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El Muayed Malek M Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Molecular Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, 303 East Chicago Avenue, Tarry 15-755, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA. - - 2010
Genetic studies suggest that Zn transporters such as ZnT8 play a role in insulin secretion by pancreatic beta-cells; however, little is known about the dynamic roles of Zn trafficking pathways on beta-cell physiology. To test the acute effects of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1 beta (IL1 beta) and tumor necrosis ...
Tano Kaori - - 2010
Manserin is a recently characterized 40-amino acid neuropeptide derived from secretogranin II, a protein belonging to the chromogranin family. Although the physiological roles of manserin have not been elucidated to date, manserin has been shown to distribute in not only the brain but also the endocrine system such as the ...
Prasadan Krishna - - 2010
Neurogenin-3 (ngn-3) expression is critical for endocrine development in the developing pancreas. We found that when ngn-3 was inhibited in an E11.5 pancreas, using either morpholino antisense or siRNA, it led to a significant decrease in endocrine differentiation after seven days in culture. Endocrine differentiation was rescued when ngn-3 inhibition ...
Yao Jie - - 2010
In this study, we first sought to determine the existence of side population (SP) cells in pancreatic cancer cell lines. Furthermore, we compared the biological characteristics of SP and non-SP cells. The presence of side population cells in pancreatic cancer cell lines was detected by Hoechst 33342 staining and FACS ...
Steiner Donald J DJ Department of Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL - - 2010
The pancreatic islet displays diverse patterns of endocrine cell arrangement. The prototypic islet, with insulin-secreting beta-cells forming the core surrounded by other endocrine cells in the periphery, is largely based on studies of normal rodent islets. Recent reports on large animals, including humans, show a difference in islet architecture, in ...
Kilimnik German G Department of Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL - - 2010
The islet of Langerhans is a highly vascularized micro-organ consisting of not only ß-cells but multiple cell types such as α-, delta-, pancreatic polypeptide- and epsilon-cells that work together to regulate glucose homeostatis. We have recently proposed a new model of the neonatal islet formation in mice by a process ...
Tian L M - - 2010
The antioxidative capacity of endomorphins (EMs), endogenous μ-opioid receptor agonists, has been demonstrated by IN VIVO assays. In this study, we attempt to evaluate the effects of endomorphin 1 (EM1) and endomorphin 2 (EM2) on pancreatic islet injuries induced by streptozotocin (STZ), alloxan (ALX) and H(2)O(2), respectively. Wistar rats' islets ...
Jacobs-Tulleneers-Thevissen D - - 2010
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Intraportal human islet cell grafts do not consistently and sustainably induce insulin-independency in type 1 diabetic patients. The reasons for losses in donor cells are difficult to assess in patients. This study in streptozotocin-diabetic nude rats examines whether outcome is better in an extra-hepatic site such as omentum. METHODS: ...
Zhang Ai-Qing AQ Department of Gastroenterology, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, 300 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing 210029, Jiangsu Province, - - 2010
To observe the regional distributions and morphological features of nesfatin-1/nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2) immunoreactive (IR) cells in the rodent digestive system. Paraffin-embedded sections of seven organs (pancreas, stomach, duodenum, esophagus, liver, small intestine and colon) dissected from sprague-dawley (SD) rats and imprinting-control-region (ICR) mice were prepared. The regional distributions of nesfatin-1/NUCB2 IR ...
Altirriba J - - 2010
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Transmembrane protein 27 (TMEM27) is a membrane protein cleaved and shed by pancreatic beta cells that has been proposed as a beta cell mass biomarker. Despite reports of its possible role in insulin exocytosis and cell proliferation, its function in beta cells remains controversial. We aimed to characterise the ...
Jayaraman Arathi K - - 2011
A balance between zinc uptake by ZIP (SLC39) and efflux of zinc from the cytoplasm into subcellular organelles and out of the cell by ZnT (SLC30) transporters is crucial for zinc homeostasis. It is not clear whether normal and cancerous pancreatic cells respond differently to increased extracellular zinc concentrations. Use ...
Ren Zhenhua - - 2010
E2 (oestradiol-17beta) is an important hormone that regulates various cell functions including insulin production. hIPCs (human islet-derived precursor cells) are capable of proliferating and differentiating into cells that secrete insulin in response to glucose in vivo and in vitro. However, the effect of E2 on hIPCs is currently unclear. In ...
