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Results 251 - 300 of 1831
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Zhang Hai-tao - - 2006
AIM: To investigate the role of intercellular potassium in tachyplesin-induced HL-60 cells apoptosis. METHODS: The concentration of intercellular potassium, cell volume and mitochondrial membrane potential were examined by flow cytometry. RESULTS: The concentration of intercellular potassium reduced in a time-dependent manner in tachyplesin-treated HL-60 cells. In addition, the loss of ...
Mey Kristianna H - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to examine the effect of acute otitis media on the bony development of the growing middle ear air cell system with a reliable and concise stereologic histomorphometric method and to generate a standard baseline growth plot for the middle ear of the rat. ...
Tata Despina A - - 2006
Individuals with clinical disorders associated with elevated plasma glucocorticoids, such as major depressive disorder and Cushing's syndrome, are reported to have smaller hippocampal volume. To understand how the hippocampus responds at the cellular and subcellular levels to glucocorticoids and how such changes are related to volume measures, we have undertaken ...
Nukui Miho - - 2006
Apoptosis is a major form of cell death that occurs in response to a variety of signals in both physiological and pathological situations. A hallmark of apoptosis is normotonic cell shrinkage, called apoptotic volume decrease (AVD), the process of which involves fluxes of K(+), Cl(-), and Na(+). Na(+) influx was ...
Lei Jianxun - - 2007
Late in gestation, the developing air space epithelium switches from chloride and fluid secretion to sodium and fluid absorption. Absorption requires Na-K-ATPase acting in combination with apical sodium entry mechanisms. Hypothyroidism inhibits perinatal fluid resorption, and thyroid hormone [triiodothyronine (T3)] stimulates adult alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) Na-K-ATPase. This study explored ...
McDonald S A - - 2006
X-ray microtomography has been employed to collect three-dimensional images of aluminium closed-cell foam, enabling the internal structure to be characterized in three dimensions. An experimental technique and image analysis approach has been developed, and is described, in terms of the labelling of cells and the extraction of quantitative data such ...
Milius Marit - - 2006
The responses of antennal taste sensilla of the ground beetle Pterostichus aethiops to 100mM Na(+)-salts and their mixtures with 1 and 10mM NaOH were compared. An increase in pH by 0.3-0.6 units in 100mM Na(+)-salt solutions, caused by the content of 1mM NaOH, was too small, except for alkaline Na(2)HPO(4), ...
Komlosi P - - 2006
At the macula densa, flow-dependent changes in luminal composition lead to tubuloglomerular feedback and renin release. Apical entry of sodium chloride in both macula densa and cortical thick ascending limb (cTAL) cells occurs via furosemide-sensitive sodium-chloride-potassium cotransport. In macula densa, apical entry of sodium chloride leads to changes in cell ...
Comes Núria - - 2006
In the eye, trabecular meshwork (TM) cell volume may be an important determinant of aqueous humor outflow. Among their functions, ClC-2 chloride channels are thought to be involved in regulation of cellular volume and intracellular [Cl(-)]. We characterized the properties and modulation of an inwardly rectifying chloride current activated in ...
Guttridge M G - - 2006
The COBE Spectra is used to volume/red blood cell (RBC) deplete BM before transplantation or cryopreservation. We have audited our results to identify the effect of transit time, refrigerated storage, age and cellular composition on mononuclear cells (MNC) and CD34+ cell recoveries, volume/RBC depletion and neutrophil engraftment. In total, 88 ...
Yang Qiongqiong - - 2006
Point mutations in the B1 subunit of vacuolar H+ -ATPase are associated with impaired ability of the distal nephron to secrete acid (distal renal tubular acidosis). For testing of the hypothesis that these mutations interfere with assembly and trafficking of the H+ -ATPase, constructs that mimic seven known point mutations ...
Hayashi Yasuo - - 2006
PURPOSE: It has been known that the thermosensitivity of tumour cells can be increased by lowering intra-cellular pH (pHi) by inhibiting pHi control mechanisms. The pHi is partially controlled by transport of H+ from cytoplasm into endocytic and secretary systems in the cells mediated by vacuolar type H+ATPase and also ...
