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Marín Dolores - - 2009
We have deduced equations to quantify the entropy associated to the compartmentalization of components in eukaryotic cells as a function of cell and compartment volumes, and of the concentration of solutes. On the basis of known and plausible values of volume and solute concentrations and the deduced equations, we estimate ...
Oh Dong-Ha - - 2009
The contribution of SOS1 (for Salt Overly Sensitive 1), encoding a sodium/proton antiporter, to plant salinity tolerance was analyzed in wild-type and RNA interference (RNAi) lines of the halophytic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana)-relative Thellungiella salsuginea. Under all conditions, SOS1 mRNA abundance was higher in Thellungiella than in Arabidopsis. Ectopic expression of ...
Best Len - - 2009
There is evidence that depolarization of the pancreatic beta cell by glucose involves cell swelling and activation of the volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC). However, it is unclear whether cell swelling per se or accompanying changes in intracellular osmolality and/or ionic strength are responsible for VRAC activation. VRAC activity was measured ...
Shabala Lana - - 2009
A non-invasive ion-selective microelectrode technique was used to elucidate the ionic mechanisms of osmotic adjustment in a marine protist thraustochytrid. Hypoosmotic stress caused significant efflux of Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+) from thraustochytrid cells. Model calculations showed that almost complete osmotic adjustment was achieved within the first 30 min after stress onset. ...
Zhou E H - - 2009
Mechanical robustness of the cell under different modes of stress and deformation is essential to its survival and function. Under tension, mechanical rigidity is provided by the cytoskeletal network; with increasing stress, this network stiffens, providing increased resistance to deformation. However, a cell must also resist compression, which will inevitably ...
De Mello Walmor C - - 2009
The influence of hypotonic solution on cell volume and electrophysiology properties of the failing heart of cardiomyopathic hamsters (TO-2) was investigated. The results showed an increase in cell volume of quiescent isolated ventricular myocytes by 66% within 30 min. Angiotensin (1-7) [Ang (1-7)] (10(-8) M) administered to isotonic solution, elicited ...
Swire Jonathan - - 2009
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans grows largely by increases in cell size. As a consequence of this, the surface: volume ratio of its cells must decline in the course of postembryonic growth. Here we use transcriptomic and metabolomic data to show that this change in geometry can explain a variety of ...
Konopacka Agnieszka - - 2009
Ammonia-induced swelling of astrocytes is a primary cause of brain edema associated with acute hepatic encephalopathy. Previous studies have shown that ammonia transiently increases cGMP in brain in vivo and in cultured astrocytes in vitro. We hypothesized that protein kinase G (PKG), an enzyme activated by cGMP and implicated in ...
Harron Scott A - - 2009
Cells regulate their volume in response to changes in the osmolarity of both their extracellular and their intracellular environments. We investigated the ability of the human airway epithelial cell line Calu-3 to respond to changes in extracellular osmolarity. Although switching Calu-3 cells from an isosmotic to a hyperosmotic environment resulted ...
Zhou Jingming - - 2009
Perturbation of cardiolipin (CL) synthesis in yeast cells leads to defective respiratory chain function and mitochondrial DNA loss, both of which have been implicated in aging in mammals. The availability of yeast CL mutants enabled us to directly investigate the role of CL synthesis in aging. In this report, we ...
Hinton Ayana - - 2009
It has previously been shown that highly invasive MDA-MB231 human breast cancer cells express vacuolar proton-translocating ATPase (V-ATPases) at the cell surface, whereas the poorly invasive MCF7 cell line does not. Bafilomycin, a specific V-ATPase inhibitor, reduces the in vitro invasion of MB231 cells but not MCF7 cells. Targeting of ...
Mezaize S - - 2009
The formulation of gluten-free bread, which will be suitable for patients with coeliac disease, was optimized to provide bread similar to French bread. The effects of the presence of hydrocolloids and the substitution of the flour basis by flour or proteins from different sources were studied. The added ingredients were ...
Hayashi Yoshihito - - 2009
A comparative study of centrifugation and conductance methods for the estimation of cell volume fraction (phi) was performed to examine whether the strong forces exerted upon erythrocytes during centrifugation affect their volume, and the results are discussed in terms of erythrocyte deformability. Rabbit erythrocytes of four shapes (spherocytes, echinocytes, stomatocyte-like ...