Law E - - 2010
Type 2 diabetes is characterised by decreased beta cell mass and islet amyloid formation. Islet amyloid formed by aggregation of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) is associated with beta cell apoptosis. We used human and transgenic mouse islets in culture to examine whether deletion of caspase-3 protects islets from apoptosis ...
Carlsson G L - - 2010
The aim of this study was to characterize bovine and porcine pancreatic development by immunohistochemistry. In the pig, staining for both glucagon and insulin was noted at day 19. In cattle, glucagon staining was observed at day 25 and insulin staining from day 26. In both species, glucagon-stained cells were ...
Jeong J H - - 2010
Donor scarcity is a major obstacle for clinical islet transplantation. Hence, the effective use of the limited number of available islets is necessary for successful islet transplantation. We have developed a new technology that could produce pseudo-islets. Morphologic and functional evaluation was performed to test the feasibility of using these ...
Jun Hee-Sook - - 2010
Reduction of beta cell function and a beta cell mass is observed in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, restoration of this deficiency might be a therapeutic option for treatment of diabetes. Islet transplantation has benefits, such as reduced incidence of hypoglycemia and achievement of insulin independence. However, ...
Said Hamid M - - 2010
Folate plays an essential role in one-carbon metabolism, and a relationship exists between methyl group metabolism and pancreatic exocrine function. Little, however, is known about the mechanism(s) and regulation of folate uptake by pancreatic acinar cells and the effect of chronic alcohol use on the process. We addressed these issues ...
Dall'Aglio C - - 2010
A large body of information proves that Orexin-A is present in the pancreatic endocrine cells of humans and laboratory animals; more detailed studies identify Orexin-A-immunopositive cells as beta cells. Because no data have been reported on the pancreas of domestic animals, we investigated the presence and the distribution of cells ...
Chen Maxine M - - 2010
Previous reports on the expression of the cell adhesion molecule L1 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells range from absent to high. Our data demonstrate that L1 is expressed in poorly differentiated PDAC cells in situ and that threonine-1172 (T1172) in the L1 cytoplasmic domain exhibits steady-state saturated phosphorylation in ...
Mfopou Josué Kunjom - - 2010
New sources of beta cells are needed to develop cell therapies for patients with diabetes. An in vitro, sequential method has been developed to derive pancreatic progenitors, but this technique has not been used for other cell lines. We investigated whether definitive endoderm derived from human embryonic stem (hES) cells ...
Oka Takami - - 2010
In order to find novel bioactive molecules regulating differentiation and hormone secretion of pancreatic endocrine cells, the effects of various substances including purinergic receptor agonists and inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis were examined in pancreatic islets and several pancreatic cell lines. The nicotinic alpha3beta4 receptor was found to be present and ...
Gerloff Andreas - - 2010
In this article we provide an overview of the newest data concerning the effect of non-alcoholic constituents of alcoholic beverages, especially of beer, on pancreatic secretion, and their possible role in alcoholic pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma. The data indicate that non-alcoholic constituents of beer stimulate pancreatic enzyme secretion in humans ...
Heller R Scott RS Department of Beta Cell Regeneration, Hagedorn Research Institute, Gentofte, Denmark. - - 2010
In 2007 a young Japanese female was reported to suffer from a congenital brain malformation with a non-functioning pancreatic endocrine tumor arising from intracranial ectopic pancreatic tissue. Ectopic pancreas is normally confined to other endodermally-derived organs and not previously reported to be found in the brain. Therefore, we sought to ...
Tomita Tatsuo T Department of Integrative Biosciences, Oregon National Primate Center, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, USA. - - 2010
Involvement of caspase (C)-3 has been implicated in β-cells from diabetic subjects. This study is aimed to immunocytochemically identify cleaved caspase-3 (CC-3) positive cells in pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) compared with control islets. Control islets revealed some CC-3 positive cells, ranging from 3.6 to 7.3% of total islet cells. Small ...
Bosco Domenico - - 2010
It is generally admitted that the endocrine cell organization in human islets is different from that of rodent islets. However, a clear description of human islet architecture has not yet been reported. The aim of this work was to describe our observations on the arrangement of human islet cells. Human ...
