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Results 301 - 350 of 1831
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Marrington Rachel - - 2005
Long molecules such as fibrous proteins are particularly difficult to characterise structurally. We have recently designed a microvolume Couette flow linear dichroism (LD) cell whose sample volume is only 20-40 microL in contrast to previous cells where the volume of sample required has typically been of the order of 1000-2000 ...
Knappe S - - 2005
A novel technique for microfabricating alkali atom vapor cells is described in which alkali atoms are evaporated into a micromachined cell cavity through a glass nozzle. A cell of interior volume 1 mm3, containing 87Rb and a buffer gas, was made in this way and integrated into an atomic clock ...
Seguí-Simarro José M - - 2006
Cytokinesis in plants involves both the formation of a new wall and the partitioning of organelles between the daughter cells. To characterize the cellular changes that accompany the latter process, we have quantitatively analyzed the cell cycle-dependent changes in cell architecture of shoot apical meristem cells of Arabidopsis thaliana. For ...
Dufour Alexandre - - 2005
Cell migrations and deformations play essential roles in biological processes, such as parasite invasion, immune response, embryonic development, and cancer. We describe a fully automatic segmentation and tracking method designed to enable quantitative analyses of cellular shape and motion from dynamic three-dimensional microscopy data. The method uses multiple active surfaces ...
Capó-Aponte J E - - 2005
An in-depth understanding of the mechanisms underlying regulatory volume behavior in corneal epithelial cells has been in part hampered by the lack of adequate methodology for characterizing this phenomenon. Accordingly, we developed a novel approach to characterize time-dependent changes in relative cell volume induced by anisosmotic challenges in calcein-loaded SV40-immortalized ...
Ford Paula - - 2005
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: The renal CCD (cortical collecting duct) plays a role in final volume and concentration of urine by a process that is regulated by the antidiuretic hormone, [arginine]vasopressin. This hormone induces an increase in water permeability due to the translocation of AQP2 (aquaporin 2) from the intracellular vesicles to ...
Flegelova Hana - - 2005
Na(+)/H+exchangers form a broad family of transporters that mediate opposing fluxes of alkali metal cations and protons across cell membranes. They play multiple roles in different organisms (protection from toxic cations, regulation of cell volume or pH). Rat NHE2 exchanger was expressed in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant strain lacking its ...
Wang Guan-Lei - - 2005
The K(v)4.2/4.3 channels are the primary subunits that contribute to the fast-inactivating, voltage-dependent transient outward K(+) current (I(to,fast)) in the heart. I(to,fast) is the critical determinant of the early repolarization of the cardiac action potential and plays an important role in the adaptive remodelling of cardiac myocytes, which usually causes ...
Sukhorukov V L - - 2005
Electrotransfection and electrofusion, both widely used in research and medical applications, still have to face a range of problems, including the existence of electroporation-resistant cell types, cell mortality and also great batch-to-batch variations of the transfection and fusion yields. In the present study, a systematic analysis of the parameters critical ...
Akimova Olga A - - 2006
The signaling cascade resulting in the death of several types of cells treated with ouabain or other cardiotonic steroids (CTS) remains poorly understood. Recently, we observed that ouabain kills epithelial and endothelial cells via its interaction with Na(+), K(+) -ATPase, but independently of inhibition of Na(+), K(+) -ATPase-mediated ion fluxes ...
Luo C - - 2006
A whole-cell model of a macrophage (mphi) is developed to simulate pH and volume regulation during a NH4Cl prepulse challenge. The cell is assumed spherical, with a plasma membrane that separates the cytosolic and extracellular bathing media. The membrane contains background currents for Na+, K+ and Cl-, a Na(+)-K+ pump, ...
Schwab A - - 2005
Cell migration is crucial for immune defence, wound healing or formation of tumour metastases. It has been shown that the activity of the Na(+)-H(+) exchanger (NHE1) plays an important role in cell migration. However, so far it is unknown whether Na(+)- HCO(3)(-) cotransport (NBC), which has similar functions in the ...
Vinciguerra Manlio - - 2005
Collecting duct (CD) principal cells are exposed to large physiologic variations of apical Na+ influx as a result of variations of Na(+) intake and extrarenal losses. It was shown previously that increasing intracellular [Na+] induces recruitment of Na,K-ATPase to the cell surface in a protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent manner in ...
