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Results 301 - 350 of 1934
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Zonia Laura - - 2006
Pollen tube growth is localized at the apex and displays oscillatory dynamics. It is thought that a balance between intracellular turgor pressure (hydrostatic pressure, reflected by the cell volume) and cell wall loosening is a critical factor driving pollen tube growth. We previously demonstrated that water flows freely into and ...
Friedrich B - - 2006
Prerequisites for cell survival include avoidance of excessive alterations of cell volume. Cells counterbalance the osmolarity due to cellular accumulation of organic substances by uneven distribution of inorganic ions. They extrude Na(+) in exchange for K(+) by the Na(+) /K(+) ATPase. The cell membrane is less permeable to Na(+) than ...
Oswald Elizabeth S - - 2006
Cartilage compression results in changes in the shape, volume as well as hydrostatic and osmotic pressure of chondrocytes in situ. For example, changes in the cellular osmotic environment have been shown to modulate chondrocyte biosynthesis and gene expression, however, the mechanosensing mechanisms mediating these responses are relatively unknown. Nuclear shape ...
Hoffmann Else K - - 2006
The ability to control cell volume is fundamental for proper cell function. This review highlights recent advances in the understanding of the complex sequences of events by which acute cell volume perturbation alters the activity of osmolyte transport proteins in cells from vertebrate organisms. After cell swelling, the main effectors ...
Shennan David B - - 2006
The properties and regulation of volume-activated taurine efflux from MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells have been investigated. Volume-activated taurine release from both cell lines was almost completely inhibited by diidosalicylate. DIDS , was more effective at inhibiting swelling-induced taurine release from MCF-7 than from MDA-MB-231 cells. On the basis of comparing ...
Lang Florian - - 2006
Cell proliferation must be accompanied by increase of cell volume and apoptosis is typically paralleled by cell shrinkage. Moreover, profound osmotic cell shrinkage may trigger apoptosis. In isotonic environment cell volume changes require the respective alterations of transport across the cell membrane. Cell proliferation is typically paralleled by activation of ...
Caplanusi Adrian - - 2006
This study describes the correlation between cell swelling-induced K+ efflux and volume regulation efficiency evaluated with agents known to modulate ion channel activity and/or intracellular signaling processes in a human bronchial epithelial cell line, 16HBE14o(-1). Cells on permeable filter supports, differentiated into polarized monolayers, were monitored continuously at room temperature ...
Alexander R Todd - - 2006
The cell is constantly encountering stimuli or conditions that can induce alterations to cell volume. Despite these challenges, cell volume remains relatively constant, by virtue of a series of complex and often redundant regulatory mechanisms. Acutely, an efflux of ions and organic osmolytes counteracts the tendency of cells to swell. ...
Negić N - - 2006
Exposure to glucocorticoids leads to numerous changes in various biological systems including the reproductive system. The aim of the present work was to find out whether dexamethasone (Dx) treatment of adult female rats would influence the histological and morphometric characteristics of the pituitary gonadotrophic cells (luteinizing--LH cells and follicle stimulating--FSH ...
Šestanović, Stefanija
Bacterial abundance, biomass, cell volume, and morphological diversity were studied in sediment samples collected from the coastal area of the eastern mid Adriatic Sea. Samples from the topmost 10 cm of sediment were taken monthly from January to December 2002. The number of bacteria varied from 3.54 x 109 cells ...
Wolterbeek Hubert Th - - 2005
The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay was addressed for its sensitivity, disturbances by foaming, and cell number and size. Cells were from a U-251 MG grade IV human glioblastoma brain tumor cell line used in 100-microl well volumes. Cells were counted by microscopy and Coulter counting; assays were LDH or trypan ...
Aasamaa Krõõt - - 2005
Leaf hydraulic conductance (K(leaf)) and several characteristics of hydraulic architecture and physiology were measured during the first 10 weeks of leaf ontogeny in Populus tremula L. saplings growing under control, mild water deficit or elevated temperature conditions. During the initial 3 weeks of leaf ontogeny, most measured characteristics rapidly increased. ...