Barreto Savio G - - 2010
The association of alcohol consumption and acute pancreatitis (AP) has been well documented. Extensive research in the field of alcohol-induced AP has allowed scientists to understand the different aspects by which ethanol may alter pancreatic cellular function. However, despite the recognition and understanding of these proposed mechanisms, the basic question ...
Verbruggen Vincianne - - 2010
Pax6 is a well conserved transcription factor that contains two DNA-binding domains, a paired domain and a homeodomain, and plays a key role in the development of eye, brain, and pancreas in vertebrates. The recent identification of the zebrafish sunrise mutant, harboring a mutation in the pax6b homeobox and presenting ...
Wu Sung-Yu - - 2010
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The appearance of hepatic foci in pancreas has been well-documented in animal experiments and in patients with pancreatic cancer. We previously demonstrated that transdifferentiation of pancreatic exocrine cells to hepatocytes required members of the CCAAT enhancer binding protein family. Although the molecular basis of hepatic transdifferentiation is ...
Palazón-Fernández José Luis - - 2011
The endocrine pancreas of the toadfish, Halobatrachus didactylus, consists of one large circular principal islet (Brockman body) located in the dorsal side or neck region of the gallbladder, along with various accessory islets of variable sizes and shapes, embedded in the exocrine tissue located within the digestive organs connecting mesenteries. ...
Lu Jieli - - 2010
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The tumor suppressor menin is recognized as a key regulator of pancreatic islet development, proliferation, and beta-cell function, whereas its role in alpha cells remains poorly understood. The purpose of the current study was to address this issue in relation to islet tumor histogenesis. METHODS: We generated ...
Yang Xiao-Di - - 2010
Islet transplantation represents an important alternative for the treatment of diabetes. However, the selection of suitable materials is critical for the success of such an implantation application. In this study, cellular migration, aggregation, and insulin production of a murine islet beta-cell line, NIT-1 cells on microbially produced polyesters poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx), ...
Ko Shigeru B H SB Department of Gastroenterology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan. - - 2010
Corticosteroids are now widely accepted as a treatment for autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). However, the molecular mechanism by which steroid treatment improves AIP remains largely unknown. The aim of this study was to elucidate cellular mechanisms by which corticosteroids improve both pancreatic exocrine function and histopathology in AIP. Pancreatic exocrine function ...
Halban Philippe A PA Department of Genetic Medicine and Development, University of Geneva, University Medical Center, 1 Rue Michel-Servet, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland. - - 2010
Beta cell mass and function are decreased to varying degrees in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In the future, islet cell replacement or regeneration therapy may thus offer therapeutic benefit to people with diabetes, but there are major challenges to be overcome. A review of published peer-reviewed medical ...
Liu H - - 2010
Whereas it is believed that the pancreatic duct contains endocrine precursors, the presence of insulin progenitor cells residing in islets remain controversial. We tested whether pancreatic islets of adult mice contain precursor beta-cells that initiate insulin synthesis during aging and after islet injury. We used bigenic mice in which the ...
Kawakami M - - 2010
We previously found that conophylline, an alkaloid isolated from the leaves of Ervatamia microphylla, induced beta-cell differentiation in rat pancreatic acinar carcinoma cells and in cultured fetal rat pancreatic tissue and that it also decreased the blood glucose level in streptozotocin-treated fetal rats. In the present research, we looked into ...
Ren Meng - - 2010
Recently significant progress has been made in differentiating embryonic stem (ES) cells toward pancreatic cells. However, little is known about the generation and identification of pancreatic progenitor cells from ES cells. Here we explored the influence of sodium butyrate on pancreatic progenitor differentiation, and investigated the different effects of sodium ...
Heller R Scott - - 2010
In the past 20 years, numerous publications on a variety of mammalian and non-mammalian species have appeared in the literature to supplement the excellent comparative work performed in the 70s and 80s by the Falkmer, Epple, and Youson groups. What emerges is that islets are much more complex than once ...
Fernandez-Marcos Pablo J - - 2010
Sei1 is a positive regulator of proliferation that promotes the assembly of Cdk4-cyclin D complexes and enhances the transcriptional activity of E2f1. The potential oncogenic role of Sei1 is further suggested by its overexpression in various types of human cancers. To study the role of Sei1, we have generated a ...
