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Results 401 - 450 of 1831
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Sardini Alessandro - - 2003
Maintenance of a constant volume is essential for normal cell function. Following cell swelling, as a consequence of reduction of extracellular osmolarity or increase of intracellular content of osmolytes, animal cells are able to restore their original volume by activation of potassium and chloride conductances. The loss of these ions, ...
Ritz P - - 2003
There is paramount evidence to suggest the importance of cell volume changes for the regulation of cell function, including protein metabolism. Among many other effects, cell swelling inhibits proteolysis and stimulates protein synthesis. However, most of the data pertinent to this theory relate to in vitro experiments. This paper reviews ...
Elias Emmanuel - - 2003
Topoisomerase I (Topo I) is mostly known for its role in DNA relaxation, which is required for duplication and transcription. Topo I acts as a protein kinase mainly directed to the mRNA splicing factor SC35. Camptothecin is one of the specific Topo I inhibitors and is effective on the two ...
Dubois Jean-Marc - - 2004
Ion channels and cell volume control participate in a wide variety of cellular functions, including cell proliferation. According to the "pump-leak model" or the "double Donnan system", the cell volume is constant in physiological medium so long as the cell metabolism and the Na-K pump are not inhibited and the ...
Davis Cristina E - - 2004
Many cell types regulate their volume in response to extracellular tonicity changes through a complex series of adaptive mechanisms. Several methods that are presently used to measure cell volume changes include Coulter counters, fluorescent techniques, electronic impedance, and video microscopy. Although these methods are widely used and accepted, there are ...
Shiima-Kinoshita Chisa - - 2004
Single bronchiolar ciliary cells were isolated from rat lungs. The beta(2)-adrenergic regulation of ciliary beat frequency (CBF) was studied using video-optical microscopy. Terbutaline (a beta(2)-adrenergic agonist) increased CBF in a dose-dependent manner, and it also decreased the volume of the ciliary cells. These terbutaline actions were inhibited by a PKA ...
Wehner Frank - - 2003
In whole-cell recordings on single HeLa cells, the hypertonic activation of a cation conductance with a selectivity ratio P(Na):P(Li):P(K):P(Cs):P(NMDG):P(Ca):P(Cl) of 1.00:0.86:0.84:0.56:0.10:0.07:0.15 was observed. This (non-selective) cation conductance was reduced to 59 and 30% of maximal stimulation by Gd(3+) and flufenamate, respectively, but it was insensitive to amiloride (with each compound ...
Srinivas S P SP School of Optometry, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, - - 2003
Light scattering is an empirical technique employed to measure rapid changes in cell volume. This study describes a new configuration for the method of light scattering and its corroboration by measurements of cell height (as a measure of cell volume). Corneal endothelial cells cultured on glass cover-slips were mounted in ...
Brindikova Tatyana A - - 2003
Purinergic inhibition of Na-K-Cl cotransport has been noted in various renal epithelial cells derived from the collecting tubule, including Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. In recent studies, we have observed purinergic inhibition of Na-K-Cl cotransport in C11-MDCK subclones (alpha-intercalated-like cells). Interestingly, Na-K-Cl cotransport activity was also detected in C7-MDCK subclones ...
Belsey Mark J - - 2003
FACS analysis and [14C]-taurine efflux were used to determine whether activation of the volume-sensitive organic osmolyte/anion channel plays a role in cell cycle progression. This was achieved by examining the effects of a collection of (i) H(1) antagonists and tricyclic antidepressants with a known inhibitory effect on cell cycle progression, ...
Grosse T - - 2003
Cellular element concentrations and dry weight contents in A6 cells were determined using electron microprobe analysis to establish whether these cells exhibit a regulatory volume increase (post-RVD-RVI) when re-establishing isotonicity following a hypotonically induced regulatory volume decrease (RVD). Hypotonic stress was induced by reducing basolateral [NaCl], and hence, osmolarity fell ...
Chen Jinglong - - 2003
The TRPC1 (transient receptor potential canonical 1) protein, which is thought to encode a non-selective cation channel activated by store depletion and/or an intracellular messenger, is expressed in a number of non-excitable cells. However, the physiological functions of TRPC1 are not well understood. The aim of these studies was to ...