Yano Akimasa - - 2005
OBJECT: The authors evaluated the neuroprotective and angiogenic effects of a continuous and low-dose infusion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-165 on cerebral ischemia in rats. METHODS: The authors introduced VEGF complementary (c)DNA into baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells and established a cell line that produces human VEGF165 (BHK-VEGF). The ...
Brauer Philip R - - 2005
The teleosts Trematomus bernacchii thrive in southern oceanic waters with temperatures below 0 degrees C. These fish have serum osmolalities almost double those found in fish of temperate waters, thereby lowering their serum's freezing point and the energy needed for ionic homeostasis. Upon warm acclimation to 4 degrees C, T. ...
Mordasini David - - 2005
Arginine-vasopressin (AVP) stimulates Na(+) transport and Na-K-ATPase activity via cAMP-dependent PKA activation in the renal cortical collecting duct (CCD). We investigated the role of the Na-K-ATPase in the AVP-induced stimulation of transepithelial Na(+) transport using the mpkCCD(c14) cell model of mammalian collecting duct principal cells. AVP (10(-9) M) stimulated both ...
Kaplan Jack H - - 2005
The Na,K-ATPase, or sodium pump, is a ubiquitous plasma membrane protein in higher eukaryotes, including humans, that carries out the coupled active transport of Na+ ions out of the cell and of K+ ions into the cell, using the energy of hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate. In recent years, it has ...
Bevilacqua Elena - - 2005
Under hypertonic conditions the induction of SLC38A2/SNAT2 leads to the stimulation of transport system A and to the increase in the cell content of amino acids. In hypertonically stressed human fibroblasts transfection with two siRNAs for SNAT2 suppressed the increase in SNAT2 mRNA and the stimulation of system A transport ...
Bassnett Steven - - 2005
During terminal differentiation, lens fiber cells increase in length by 100-1000 fold. The mechanism of cellular elongation is not well understood but previous measurements on differentiating embryonic fiber cells indicated that cell volume increases in direct proportion to cell length. Fiber cells are tightly packed within the lens. Under these ...
Becker Daniel - - 2005
Tight regulation of the cell volume is important for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. In a hypotonic environment, cells swell owing to osmosis. With many vertebrate cells, swelling is followed by an active reduction of volume, a process called regulatory volume decrease (RVD). A possible participant in RVD is the ...
Moody Mark - - 2005
Amiloride-sensitive, epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC)-mediated, active absorption of Na(+) is elevated in the airway epithelium of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, resulting in excess fluid removal from the airway lumen. This excess fluid/volume absorption corresponds to CF transmembrane regulator-linked defects in ENaC regulation, resulting in the reduced mucociliary clearance found in ...
Benjelloun Fatine - - 2005
The erythroid Rh-associated glycoprotein (RhAG) is strictly required for the expression of the Rh blood group antigens carried by Rh (D,CE) proteins. A biological function for RhAG in ammonium transport has been suggested by its ability to improve survival of an ammonium-uptake-deficient yeast. We investigated the function of RhAG by ...
Rouzaire-Dubois Béatrice - - 2005
For decades, the connection between cell size and division has been the subject of controversy. While in yeast, cell size checkpoints coordinate cellular growth with cell-cycle progression, it has been recently shown that large and small Schwann cells proliferate at the same rate (Conlon and Raff, 2003, J Biol 2:7). ...
He Mingyan - - 2005
This paper describes a method, which combines optical trapping and microfluidic-based droplet generation, for selectively and controllably encapsulating a single target cell or subcellular structure, such as a mitochondrion, into a picoliter- or femtoliter-volume aqueous droplet that is surrounded by an immiscible phase. Once the selected cell or organelle is ...
Ebbesson Lars O E - - 2005
We investigated the relationship between nitric oxide (NO) and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (NKA) in the gill of anadromous Atlantic salmon. Cells containing NO-producing enzymes were revealed by means of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) immunocytochemistry and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPHd) histochemistry, which can be used as an indicator of NOS activity, ...