Dames Petra - - 2010
BACKGROUND: The transcription factor Pax6 functions in the specification and maintenance of the differentiated cell lineages in the endocrine pancreas. It has two DNA binding domains, the paired domain and the homeodomain, in addition to a C-terminal transactivation domain. The phenotype of Pax6-/- knockout mice suggests non-redundant functions of the ...
Macdonald Raymond J - - 2010
Pancreatic acinar cells are highly specialized exocrine factories that produce copious amounts of digestive enzymes for intestinal digestion. Acinar cells arise from a population of multipotent progenitor cells (MPCs) that also produce ductal cells, which channel the acinar secretions to the intestine, and endocrine cells, which populate the islets of ...
Kopinke Daniel - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Histological evidence suggests that insulin-producing beta (beta)-cells arise in utero from duct-like structures of the fetal exocrine pancreas, and genetic lineage tracing studies indicate that they are maintained in the adult by self-renewal. These studies have not addressed the origin of the new beta-cells that arise in large numbers ...
Soyer Josselin - - 2010
The transcription factor neurogenin 3 (Neurog3 or Ngn3) controls islet cell fate specification in multipotent pancreatic progenitor cells in the mouse embryo. However, our knowledge of the genetic programs implemented by Ngn3, which control generic and islet subtype-specific properties, is still fragmentary. Gene expression profiling in isolated Ngn3-positive progenitor cells ...
In't Veld Peter - - 2010
Human islets of Langerhans are complex micro-organs responsible for maintaining glucose homeostasis. Islets contain five different endocrine cell types, which react to changes in plasma nutrient levels with the release of a carefully balanced mixture of islet hormones into the portal vein. Each endocrine cell type is characterized by its ...
Kim Abraham - - 2010
Tracing changes of specific cell populations in health and disease is an important goal of biomedical research. The process of monitoring pancreatic beta-cell proliferation and islet growth is particularly challenging. We have developed a method to capture the distribution of beta-cells in the intact pancreas of transgenic mice with fluorescence-tagged ...
Egefjord Laerke - - 2010
Zinc concentrates in islet cells and is related to insulin secretion. Islet cells act as a unit within islets and hormone secretion in the islets is profoundly influenced by paracrine and autocrine regulation. Zinc has been recognised as a candidate paracrine inhibitor of glucagon secretion in alpha-cells. Further zinc fluxes ...
Kurahashi Toshihiro - - 2010
Glucose homeostasis requires the coordinated actions of various organs and is critically dependent on the proper functioning of the various cell types present in the pancreatic Langerhans islets. Here we report that chromatin architectural protein HMGN3 is highly expressed in all pancreatic endocrine islet cells, and that Hmgn3-/- mice which ...
Shen Xiaoming - - 2010
OBJECTIVES: We previously detected CXCR4 expression in pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) tissues and demonstrated CXCR4-enhanced proliferation of PanIN cells. Our objective was to determine if the CXCR4 targets AKT and ERK mediate CXCR4-dependent PanIN and pancreatic cancer proliferation. METHODS: We exposed cultured murine-derived PanIN, invasive pancreatic cancer (5143PDA) and liver ...
Li Shuai - - 2010
BACKGROUND: The vertebrate pancreas contains islet, acinar and ductal cells. These cells derive from a transient pool of multipotent pancreatic progenitors during embryonic development. Insight into the genetic determinants regulating pancreatic organogenesis will help the development of cell-based therapies for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Suppressor enhancer lin12/Notch 1 like ...
Rojas Anabel - - 2010
Over the last years, there has been great success in driving stem cells toward insulin-expressing cells. However, the protocols developed to date have some limitations, such as low reliability and low insulin production. The most successful protocols used for generation of insulin-producing cells from stem cells mimic in vitro pancreatic ...
Heinis M - - 2010
The pancreas is a mixed gland that contains endocrine and exocrine components. Within the pancreatic islets, beta cells produce insulin and control the glycemia. Their deficiency leads to diabetes and several potential complications. In the last decade, numerous studies have focused on pancreas development. The objective was to characterize the ...
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