Droste Miriam S - - 2005
To maintain the intracellular concentration of ions and small molecules on osmotic challenges, nature has developed highly sophisticated transport systems for regulating water and ion content. An ideal measurement technique for volume changes of cells during osmotic challenges has to fulfil two requirements: it has to be osmotically inert, and ...
Nylander-Koski Outi - - 2005
Cell volume regulation was investigated in gastric surface epithelial cells during hypertonic conditions. Isolated Necturus antral mucosa was perfused on the serosal side with Ringer's solution (pH 7.25, 95%O2/5%CO2) and on the mucosal side successively with 150-500 mM NaCl. Amiloride, ouabain, and bumetanide were used to experimentally inhibit Na+/H+, Na+/K+ ...
Alvarez-Leefmans Francisco J - - 2006
Regulation and maintenance of cell water volume and intracellular pH (pHi) are vital functions that are interdependent; cell volume regulation affects, and is in turn affected by, changes in pHi. Disruption of either function underlies various pathologies. To study the interaction and kinetics of these two mechanisms, we developed and ...
Marrington Rachel - - 2005
Long molecules such as fibrous proteins are particularly difficult to characterise structurally. We have recently designed a microvolume Couette flow linear dichroism (LD) cell whose sample volume is only 20-40 microL in contrast to previous cells where the volume of sample required has typically been of the order of 1000-2000 ...
Knappe S - - 2005
A novel technique for microfabricating alkali atom vapor cells is described in which alkali atoms are evaporated into a micromachined cell cavity through a glass nozzle. A cell of interior volume 1 mm3, containing 87Rb and a buffer gas, was made in this way and integrated into an atomic clock ...
Seguí-Simarro José M - - 2006
Cytokinesis in plants involves both the formation of a new wall and the partitioning of organelles between the daughter cells. To characterize the cellular changes that accompany the latter process, we have quantitatively analyzed the cell cycle-dependent changes in cell architecture of shoot apical meristem cells of Arabidopsis thaliana. For ...
Capó-Aponte J E - - 2005
An in-depth understanding of the mechanisms underlying regulatory volume behavior in corneal epithelial cells has been in part hampered by the lack of adequate methodology for characterizing this phenomenon. Accordingly, we developed a novel approach to characterize time-dependent changes in relative cell volume induced by anisosmotic challenges in calcein-loaded SV40-immortalized ...
Ford Paula - - 2005
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: The renal CCD (cortical collecting duct) plays a role in final volume and concentration of urine by a process that is regulated by the antidiuretic hormone, [arginine]vasopressin. This hormone induces an increase in water permeability due to the translocation of AQP2 (aquaporin 2) from the intracellular vesicles to ...
Dufour Alexandre - - 2005
Cell migrations and deformations play essential roles in biological processes, such as parasite invasion, immune response, embryonic development, and cancer. We describe a fully automatic segmentation and tracking method designed to enable quantitative analyses of cellular shape and motion from dynamic three-dimensional microscopy data. The method uses multiple active surfaces ...
Flegelova Hana - - 2005
Na(+)/H+exchangers form a broad family of transporters that mediate opposing fluxes of alkali metal cations and protons across cell membranes. They play multiple roles in different organisms (protection from toxic cations, regulation of cell volume or pH). Rat NHE2 exchanger was expressed in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant strain lacking its ...
Wang Guan-Lei - - 2005
The K(v)4.2/4.3 channels are the primary subunits that contribute to the fast-inactivating, voltage-dependent transient outward K(+) current (I(to,fast)) in the heart. I(to,fast) is the critical determinant of the early repolarization of the cardiac action potential and plays an important role in the adaptive remodelling of cardiac myocytes, which usually causes ...
Sukhorukov V L - - 2005
Electrotransfection and electrofusion, both widely used in research and medical applications, still have to face a range of problems, including the existence of electroporation-resistant cell types, cell mortality and also great batch-to-batch variations of the transfection and fusion yields. In the present study, a systematic analysis of the parameters critical ...
Akimova Olga A - - 2006
The signaling cascade resulting in the death of several types of cells treated with ouabain or other cardiotonic steroids (CTS) remains poorly understood. Recently, we observed that ouabain kills epithelial and endothelial cells via its interaction with Na(+), K(+) -ATPase, but independently of inhibition of Na(+), K(+) -ATPase-mediated ion fluxes ...