Ateya Daniel A - - 2005
Regulation of cell volume was one of the earliest evolutionary demands for life and remains a universal measure of cell metabolism. Since conventional methods to measure cell volume, such as microscopy, are complex and time-consuming, cell volume has not been used as the basis for cell-based screening. We have developed ...
Abston Lisa R - - 2005
Ammonia, lactate and CO(2) inhibit animal cell growth. Accumulation of these metabolic byproducts also causes a decrease in intracellular pH (pH(i)). Transport systems regulate pH(i) in eukaryotic cells. Ion transporters have been cloned and overexpressed in cells but have not been examined for protection against the buildup of ammonia, lactate ...
Karakas Sacide - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The paranasal sinuses and mastoid air cells vary considerably in size and shape from person to person. The main structures are pneumatic. In this study, we investigated the relationship between right and left sides and evaluated the volume changes according to age and sex. METHODS: Of all patients attending ...
Rhoads Daniel S - - 2005
In this chapter, we will discuss a method for the generation of gradients that can be quantitatively used for studying directional cell migration. Microfluidic networks, which serially split and remix small volumes of solutions under laminar flow conditions to generate a series of microchannels of increasing protein concentration. At a ...
McLaren Jay W - - 2005
PURPOSE: The ConfoScan 3 clinical confocal microscope provides sharper images of cells in the stroma than the Tandem Scanning confocal microscope does. In this study, we compared volumetric densities of stromal cells determined from images recorded by these two instruments. METHODS: Fifty corneas of 25 normal subjects were examined by ...
Beck Franz-X - - 2005
In antidiuresis renal medullary cells are exposed to high NaCl and urea concentrations. Long-term adaptation of renal medullary cells to high extracellular NaCl concentrations is accomplished by intracellular accumulation of organic osmolytes. The underlying mechanisms include enhanced uptake from the extracellular space (betaine, myo-inositol and amino acids), increased intracellular production ...
Zhu Marie M - - 2005
Partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and osmolality as high as 150 mmHg and 440 mOsm/kg, respectively, were observed in large-scale CHO cell culture producing an antibody-fusion protein, B1. pCO2 and osmolality, when elevated to high levels in bioreactors, can adversely affect cell culture and recombinant protein production. To understand the ...
Andersen L Klembt - - 2005
Magnetic AC mode (MACmode) atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to study murine (mouse) MC3T3-E1 preosteoblastic cells attached to biocompatible tantalum substrates. Cell volumes of attached cells derived from AFM images were compared to volumes of detached cells in suspension measured by the Coulter sizing technique. An increase of approximately ...
Yurinskaya Valentina E - - 2005
The mechanism of apoptotic cell volume decrease was studied in rat thymocytes treated with dexamethasone (Dex) or etoposide (Eto). Cell shrinkage, i.e. dehydration, was quantified by using buoyant density of the thymocytes in a continuous Percoll gradient. The K+ and Na+ content of cells from different density fractions were assayed ...
Kesiry Riad - - 2005
We have demonstrated that ouabain causes dose- and time-dependent decreases both in 86Rb+ uptake and plasmalemmal Na/K-ATPase content of LLC-PK1 cells, which is related to ouabain-induced endocytosis of plasmalemmal Na/K-ATPase in LLC-PK1 cells through a clathrin-dependent mechanism. GRP78/BiP is a resident protein of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and acts as ...
Takamatsu Hiroshi - - 2005
In this study, we identify the extent of deformation that causes cell lysis using a simple technique where a drop of cell suspension is compressed by two flat plates. The viability of human prostatic adenocarcinoma PC-3 cells in solutions of various concentrations of NaCl is determined as a function of ...
Bush Peter G - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Mechanical stress above the physiological range can profoundly influence articular cartilage causing matrix damage, changes to chondrocyte metabolism and cell injury/death. It has also been implicated as a risk factor in the development of osteoarthritis (OA). The mechanism of cell damage is not understood, but chondrocyte volume could be ...
Rivarola Valeria - - 2005
The Cl(-)/HCO3- exchanger (AE) is one of the mechanisms that cells have developed to adjust pH Despite its importance, the role of AE isoforms in controlling steady-state pH during alkalosis has not been widely investigated. In the present study, we have evaluated whether conditions simulating acute and chronic metabolic alkalosis ...