Jung Jaehoon - - 2006
Cofilin is essential for actin filament remodeling in various cell types. We previously reported that ouabain leads to dephosphorylation of cofilin, resulting in cytoskeletal reorganization and cell volume change. We report here that the extracellular [K(+)](e) deprivation causes dephosphorylation of cofilin with disruption of cytoskeletal structures and cell shrinkage. These ...
Guan Yong-Yuan - - 2006
The volume-regulated Cl(-) current (I(Cl.vol)) is responsible for the transmembrane Cl(-) transport that is involved in cell volume regulatory mechanisms. Although the regulation of cell volume is a fundamental function of healthy cells for maintaining constant size, the molecular genetic identification of I(Cl.vol) is still being debated. Recent studies in ...
Roger Anderson O - - 2006
A novel method of estimating the cell volume of non-testate, free-living amoebae is presented. Measurements of the length (L) of motile forms of some amoebae, obtained by applying some basic rules, can be used to calculate diameter (D) using a relatively simple formula, derived from regression analysis (N=39): D=0.6L. Important ...
Stutzin A - - 2006
Cell volume regulation is one of the most fundamental homeostatic mechanisms and essential for normal cellular function. At the same time, however, many physiological mechanisms are associated with regulatory changes in cell size meaning that the set point for cell volume regulation is under physiological control. Thus, cell volume is ...
Maeno E - - 2006
AIM: Sustained cell shrinkage is associated with apoptosis. Apoptotic volume decrease, which is known to be induced by release of osmolytes including Cl- ions, may be an essential event for apoptosis induction. Provided any anion channels and/or anion transporters are basally functioning, there is a possibility that imposition of a ...
Kuang Kunyan - - 2006
Most cells possess mechanisms that are able to detect cellular volume shifts and to signal the initiation of appropriate volume regulatory responses. However, the identity and characteristics of the detecting mechanism remain obscure. In this study, we explored the influence of hypertonic and hypotonic challenges of varying magnitude on the ...
Lim C H - - 2006
AIM: The role of high cholesterol-containing microdomains in the signal transduction cascade leading to the activation of volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs) was studied. METHODS: Osmotic cell swelling-induced efflux of 125I- was determined in human epithelial Intestine 407 cells and in skin fibroblasts obtained from healthy controls or Niemann-Pick type C ...
Orlov S N - - 2006
Na/K-ATPase is the only known target of cardiotonic steroids (CTS) identified in plants, amphibians and later on in several mammalian species, including human. We focus our review on recent data implicating CTS in the tissue-specific regulation of cell survival and death. In vascular smooth muscle cells, CTS inhibited cell death ...
Stubbe Jane - - 2006
In the rat, urinary concentrating ability develops progressively during the third postnatal (P) week and nearly reaches adult level at weaning (P21) governed by a rise in circulating glucocorticoid. Elevated extracellular osmolality can lead to growth arrest of epithelial cells. We tested the hypothesis that supranormal exposure of rat pups ...
Trevisi Lucia - - 2006
3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) uptake and reduction is widely used to evaluate cell proliferation and viability. MTT is taken up by the cells through endocytosis. We find that ouabain (1-200 nM) inhibits MTT reduction in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) without affecting cell viability. Ouabain does not inhibit MTT reduction ...
Woclawek-Potocka Izabela - - 2006
Corpus luteum (CL) is a reproductive gland that plays a crucial endocrine role in the regulation of the estrous cycle, fertility, and pregnancy in cattle. The main function of CL is secretion of progesterone (P4), an important hormone for establishment a successful pregnancy, whereas prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)), 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) and ...
Pedersen Stine Falsig - - 2006
The ubiquitous plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchanger NHE1 is highly conserved across vertebrate species and is extensively characterized as a major membrane transport mechanism in the regulation of cellular pH and volume. In recent years, the understanding of the role of NHE1 in regulating cell function has expanded from one of ...
Lovett D L - - 2006
In euryhaline crabs, ion-transporting cells are clustered into osmoregulatory patches on the lamellae of the posterior gills. To examine changes in the branchial osmoregulatory patch in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus in response to change in salinity and to correlate these changes with other osmoregulatory responses, crabs were acclimated to ...