Luo C - - 2006
A whole-cell model of a macrophage (mphi) is developed to simulate pH and volume regulation during a NH4Cl prepulse challenge. The cell is assumed spherical, with a plasma membrane that separates the cytosolic and extracellular bathing media. The membrane contains background currents for Na+, K+ and Cl-, a Na(+)-K+ pump, ...
Schwab A - - 2005
Cell migration is crucial for immune defence, wound healing or formation of tumour metastases. It has been shown that the activity of the Na(+)-H(+) exchanger (NHE1) plays an important role in cell migration. However, so far it is unknown whether Na(+)- HCO(3)(-) cotransport (NBC), which has similar functions in the ...
Vinciguerra Manlio - - 2005
Collecting duct (CD) principal cells are exposed to large physiologic variations of apical Na+ influx as a result of variations of Na(+) intake and extrarenal losses. It was shown previously that increasing intracellular [Na+] induces recruitment of Na,K-ATPase to the cell surface in a protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent manner in ...
Brauer Philip R - - 2005
The teleosts Trematomus bernacchii thrive in southern oceanic waters with temperatures below 0 degrees C. These fish have serum osmolalities almost double those found in fish of temperate waters, thereby lowering their serum's freezing point and the energy needed for ionic homeostasis. Upon warm acclimation to 4 degrees C, T. ...
Yano Akimasa - - 2005
OBJECT: The authors evaluated the neuroprotective and angiogenic effects of a continuous and low-dose infusion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-165 on cerebral ischemia in rats. METHODS: The authors introduced VEGF complementary (c)DNA into baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells and established a cell line that produces human VEGF165 (BHK-VEGF). The ...
Mordasini David - - 2005
Arginine-vasopressin (AVP) stimulates Na(+) transport and Na-K-ATPase activity via cAMP-dependent PKA activation in the renal cortical collecting duct (CCD). We investigated the role of the Na-K-ATPase in the AVP-induced stimulation of transepithelial Na(+) transport using the mpkCCD(c14) cell model of mammalian collecting duct principal cells. AVP (10(-9) M) stimulated both ...
Kaplan Jack H - - 2005
The Na,K-ATPase, or sodium pump, is a ubiquitous plasma membrane protein in higher eukaryotes, including humans, that carries out the coupled active transport of Na+ ions out of the cell and of K+ ions into the cell, using the energy of hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate. In recent years, it has ...
Bevilacqua Elena - - 2005
Under hypertonic conditions the induction of SLC38A2/SNAT2 leads to the stimulation of transport system A and to the increase in the cell content of amino acids. In hypertonically stressed human fibroblasts transfection with two siRNAs for SNAT2 suppressed the increase in SNAT2 mRNA and the stimulation of system A transport ...
Bassnett Steven - - 2005
During terminal differentiation, lens fiber cells increase in length by 100-1000 fold. The mechanism of cellular elongation is not well understood but previous measurements on differentiating embryonic fiber cells indicated that cell volume increases in direct proportion to cell length. Fiber cells are tightly packed within the lens. Under these ...
Becker Daniel - - 2005
Tight regulation of the cell volume is important for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. In a hypotonic environment, cells swell owing to osmosis. With many vertebrate cells, swelling is followed by an active reduction of volume, a process called regulatory volume decrease (RVD). A possible participant in RVD is the ...
Moody Mark - - 2005
Amiloride-sensitive, epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC)-mediated, active absorption of Na(+) is elevated in the airway epithelium of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, resulting in excess fluid removal from the airway lumen. This excess fluid/volume absorption corresponds to CF transmembrane regulator-linked defects in ENaC regulation, resulting in the reduced mucociliary clearance found in ...
Benjelloun Fatine - - 2005
The erythroid Rh-associated glycoprotein (RhAG) is strictly required for the expression of the Rh blood group antigens carried by Rh (D,CE) proteins. A biological function for RhAG in ammonium transport has been suggested by its ability to improve survival of an ammonium-uptake-deficient yeast. We investigated the function of RhAG by ...