Shoshani Liora - - 2005
The polarized distribution of Na+,K+-ATPase plays a paramount physiological role, because either directly or through coupling with co- and countertransporters, it is responsible for the net movement of, for example, glucose, amino acids, Ca2+, K+, Cl-, and CO3H- across the whole epithelium. We report here that the beta-subunit is a ...
Morgan Jeffrey J - - 2004
The default framework for modeling biochemical processes is that of a constant-volume reactor operating under steady-state conditions. This is satisfactory for many applications, but not for modeling growth and division of cells. In this study, a whole-cell modeling framework is developed that assumes expanding volumes and a cell-division cycle. A ...
Zhou Jia-Guo - - 2005
We previously found that antisense oligonucleotide specific to ClC-3 (ClC-3 antisense) prevented rat aortic smooth muscle cell proliferation, which was related to cell volume regulation. In the present study, we further characterized the regulation of intracellular Cl(-) concentrations ([Cl(-)](i)) via volume-regulated ClC-3 Cl(-) channels in an embryo rat aortic vascular ...
Robinson D G - - 2004
Concanamycin A and bafilomycin A are well-known inhibitors of V-ATPase activity. It is known that they interfere with intracellular protein trafficking in both animal and plant cells, but a cellular target for their action in plant cells has not been defined. Here we show that treatment with these inhibitors leads ...
Strange Kevin - - 2004
All cells face constant challenges to their volume either through changes in intracellular solute content or extracellular osmolality. Cells respond to volume perturbations by activating membrane transport and/or metabolic processes that result in net solute loss or gain and return of cell volume to its normal resting state. This paper ...
Fischmeister Rodolphe - - 2005
Bestrophins are a newly identified family of Cl(-) channels. Mutations in the founding member of the family, human bestrophin-1 (hBest1), are responsible for a form of early onset macular degeneration called Best vitelliform macular dystrophy. The link between dysfunction of hBest1 and macular degeneration remains unknown. Because retinal pigmented epithelium ...
Kraynik Andrew M - - 2004
The Surface Evolver was used to compute the equilibrium microstructure of dry soap foams with random structure and a wide range of cell-size distributions. Topological and geometric properties of foams and individual cells were evaluated. The theory for isotropic Plateau polyhedra describes the dependence of cell geometric properties on their ...
Merivee Enno - - 2004
Antennal gustatory sensilla of the ground beetle Pterostichus aethiops (Pz., 1797) (Coleoptera, Carabidae) respond to salts, the three sensory cells, A-, B- and C-cells, producing action potentials that are distinguished by differences in their shape, amplitude, duration and polarity of spikes. The B-cell (salt cell) was highly sensitive to both ...
Gorodeski George I - - 2005
The objective of this study was to assess estrogen-dependent cellular mechanisms that could contribute to the acid pH of the vaginal lumen. Cultures of normal human cervical-vaginal epithelial (hECE) cells and endocervical cells were grown on filters, and acidification of the extracellular solutions on the luminal (L-pHo) and contraluminal (CL-pHo) ...
Irimia Daniel D Center for Engineering in Medicine and Surgical Services, Massachusetts General Hospital, Shriners Hospital for Children, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, - - 2004
Investigating the intracellular contents of single cells is essential for understanding physiologic and pathologic processes at the cellular level. While existing protocols for cell lysis and sample preparation work well for larger samples, scaling to a single-cell level is challenging because of unavoidable analyte dilution and losses. Thus, we are ...
Boudreault Francis - - 2004
Mechanical stresses release ATP from a variety of cells by a poorly defined mechanism(s). Using custom-designed flow-through chambers, we investigated the kinetics of cell swelling-induced ATP secretion, cell volume and intracellular calcium changes in epithelial A549 and 16HBE14o- cells, and NIH/3T3 fibroblasts. Fifty per cent hypotonic shock triggered transient ATP ...
Van Ginneken C - - 2004
Stereological methods were used to quantify secretin and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP)-immunoreactivity (GIP-IR) in paraffin sections of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum of fetal and neonatal piglets. In addition, sections were processed for GLP-1-immunohistochemistry. The volume density of the tunica mucosa increased after birth, giving rise to a decreased volume ...
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