Liu Xibao - - 2006
Regulation of cell volume in response to changes in osmolarity is critical for cell function and survival. However, the molecular basis of osmosensation and regulation of cell volume are not clearly understood. We have examined the mechanism of regulatory volume decrease (RVD) in salivary gland cells and report a novel ...
Silva E - - 2006
The present study evaluated the hypothesis of whether increases in vectorial Na+ transport translate into facilitation of Na+-dependent L-DOPA uptake in cultured renal epithelial tubular cells. Increases in vectorial Na+ transport were obtained in opossum kidney (OK) cells engineered to overexpress Na+-K+-ATPase after transfection of wild type OK cells with ...
Zhang H-N - - 2006
Cell volume can be altered by two different ways, swelling and shrinkage. Cell swelling is regulated by volume-regulated Cl- channel (VRC). It is not well understood whether shrinkage is regulated by VRC. We previously found that antisense oligonucleotide specific to ClC-3 (ClC-3 antisense) prevented cell proliferation, which was related to ...
Choi Jae Young - - 2006
The proper homeostasis of the liquid lining the surface of the middle ear cavity is vitally important for maintaining a fluid-free middle ear cavity. Disruption of this homeostasis leads to fluid collection in the middle ear cavity and results in otitis media with effusion. We demonstrated the molecular and functional ...
Strange Kevin K Department of Anesthesiology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA. - - 2006
Ste20 serine/threonine kinases regulate fundamental cellular processes including the cell cycle, apoptosis, and stress responses. Recent studies in Caenorhabditis elegans and mammals demonstrate that Ste20 kinases also function in cell volume sensing and Cl- transport regulation. Yeast Ste20 initiates a shrinkage activated MAPK cascade that regulates organic osmolyte accumulation. Ste20 ...
Hornbaek Tina - - 2006
In situ analyses of single Listeria monocytogenes cells at subinhibitory concentrations of leucocin 4010 and nisin revealed two subpopulations when measured by fluorescence ratio imaging microscopy (FRIM) after staining with 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester. One subpopulation consisted of cells with a dissipated pH gradient (DeltapH), and the other consisted of ...
Canetta Elisabetta - - 2006
The detrimental effects of ethanol toxicity on the cell surface morphology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain NCYC 1681) and Schizosaccharomyces pombe (strain DVPB 1354) were investigated using an atomic force microscope (AFM). In combination with culture viability and mean cell volume measurements AFM studies allowed us to relate the cell surface ...
McFerrin Michael B MB Department of Neurobiology and Civitan International Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, - - 2006
Many cells, including neuronal and glial progenitor cells, stem cells and microglial cells, have the capacity to move through the extracellular spaces of the developing and mature brain. This is particularly pronounced in astrocyte-derived tumors, gliomas, which diffusely infiltrate the normal brain. Although a significant body of literature exists regarding ...
Carlin Ryan W - - 2006
Epithelial ion transport disorders, including cystic fibrosis, adversely affect male reproductive function by nonobstructive mechanisms and by obstruction of the distal duct. Continuous cell lines that could be used to define ion transport mechanisms in this tissue are not readily available. In the present study, porcine vas deferens epithelial cells ...
Alexander R Todd - - 2006
The cell is constantly encountering stimuli or conditions that can induce alterations to cell volume. Despite these challenges, cell volume remains relatively constant, by virtue of a series of complex and often redundant regulatory mechanisms. Acutely, an efflux of ions and organic osmolytes counteracts the tendency of cells to swell. ...
Caplanusi Adrian - - 2006
This study describes the correlation between cell swelling-induced K+ efflux and volume regulation efficiency evaluated with agents known to modulate ion channel activity and/or intracellular signaling processes in a human bronchial epithelial cell line, 16HBE14o(-1). Cells on permeable filter supports, differentiated into polarized monolayers, were monitored continuously at room temperature ...
Irschick Eveline U - - 2006
Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells provide crucial functions for the maintenance of the retinal environment. We investigated the phagocytotic mechanisms of RPE cells evaluating the question whether particle uptake underlies a diurnal rhythm. Additionally, a possible connection of volume regulation and the phagocytotic function of RPE cells was studied. As ...
