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Results 351 - 400 of 2169
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Hamblet Natasha S - - 2008
Adult islet neogenesis is believed to recapitulate elements of pancreatic endocrine development. Identifying factors that regulate islet neogenesis-associated protein (INGAP) gene activity could provide links to pancreas development. Predicted transcriptional regulators of INGAP were screened in an INGAP-promoter-reporter assay. Based upon their temporal expression, the occurrence of INGAP-positive cells during ...
Irgang Markus - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Islet cells from pig could be used as an alternative to the current treatment of diabetic patients. However, xenotransplantation from pig to humans may be associated with the risk of transmission of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) that are present in the genome of all pigs and infect human cells ...
Kitsou-Mylona Isidora - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) is expressed in many tissues that are not associated with Ca(2+) homeostasis, including the endocrine cells in pancreatic islets of Langerhans. We have demonstrated previously that pharmacological activation of the CaR stimulates insulin secretion from islet beta-cells and insulin-secreting MIN6 cells. METHODS: In the ...
Speier Stephan S The Rolf Luft Research Center for Diabetes and Endocrinology, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital L1, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden. - - 2008
There is clearly a demand for an experimental platform that enables cell biology to be studied in intact vascularized and innervated tissue in vivo. This platform should allow observations of cells noninvasively and longitudinally at single-cell resolution. For this purpose, we use the anterior chamber of the mouse eye in ...
Davalli Alberto M - - 2008
To learn more about nonimmune-mediated islet graft failure, we transplanted different preparations (preps) of isolated human islets under the kidney capsule of streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic nude mice. One month after the implantation of 1,000 or 2,000 islets, grafts were harvested for morphological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural analysis. Only a single islet prep ...
Kang Hyuk - - 2008
We present mathematical models for systems of beta-cells in pancreatic islets. The first topic begins with the effects of noise and coupling strength on bursting action potentials of beta-cells. From the discussion, the regular bursts are produced by a proper amount of noise and coupling strength. Furthermore, the bursting duration ...
Coppola Thierry - - 2008
The survival of pancreatic beta cells depends on the balance between external cytotoxic and protective molecular systems. The neuropeptide neurotensin (NT) has been shown to regulate certain functions of the endocrine pancreas including insulin and glucagon release. However, the mechanism of action of NT as well as the identification of ...
Vaccaro María I - - 2008
Autophagy is an evolutionarily preserved degradation process of cytoplasmic cellular constituents, which has been known for its role in protecting cells against stresses such as starvation and in eliminating defective subcellular structures. It is essentially a form of self-cannibalism - hence the name that means 'self-eating' - in which the ...
Keklikoglu Nurullah - - 2008
Nitric oxide (NO) is produced by NO synthase (NOS) isoforms: neuronal NOS (nNOS), endothelial NOS (eNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS). It is believed that, while nNOS and eNOS are effective in regulation of normal physiological processes, iNOS is expressed at an increasing rate especially in inflammatory process. The aim of ...
Weiss Frank Ulrich - - 2008
The mammalian pancreas originates from two developing buds on the dorsal and ventral side of the duodenum which fuse and convert into a single mixed gland, composed of exocrine and endocrine cells. In the adult organism, the exocrine pancreas consists of acinar and ductal cells which are organised in a ...
Gustavsen Carsten R - - 2008
The African ice rat, Otomys sloggetti robertsi, is a member of the subfamily Otomyinae, in the superfamily of Muroidea, to which all rodents belong. Very little is known about this unique family of rodents. The study reported here examines the endocrine pancreas of this species using immunohistochemical techniques. The islets ...
Ueda Michiko - - 2008
Although islet transplantation is a promising therapeutic option for the treatment of type 1 diabetes, the shortage of suitable donor tissues remains a major obstacle. Pancreatic stem/progenitor cells residing within the ductal epithelium have been used to generate human islet-like clusters, but there is no efficient strategy for facilitating differentiation ...