Barriere Herve - - 2003
Several papers reported the role of TASK2 channels in cell volume regulation and regulatory volume decrease (RVD). To check the possibility that the TASK2 channel modulates the RVD process in kidney, we performed primary cultures of proximal convoluted tubules (PCT) and distal convoluted tubules (DCT) from wild-type and TASK2 knockout ...
Jin Nan Ge - - 2003
Volume regulation is essential for cell function, but it is unknown which channels are involved in a regulatory volume decrease (RVD) in human gastric epithelial cells. Exposure to a hypotonic solution caused the increase in AGS cell volume, followed by the activation of a current. The reversal potential of the ...
Gao S - - 2003
A field study on the removal of Se from agricultural subsurface drainage was conducted from May 1997 to February 2001 in the Tulare Lake Drainage District (TLDD) of San Joaquin Valley, California. A flow-through wetland system was constructed consisting of ten 15- x 76-m unlined cells that were continuously flooded ...
Laquerriere Patrice - - 2003
Numerous studies have described the bioactive properties of glass particles in the SiO(2)-CaO-Na(2)O-P(2)O(5) system. This kind of material is capable of developing a direct contact with bone through dissolution and physicochemical reactions. We have investigated the influence of bioactive particles, and ionic products from the same particles, on the intracellular ...
Martin Karin - - 2003
The high speed production of fluid segments for the highly parallelized cultivation of monoclonal cell populations was carried out by the use of microchip segmentor modules. Aqueous fluid segments, embedded in a non-miscible carrier liquid, were produced with frequencies up to 30 s(-1) and showed a high homogeneity in size. ...
Auberson Muriel - - 2003
Liddle's syndrome is a monogenic form of hypertension caused by mutations in the PY motif of the COOH terminus of beta- and gamma-epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) subunits. These mutations lead to retention of active channels at the cell surface. Because of the critical role of this PY motif in the ...
Kim Youn-Bae - - 2003
Ion transporters such as Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE), Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchanger (AE), and Na(+)/HCO(3)(-) cotransporter (NBC) are known to contribute to the intracellular pH (pH(i)) regulation during agonist-induced stimulation. This study examined the mechanisms for the pH(i) regulation in the mouse parotid and sublingual acinar cells using the fluorescent pH-sensitive probe, BCECF. ...
Fleischhauer J C - - 2003
A(1) adenosine receptors (ARs) reduce, and A(2)ARs increase intraocular pressure, partly by differentially altering resistance to aqueous humor outflow. It is unknown whether the opposing effects of A(1)AR and A(2)AR agonists are mediated at different outflow-pathway cell targets or by opposing actions on a single cell target. We tested whether ...
Ho Steffan N - - 2003
NFAT5/TonEBP, the most recently described member of the rel/NFkappaB/NFAT family of signal-dependent transcription factors, is activated by extracellular hypertonicity-a cellular stress of particular and perhaps unique physiologic relevance to cells of the renal medulla. Accumulating evidence suggests that NFAT5/TonEBP also functions in vivo under isotonic conditions as part of a ...
Chung Ji-Hyun - - 2003
There has been no previous indication that vacuolar ATPases (V-ATPases) require sphingolipids for function. Here we show, by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae sur4Delta and fen1Delta cells, that sphingolipids with a C26 acyl group are required for generating V1 domains with ATPase activity. Sphingolipids in sur4Delta cells contain C22 and C24 acyl ...
Zilli L - - 2003
The goal of the present study was to evaluate the changes in the cell type composition and ATPase activities (total ATPase, ouabain-sensitive Na+/K(+)-ATPase, furosemide-sensitive Na(+)-ATPase) that occur during the different stages of the moulting cycle in the hepatopancreas of the Marsupenaeus japonicus. The results clearly suggest that the number of ...
Gervais Patrick - - 2003
The effect of a rapid temperature increase on the volume of different types of cells was investigated. Experiments were carried out using continuous microscopic image analysis. Volume variation of yeast cells, yeast spheroplasts and human leukaemia cells was measured during the transient phase after a thermal shift. The thermal shift ...
Grunnet Morten - - 2003
Many important physiological processes involve changes in cell volume, e.g. the transport of salt and water in epithelial cells and the contraction of cardiomyocytes. In this study, we show that voltage-gated KCNQ1 channels, which are strongly expressed in epithelial cells or cardiomyocytes, and KCNQ4 channels, expressed in hair cells and ...