Oswald Elizabeth S ES Dept. of Biomed. Eng., Columbia Univ., New York, NY, - - 2006
Cartilage compression results in changes in the shape, volume as well as hydrostatic and osmotic pressure of chondrocytes in situ. For example, changes in the cellular osmotic environment have been shown to modulate chondrocyte biosynthesis and gene expression, however, the mechanosensing mechanisms mediating these responses are relatively unknown. Nuclear shape ...
Friedrich B - - 2006
Prerequisites for cell survival include avoidance of excessive alterations of cell volume. Cells counterbalance the osmolarity due to cellular accumulation of organic substances by uneven distribution of inorganic ions. They extrude Na(+) in exchange for K(+) by the Na(+) /K(+) ATPase. The cell membrane is less permeable to Na(+) than ...
Shennan David B - - 2006
The properties and regulation of volume-activated taurine efflux from MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells have been investigated. Volume-activated taurine release from both cell lines was almost completely inhibited by diidosalicylate. DIDS , was more effective at inhibiting swelling-induced taurine release from MCF-7 than from MDA-MB-231 cells. On the basis of comparing ...
Negić N - - 2006
Exposure to glucocorticoids leads to numerous changes in various biological systems including the reproductive system. The aim of the present work was to find out whether dexamethasone (Dx) treatment of adult female rats would influence the histological and morphometric characteristics of the pituitary gonadotrophic cells (luteinizing--LH cells and follicle stimulating--FSH ...
Zadrag Renata - - 2006
Reaching the limit of cell divisions, a phenomenon referred to as replicative aging, of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae involves a progressive increase in the cell volume. However, the exact relationship between the number of cell divisions accomplished (replicative age), the potential for further divisions and yeast cell volume has not ...
Zonia Laura - - 2006
Pollen tube growth is localized at the apex and displays oscillatory dynamics. It is thought that a balance between intracellular turgor pressure (hydrostatic pressure, reflected by the cell volume) and cell wall loosening is a critical factor driving pollen tube growth. We previously demonstrated that water flows freely into and ...
Lang Florian - - 2006
Cell proliferation must be accompanied by increase of cell volume and apoptosis is typically paralleled by cell shrinkage. Moreover, profound osmotic cell shrinkage may trigger apoptosis. In isotonic environment cell volume changes require the respective alterations of transport across the cell membrane. Cell proliferation is typically paralleled by activation of ...
Hoffmann Else K - - 2006
The ability to control cell volume is fundamental for proper cell function. This review highlights recent advances in the understanding of the complex sequences of events by which acute cell volume perturbation alters the activity of osmolyte transport proteins in cells from vertebrate organisms. After cell swelling, the main effectors ...
Wolterbeek Hubert Th - - 2005
The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay was addressed for its sensitivity, disturbances by foaming, and cell number and size. Cells were from a U-251 MG grade IV human glioblastoma brain tumor cell line used in 100-microl well volumes. Cells were counted by microscopy and Coulter counting; assays were LDH or trypan ...
Droste Miriam S - - 2005
To maintain the intracellular concentration of ions and small molecules on osmotic challenges, nature has developed highly sophisticated transport systems for regulating water and ion content. An ideal measurement technique for volume changes of cells during osmotic challenges has to fulfil two requirements: it has to be osmotically inert, and ...
Nylander-Koski Outi - - 2005
Cell volume regulation was investigated in gastric surface epithelial cells during hypertonic conditions. Isolated Necturus antral mucosa was perfused on the serosal side with Ringer's solution (pH 7.25, 95%O2/5%CO2) and on the mucosal side successively with 150-500 mM NaCl. Amiloride, ouabain, and bumetanide were used to experimentally inhibit Na+/H+, Na+/K+ ...
Aasamaa Krõõt - - 2005
Leaf hydraulic conductance (K(leaf)) and several characteristics of hydraulic architecture and physiology were measured during the first 10 weeks of leaf ontogeny in Populus tremula L. saplings growing under control, mild water deficit or elevated temperature conditions. During the initial 3 weeks of leaf ontogeny, most measured characteristics rapidly increased. ...
Alvarez-Leefmans Francisco J - - 2006
Regulation and maintenance of cell water volume and intracellular pH (pHi) are vital functions that are interdependent; cell volume regulation affects, and is in turn affected by, changes in pHi. Disruption of either function underlies various pathologies. To study the interaction and kinetics of these two mechanisms, we developed and ...
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