Fort Alexander - - 2008
The use of cell-based treatments in the field of metabolic organs, particularly the pancreas, has seen tremendous growth in recent years. The transplantation of islet of Langerhans cells for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) has allowed for natural glycemic control for patients plagued with hypoglycemia unawareness. The ...
Westermark Gunilla T - - 2008
Transthyretin (TTR) is a major amyloid fibril protein in certain systemic forms of amyloidosis. It is a plasma protein, mainly synthesized by the liver but expression occurs also at certain minor locations, including the endocrine cells in the islets of Langerhans. With the use of immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, ...
Lee Dong Yun - - 2008
Genetically-engineered islets can serve as a potential means to modulate the regional immunity occurring in the transplant environment, although gene transfer into islets is not easy due to the extracellular matrix of islets. In this study, we aggregated single islet cells dissociated by trypsinization for successful gene transfection into islet ...
Yu Jun - - 2008
BACKGROUND: LIM-only 4 (LMO4), a member of the LIM-only (LMO) subfamily of LIM domain-containing transcription factors, was initially reported to have an oncogenic role in breast cancer. We hypothesized that LMO4 may be related to pancreatic carcinogenesis as it is in breast carcinogenesis. If so, this could result in a ...
Zahr Elsie - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Progressive graft dysfunction is commonly observed in recipients of islet allografts treated with high doses of rapamycin. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of rapamycin on pancreatic islet cell proliferation in vivo. METHODS: The murine pregnancy model was utilized, since a high rate of beta-cell proliferation occurs in ...
Ichihara Naoto - - 2008
In the present study, we examined the role of Src in gemcitabine-induced cell growth suppression in human pancreatic cancer cell lines. In two human pancreatic cancer cell lines, PK-9 and MIA PaCa-2, we found that a selective Src protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, PP2, inhibited gemcitabine-induced cell growth suppression. When dominant ...
Sarkar S A - - 2008
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: An immunohistochemical and genomic analysis of human pancreatic development from 9-23 weeks of fetal age was undertaken to provide a comparative analysis of human and murine islet development. METHODS: Human fetal pancreases obtained at gestational ages 9-23 weeks were processed in parallel for immunohistochemistry and gene expression profiling by ...
Tai Joo Ho - - 2008
We are combining nuclear medicine with molecular biology to establish a sensitive, quantitative, and tomographic method with which to detect gene expression in pancreatic islet cells in vivo. Dual-isotope SPECT can be used to image multiple molecular events simultaneously, and coregistration of SPECT and CT images enables visualization of reporter ...
Zhang, Wen
This study was designed to examine the effect of genistein, a botanical derived primarily from legumes, on pancreatic β-cell proliferation and the related molecular mechanisms. Diabetes mellitus is a major and growing public health problem worldwide. Both in type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), the deterioration of glycemic ...
Wang Shu - - 2007
Single-cell resolution lineage information is a critical key to understanding how the states of gene regulatory networks respond to cell interactions and thereby establish distinct cell fates. Here, we identify a single pair of neural stem cells (neuroblasts) as progenitors of the brain insulin-producing neurosecretory cells of Drosophila, which are ...
Hamada Shin - - 2007
In our study, we found that bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) has a novel effect as an inducer of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) on Panc-1 cells, a human pancreatic carcinoma cell line. BMP4-treated Panc-1 cells showed loose cell contacts and a scattered, fibroblast-like appearance along with E-cadherin downregulation, Vimentin upregulation and ...
Papas Klearchos K KK Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 25 Ames St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, - - 2007
Improvements in pancreatic islet transplantation for treatment of diabetes are hindered by the absence of meaningful islet quality assessment methods. Oxygen consumption rate (OCR) has previously been used to assess the quality of organs and primary tissue for transplantation. In this study, we describe and characterize a stirred microchamber for ...
Hara Akemi - - 2007
The organogenesis of islets in rat pancreas was studied by three-dimensional reconstructions from serial section micrographs. On embryonic day (E) 12, an endocrine cluster consisting mainly of glucagon-expressing cells maintained connection with the pancreatic endoderm at several regions. On E15-E17, the cluster enlarged by fusion of newly formed buds. Although ...