Abdullaev Iskandar F - - 2003
Whole-cell recordings showed that, in mouse mammary C127 cells transfected with the full genome of the bovine papilloma virus (BPV), a hypotonic challenge induced the activation of outwardly rectifying Cl- currents with a peak amplitude 2.7 times greater than that in control C127 cells. Cell-attached single-channel recordings showed that BPV-induced ...
Boughanmi N - - 2003
Medicago sativa var. Gabes is a perennial glycophyte that develops new shoots even in high salinity (150 mM NaCl). In the upper exporting leaves, K(+) is high and Na(+) is low by comparison with the lower leaves, where Na(+) accumulation induces chlorosis after 4 weeks of NaCl treatment. By secondary ...
Pchejetski Dimitri - - 2003
Treatment with ouabain led to massive death of principal cells from collecting ducts (C7-MDCK), indicated by cell swelling, loss of mitochondrial function, an irregular pattern of DNA degradation, and insensitivity to pan-caspase inhibitor. Equimolar substitution of extracellular Na(+) by K(+) or choline(+) sharply attenuated the effect of ouabain on intracellular ...
Reid Scott D - - 2003
Percoll density-gradient separation, combined with peanut lectin agglutinin (PNA) binding and magnetic bead separation, was used to separate dispersed fish gill cells into sub-populations. Functional characterization of each of the sub-populations was performed to determine which displayed acid-activated phenamil- and bafilomycin-sensitive Na(+) uptake. Analysis of the mechanism(s) of (22)Na(+) influx ...
Magnuson Bengt - - 2003
This article presents a new approach to understanding the physiological functions of the mastoid cell system. It is suggested that the cell system, in combination with the continuous blood flow through the adjacent large vessels, makes up a compound functional unit that serves to protect the sensitive vestibular part of ...
Espelt M V - - 2003
The relationship between cell volume and K(+) transmembrane fluxes of goldfish (Carassius auratus) hepatocytes exposed to anisotonic conditions or energetic limitation was studied and compared with the response of hepatocytes from trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and rat (Rattus rattus). Cell volume was studied by video- and fluorescence microscopy, while K(+) fluxes ...
Nabekura Takashi - - 2003
Hypotonic challenge induces transient swelling in glial cells, which is typically followed by a regulatory volume decrease (RVD). In contrast, lactic acidosis (lactacidosis) induces persistent cell swelling in astrocytes without an accompanying RVD. In the present study, we studied the mechanisms by which lactacidosis interferes with normal volume regulation in ...
Biswas Sondip Kumar - - 2003
The morphologies, numbers, sizes and volumes of all organelles and cell components identified on ultrathin sections of aerobically grown exponential phase yeast cells of Exophiala dermatitidis in G1 phase were examined by freeze-substitution fixation and serial ultrathin sectioning. The cell wall consisted of three layers and occupied approximately 22% of ...
Ikeuchi Tomohiko - - 2003
Salt tolerance was induced in Bacillus subtilis IFO 3025 cells when a moderate osmotic stress was imposed by incubation in the presence of compatible solutes and 0.5 M NaCl or 0.8 M sorbitol. The optimum condition for inducing salt tolerance was observed when the cells were incubated in a solution ...
Diaz Roberto J - - 2003
Accumulation of osmotically active metabolites, which create an osmotic gradient estimated at ~60 mOsM, and cell swelling are prominent features of ischemic myocardial cell death. This study tests the hypothesis that reduction of ischemic swelling by enhanced cell volume regulation is a key mechanism in the delay of ischemic myocardial ...
Wehner F - - 2003
In recent years, it has become evident that the volume of a given cell is an important factor not only in defining its intracellular osmolality and its shape, but also in defining other cellular functions, such as transepithelial transport, cell migration, cell growth, cell death, and the regulation of intracellular ...
Mori Shin-ichiro - - 2002
Acidosis coupled to lactate accumulation, called lactacidosis, occurs in cerebral ischemia or trauma and is known to cause persistent swelling in neuronal and glial cells. It is therefore possible that mechanisms of cell volume regulation are impaired during lactacidosis. Here we tested this possibility using neuronally differentiated NG108-15 cells. These ...