Rouzaire-Dubois Béatrice - - 2005
For decades, the connection between cell size and division has been the subject of controversy. While in yeast, cell size checkpoints coordinate cellular growth with cell-cycle progression, it has been recently shown that large and small Schwann cells proliferate at the same rate (Conlon and Raff, 2003, J Biol 2:7). ...
He Mingyan - - 2005
This paper describes a method, which combines optical trapping and microfluidic-based droplet generation, for selectively and controllably encapsulating a single target cell or subcellular structure, such as a mitochondrion, into a picoliter- or femtoliter-volume aqueous droplet that is surrounded by an immiscible phase. Once the selected cell or organelle is ...
Ebbesson Lars O E - - 2005
We investigated the relationship between nitric oxide (NO) and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (NKA) in the gill of anadromous Atlantic salmon. Cells containing NO-producing enzymes were revealed by means of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) immunocytochemistry and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPHd) histochemistry, which can be used as an indicator of NOS activity, ...
Ateya Daniel A - - 2005
Regulation of cell volume was one of the earliest evolutionary demands for life and remains a universal measure of cell metabolism. Since conventional methods to measure cell volume, such as microscopy, are complex and time-consuming, cell volume has not been used as the basis for cell-based screening. We have developed ...
Abston Lisa R - - 2005
Ammonia, lactate and CO(2) inhibit animal cell growth. Accumulation of these metabolic byproducts also causes a decrease in intracellular pH (pH(i)). Transport systems regulate pH(i) in eukaryotic cells. Ion transporters have been cloned and overexpressed in cells but have not been examined for protection against the buildup of ammonia, lactate ...
Pedersen, Meike
The Na-K-Cl cotransporter, NKCC1, is involved in the regulation of intracellular chloride concentration and cell volume. We have tagged both the N terminus and a non-conserved loop in the C terminus of shark NKCC1 with ECFP and EYFP and expressed these constructs in HEK cells. The constructs are fluorescent and ...
Andersen L Klembt - - 2005
Magnetic AC mode (MACmode) atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to study murine (mouse) MC3T3-E1 preosteoblastic cells attached to biocompatible tantalum substrates. Cell volumes of attached cells derived from AFM images were compared to volumes of detached cells in suspension measured by the Coulter sizing technique. An increase of approximately ...
Bush Peter G - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Mechanical stress above the physiological range can profoundly influence articular cartilage causing matrix damage, changes to chondrocyte metabolism and cell injury/death. It has also been implicated as a risk factor in the development of osteoarthritis (OA). The mechanism of cell damage is not understood, but chondrocyte volume could be ...
Rhoads Daniel S - - 2005
In this chapter, we will discuss a method for the generation of gradients that can be quantitatively used for studying directional cell migration. Microfluidic networks, which serially split and remix small volumes of solutions under laminar flow conditions to generate a series of microchannels of increasing protein concentration. At a ...
Yurinskaya Valentina E - - 2005
The mechanism of apoptotic cell volume decrease was studied in rat thymocytes treated with dexamethasone (Dex) or etoposide (Eto). Cell shrinkage, i.e. dehydration, was quantified by using buoyant density of the thymocytes in a continuous Percoll gradient. The K+ and Na+ content of cells from different density fractions were assayed ...
Beck Franz-X - - 2005
In antidiuresis renal medullary cells are exposed to high NaCl and urea concentrations. Long-term adaptation of renal medullary cells to high extracellular NaCl concentrations is accomplished by intracellular accumulation of organic osmolytes. The underlying mechanisms include enhanced uptake from the extracellular space (betaine, myo-inositol and amino acids), increased intracellular production ...
Karakas Sacide - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The paranasal sinuses and mastoid air cells vary considerably in size and shape from person to person. The main structures are pneumatic. In this study, we investigated the relationship between right and left sides and evaluated the volume changes according to age and sex. METHODS: Of all patients attending ...
Kesiry Riad - - 2005
We have demonstrated that ouabain causes dose- and time-dependent decreases both in 86Rb+ uptake and plasmalemmal Na/K-ATPase content of LLC-PK1 cells, which is related to ouabain-induced endocytosis of plasmalemmal Na/K-ATPase in LLC-PK1 cells through a clathrin-dependent mechanism. GRP78/BiP is a resident protein of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and acts as ...
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