Sawey Eric T - - 2007
Acinar-to-ductal metaplasia in the pancreas is associated with an increased risk for tumorigenesis. Molecular dissection of this process in vitro has shown that primary acinar cells, in response to EGF receptor ligands, can transdifferentiate into duct-like epithelia, passing through a nestin-positive intermediate, in a Notch pathway-dependent manner. Here, we show ...
Taylor-Fishwick David A - - 2008
The Reg-related protein family member INGAP (islet neogenesis-associated protein) is a pleiotropic factor enhancing islet neogenesis, neurite growth, beta-cell protection, and beta-cell function. Using an antibody to the N-termini of INGAP, we have identified that immunoreactivity to INGAP localized to the pancreatic endocrine cells in mouse. INGAP- and insulin-immunoreactive cells ...
Schinner S - - 2008
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Adipocytes secrete signalling molecules that elicit responses from target cells, including pancreatic beta cells. Wnt signalling molecules have recently been identified as novel adipocyte-derived factors. They also regulate insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells and the cell cycle. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ...
Gannon Maureen M Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA. - - 2008
The pdx1 gene is essential for pancreatic organogenesis in humans and mice; pdx1 mutations have been identified in human diabetic patients. Specific inactivation of pdx1 in adult beta cells revealed that this gene is required for maintenance of mature beta cell function. In the following study, a Cre-lox strategy was ...
Kawahara Ko-ichi - - 2007
High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) protein, primarily from the nucleus, is released into the extracellular milieu either passively by necrotic or damaged cells, or actively by secretion from monocytes/macrophages. Extracellular HMGB1 acts as a potent inflammatory stimulator by promoting cytokine (for example, tumor necrosis factor-alpha) production, and also has pro-coagulant ...
Ohuchida K - - 2007
Controversy exists regarding the clinical significance of S100A2 in the progression of tumours. In pancreatic cancer, little is known about the role of S100A2. The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical significance of S100A2 expression in pancreatic carcinogenesis. We microdissected invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) cells from 22 ...
Krivova Yu S - - 2007
Immunohistochemical study revealed three types of neuroendocrine contacts in nutria pancreas. In most cases, the pancreatic islets and individual endocrine cells were associated with a diffuse neural network. Integration of neural ganglia with the islets and innervation of endocrine cells by projections of ganglionic cells were detected. It is hypothesized ...
Bavamian S - - 2007
The emergence of pancreatic islets has necessitated the development of a signalling system for the intra- and inter-islet coordination of beta cells. With evolution, this system has evolved into a complex regulatory network of partially cross-talking pathways, whereby individual cells sense the state of activity of their neighbours and, accordingly, ...
Nascimento A A - - 2007
In the present study, we investigated types of pancreatic endocrine cells and its respective peptides in the Brazilian sparrow species using immunocytochemistry. The use of polyclonal specific antisera for somatostatin, glucagon, avian pancreatic polypeptide (APP), YY polypeptide (PYY) and insulin, revealed a diversified distribution in the pancreas. All these types ...
Schweiger M - - 2007
Clusterin is a well-known glycoprotein expressed by many cell types involved in multiple physiological functions. In rat pancreatic tissue it is expressed along with islet cell development and found to be involved in regeneration of pancreatic endocrine cells after various types of tissue injuries. These results led us to propose ...
Liu Tao T Department of Pancreatic Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province, - - 2007
To observe whether pancreatic and duodenal homeobox factor-1 enhances the differentiation of pancreatic ductal epithelial cells into insulin-producing cells in vitro. Rat pancreatic tissue was submitted to digestion by collegenase, ductal epithelial cells were separated by density gradient centrifugation and then cultured in RPMI1640 medium with 10% fetal bovine serum. ...
Burris R E RE University of California, San Francisco, Diabetes Center, San Francisco, CA 94143-0540, - - 2007
Pancreatic innervation is being viewed with increasing interest with respect to pancreatic disease. At the same time, relatively little is currently known about innervation dynamics during development and disease. The present study employs confocal microscopy to analyze the growth and development of sympathetic and sensory neurons and astroglia during pancreatic ...