Liu Jiang - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The decreases in proximal tubule sodium reabsorption seen with chronic renal failure and volume expansion have been ascribed to circulating digitalis-like substances (DLS). However, the circulating concentrations of DLS do not acutely inhibit the sodium pump to a degree consistent with the observed changes in proximal tubule sodium reabsorption. ...
Arreola Jorge - - 2002
Salivary gland acinar cells shrink when Cl(-) currents are activated following cell swelling induced by exposure to a hypotonic solution or in response to calcium-mobilizing agonists. The molecular identity of the Cl(-) channel(s) in salivary cells involved in these processes is unknown, although ClC-3 has been implicated in several tissues ...
Liu Ruisheng - - 2002
The luminal NaCl concentration ([NaCl]) at the macula densa (MD) controls both tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) and renin release. Nitric oxide (NO) inhibits TGF sensitivity to a great extent. The NO concentration in the MD cells is not known. This study measured this concentration in MD cells with confocal microscopy in ...
Abdulla Fuad A - - 2002
Section of rat sciatic nerve (axotomy) increases the excitability of neurons in the L(4)-L(5) dorsal root ganglia (DRG). These changes are more pronounced in animals that exhibit a self-mutilatory behavior known as autotomy. We used whole cell recording to examine changes in the tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-S) and the tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) components ...
Pritchard Scott - - 2002
Loading of the spine alters the osmotic environment in the intervertebral disk (IVD) as interstitial water is expressed from the tissue. Cells from the three zones of the IVD, the anulus fibrosus (AF), transition zone (TZ), and nucleus pulposus (NP), respond to osmotic stress with altered biosynthesis through a pathway ...
Pommer Angela C - - 2002
Cryopreservation requires exposure of sperm to extreme variations in temperature and osmolality. The goal of this experiment was to determine the osmotic tolerance levels of equine sperm by analyzing motility, viability, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and mean cell volume (MCV). Spermatozoa were incubated at 22 degrees C for 10 min ...
Chen Lixin - - 2002
Patch-clamping and cell image analysis techniques were used to study the expression of the volume-activated Cl(-) current, I(Cl(vol)), and regulatory volume decrease (RVD) capacity in the cell cycle in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells (CNE-2Z). Hypotonic challenge caused CNE-2Z cells to swell and activated a Cl(-) current with a linear conductance, negligible ...
Wang Liwei - - 2002
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells, CNE-2Z, when swollen by 47% hypotonic solution, exhibited a regulatory volume decrease (RVD). The RVD was inhibited by extracellular applications of the chloride channel blockers tamoxifen (30 microM; 61% inhibition), 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB, 100 microM; 60% inhibition), and ATP (10 mM; 91% inhibition). The level and time ...
Yasukawa Tomoyuki - - 2002
A picoliter-volume electrochemical analytical chamber has been developed for detecting the metabolic flux resulting from the stress responses of a single plant cell. Electrochemical cells, with volumes as small as 100 pL, were fabricated by controlled electrochemical dissolution of a gold wire sealed in glass (the back-etching of the metal ...
Orlando Geraldine S - - 2002
In vivo human esophageal epithelial cells are regularly exposed to hyposmolal stress. This stress, however, only becomes destructive when the surface epithelial cell (barrier) layers are breached and there is contact of the hyposmolal solution with the basolateral cell membranes. The present investigation was designed to examine the effects of ...
Thurston-Stanfield Cindy L - - 2002
ON and OFF cells of the rostral ventromedial medulla are hypothesized to modulate nociception with ON cells facilitating pain and OFF cells inhibiting pain. The current study analyzed the effects of intraperitoneal saline at different volumes and temperatures on nociception (tail flick reflex), blood pressure, and the activity of ON ...
Tararthuch A L - - 2002
In several tissues ammonium ions are able to use the transport pathways of other ions, particularly of K+. We investigated this possibility in the C11 clone of MDCK cells, thought to represent intercalated cells, in control and 0 Cl- conditions. Cell pH was measured by ratiometric fluorescence microscopy using the ...
Kern G - - 2002
Cell suspensions of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss pseudobranch, prepared by Ca(2+) depletion and mechanical maceration, contained a distinct population of cells that always kept their relatively cuboidal shape and did not round up in suspension or proliferate after adhering to the surface of cell culture dishes. Phasecontrast microscopy revealed an ...
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