cell cycle regulation. Yeast cell cycle analysis is typically performed by visual analysis or flow cytometry, and both have limitations in the scope and accuracy of data obtained. This study demonstrates how multispectral imaging flow cytometry (MIFC) provides ...
Asami, Koli
A dielectric technique has been developed for monitoring of cell cycle progression in synchronized culture, which would be a promising tool for cell cycle analysis in cell biology and biotechnology.
Sang Liyun - - 2008
The mechanisms by which quiescent cells, including adult stem cells, preserve their ability to resume proliferation after weeks or even years of cell cycle arrest are not known. We report that reversibility is not a passive property of nondividing cells, because enforced cell cycle arrest for a period as brief ...
Valois Caroline R A - - 2008
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 3 root canal sealers on the cell cycle of mouse fibroblasts (3T3 cell line). Freshly mixed root canal sealers (AH Plus, Endofill, and Sealer 26) were eluted for 24 h using cell culture medium. Antiproliferation activity of different eluate ...
de Bruin R A M - - 2008
The cell cycle transcriptional program imposes order on events of the cell-cycle and is a target for signals that regulate cell-cycle progression, including checkpoints required to maintain genome integrity. Neither the mechanism nor functional significance of checkpoint regulation of the cell-cycle transcription program are established. We show that Nrm1, an ...
Kumar Diwakar - - 2008
The mechanism of DNA replication is highly conserved in eukaryotes, with the process being preceded by the ordered assembly of pre-replication complexes (pre-RCs). Pre-RC formation is triggered by the association of the origin replication complex (ORC) with chromatin. Leishmania major appears to have only one ORC ortholog, ORC1. ORC1 in ...
Byun Hae-Ok - - 2008
Mitochondrial complex II defect has recently been implicated in cellular senescence and in the ageing process of which a critical phenotype is retardation and arrest of cellular growth. However, the underlying mechanisms of how complex II defect affects cellular growth, remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of ...
Wanzel Michael - - 2008
The Myc-associated zinc-finger protein, Miz1, is a negative regulator of cell proliferation and induces expression of the cell-cycle inhibitors p15(Ink4b) and p21(Cip1). Here we identify the ribosomal protein L23 as a negative regulator of Miz1-dependent transactivation. L23 exerts this function by retaining nucleophosmin, an essential co-activator of Miz1 required for ...
Low Jonathan - - 2008
Although the cycling of eukaryotic cells has long been a primary focus for cancer therapeutics, recent advances in imaging and data analysis allow even further definition of cellular events as they occur in individual cells and cellular subpopulations in response to treatment. High-content imaging (HCI) has been an effective tool ...
Martin Sarah A - - 2008
In this study, we show that depletion of Chk1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) results in failure of reentry to the cell cycle after DNA replication has been stalled by exposure to hydroxyurea (HU). Casein kinase II (CKII) is degraded in these cells in a proteasome-dependent manner, resulting in decreased ...
Maran Avudaiappan - - 2008
2-Methoxyestradiol (2-ME), a naturally occurring mammalian metabolite of 17beta-Estradiol (E2), induces cell death in osteosarcoma cells. To further understand the molecular mechanisms of action, we have investigated cell cycle progression in 2-ME-treated human osteosarcoma (MG63, SaOS-2 and LM7 [corrected]) cells. At 5 microM, 2-ME induced growth arrest by inducing a ...
Richards Sabrina - - 2008
B cells are induced to enter the cell cycle by stimuli including ligation of the B-cell receptor (BCR) complex and Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists. This review discusses the contribution of several molecules, which act at distinct steps in B-cell activation. The adapter molecule Bam32 (B-lymphocyte adapter of 32 kDa) helps ...
Wiebusch Lüder - - 2008
The infectious cycle of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is intricately linked to the host's cell cycle. Viral gene expression can be initiated only in G(0)/G(1) phase. Once expressed, the immediate-early gene product IE2 prevents cellular DNA synthesis, arresting infected cells with a G(1) DNA content. This function is required for efficient ...
Gubbels Marc-Jan - - 2008
The flexibility displayed by apicomplexan parasites to vary their mode of replication has intrigued biologists since their discovery by electron microscopy in the 1960s and 1970s. Starting in the 1990s we began to understand the cell biology of the cytoskeleton elements driving cytokinesis. By contrast, the molecular mechanisms that regulate ...
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