Prichett Wendy - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: Intranuclear rodlets (INRs) are rod-shaped intranuclear inclusions that we have described in neurons of the human brain. We recently identified these structures in pancreatic islet cells. The objectives of this study are to describe the light microscopic features and cellular pattern of distribution of INRs in human pancreatic islet ...
Johnson S - - 2007
Alcoholism is a serious health problem. Alcohol-dependent subjects have many health-related problems, such as severe cognitive impairments, alcoholic liver disease and coronary heart disease, resulting from ethanol-induced cell injury or cell death. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the cell death may provide clues for novel treatment strategies to prevent alcohol-induced cell ...
Ballian Nikiforos - - 2007
Pancreatic disease is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality as a result of pancreatic carcinoma and diabetes mellitus. Regulation of endocrine cell mass is thought to have a central role in the pathogenesis of both these diseases. Islet cell proliferation, hypertrophy, neogenesis, and apoptosis are the main determinants of endocrine ...
Kwon Sungwon - - 2007
Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) is thought to play a role in normal wound repair and bone remodeling, but also promotes fibrosis in several disease processes including diabetic nephropathy, sclerodoma and pancreatitis. A contribution to desmoplasia associated with pancreatic cancer progression has also been proposed. CTGF is induced by TGFbeta ...
Crabtree Benedict - - 2007
Human angiogenin (ANG), the first member of the angiogenin family (from the pancreatic ribonuclease A superfamily) to be identified, is an angiogenic factor that induces neovascularization. It has received much attention due to its involvement in the growth of tumors and its elevated expression level in pancreatic and several other ...
Mitsunaga Shin-ichiro - - 2007
The hydrolytic enzyme alpha-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) is produced mainly in aleurone cells of germinating cereals, and the phytohormone gibberellin (GA) is essential for its induction. However, in rice (Oryza sativa L.), sulfuric acid (H(2)SO(4)) induces alpha-amylase production in aleurone tissue even in the absence of GA. Here, the pre-treatment of ...
Jain Pooja - - 2007
Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiologic agent of a number of pathologic abnormalities, including adult T cell leukemia (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The viral oncoprotein Tax has been implicated in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Recently, cell-free Tax was detected in the ...
Portela-Gomes Guida Maria - - 2008
Prohormone convertases (PCs) are proteinases that cleave inactive prohormones to biologically active peptides. Seven PCs have been identified; two of them, PC1/3 and PC2, have only been localized in neuroendocrine (NE) tissues; a third, furin, in both endocrine and exocrine tissues. We have studied the immunoreactivity of PC1/3, PC2 and ...
Jørgensen Mette Christine - - 2007
Pancreas morphogenesis and cell differentiation are highly conserved among vertebrates during fetal development. The pancreas develops through simple budlike structures on the primitive gut tube to a highly branched organ containing many specialized cell types. This review presents an overview of key molecular components and important signaling sources illustrated by ...
Lev-Ari Shahar - - 2007
Gemcitabine, the first-line agent in pancreatic adenocarcinoma, has shown limited clinical benefit. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) represent one of the most promising targets for cancer prevention and treatment. In this study, we investigated whether the phytochemical curcumin, a natural COX-2 inhibitor, can potentiate gemcitabine effect on survival of human pancreatic cancer cells. ...
Iwatsuki Hirohiko - - 2007
The expression of intermediate filaments is sensitively reflected in cell function. To examine the involvement of keratin in a secretory function, 15 kinds of keratin (keratin-2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20) were detected immunohistochemically and immunoelectron microscopically in the rabbit duodenum. ...
Chen Songyuan - - 2007
We describe a sensitive technique for measuring long-term islet cell proliferation rates in vivo in rats. Pancreatic islets were isolated and the incorporation of deuterium ((2)H) from heavy water ((2)H(2)O) into the deoxyribose moiety of DNA was measured by GC-MS. The results of heavy water labeling and BrdU staining were ...
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