Schulze Christian - - 2009
The actin filaments of the cytoskeleton form a highly dynamic polymer scaffold which is actively involved in many essential mechanisms such as cell migration, transport, mitosis, and mechanosensitivity. We treated CHO-K1 cells with different concentrations of the actin cytoskeleton disrupting drug cytochalasin D. Then investigating the cells' elastic behaviour by ...
Tian Jiang - - 2009
Here we show that ouabain-induced cell growth regulation is intrinsically coupled to changes in the cellular amount of Na/K-ATPase via the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Ouabain increases the endocytosis and degradation of Na/K-ATPase in LLC-PK1, human breast (BT20), and prostate (DU145) cancer cells. However, ouabain stimulates ...
Barry Peter H - - 2009
This article, from the Tribute to Alex Hope Symposium at the 2008 Australian Society for Biophysics meeting, represents reminiscences of PhD studies done under my former supervisor, Professor Alex Hope. The studies demonstrated and quantified electroosmosis in giant algal cells of Chara and isolated segments of cell wall by measuring ...
Weinstein Alan M - - 2009
During normal kidney function, there are routinely wide swings in proximal tubule fluid flow and proportional changes in Na(+) reabsorption across tubule epithelial cells. This "glomerulotubular balance" occurs in the absence of any substantial change in cell volume, and is thus a challenge to coordinate luminal membrane solute entry with ...
Webb Kevin F - - 2009
PURPOSE: To test the hypothesis that lens fiber cells use different combinations of transport proteins to mediate Cl influx and efflux in order to regulate their steady state volume. METHODS: Cells were isolated from rat lenses by enzymatic dissociation in the presence of Gd(3+), and short and long fiber cells ...
Sage Tammy L - - 2009
One mechanism to enhance global food stocks radically is to introduce C4 photosynthesis into C3 crops from warm climates, notably rice. To accomplish this, an understanding of leaf structure and function is essential. The chlorenchyma structure of rice and related warm-climate C3 grasses is distinct from that of cool temperate ...
Bartels Helmut - - 2009
Three kinds of epithelial cells comprise the surfaces of the gill filaments and lamellae of larval lampreys (ammocoetes): ammocoete mitochondria-rich cells (AMRCs), intercalated mitochondria-rich cells (IMRCs) and pavement cells. Selected characteristics of these cell types in ammocoetes of Geotria australis held in distilled water and in 10% sea water were ...
Dismuke William M - - 2009
PURPOSE: There is a correlation between cell volume changes and changes in the rate of aqueous humor outflow; agents that decrease trabecular meshwork (TM) cell volume increase the rate of aqueous humor outflow. This study investigated the effects of the nitric oxide (NO)-independent activators of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), YC-1, ...
Davies Sarah L - - 2009
Ion transport activity in pancreatic alpha-cells was assessed by studying cell volume regulation in response to anisotonic solutions. Cell volume was measured by a video imaging method, and cells were superfused with either 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine-1-ethanesulfonic acid-buffered or HCO(3)(-) -buffered solutions. alpha-Cells did not exhibit a regulatory volume increase (RVI) in response ...
Parks Scott K - - 2009
We have studied Cl(-) transport mechanisms in freshwater rainbow trout gill mitochondrion-rich (MR) cells using intracellular pH (pH(i)) imaging. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated maintenance of cellular polarity in isolated MR cells. MR cell subtypes were identified by Na(+) introduction to the bath, and Cl(-) transport mechanisms were subsequently examined. Cl(-)-free ...
Nakajima T - - 2009
The voltage-gated Na(+) channels (Na(v)) and their corresponding current (I(Na)) are involved in several cellular processes, crucial to metastasis of cancer cells. We investigated the effects of eicosapentaenoic (EPA), an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, on I(Na) and metastatic functions (cell proliferation, endocytosis and invasion) in human and rat prostate cancer ...
Fernandez-Garcia N - - 2009
Phi cell layers were discovered in the 19th century in a small number of species, including members of the Brassicaceae family. A mechanical role was first suggested for this structure; however, this has never been demonstrated. The main objective of the present work was to analyse the ultrastructure of phi ...
Hoffmann Else K - - 2009
The ability to control cell volume is pivotal for cell function. Cell volume perturbation elicits a wide array of signaling events, leading to protective (e.g., cytoskeletal rearrangement) and adaptive (e.g., altered expression of osmolyte transporters and heat shock proteins) measures and, in most cases, activation of volume regulatory osmolyte transport. ...
De Mello Walmor C WC Medical Sciences Campus, School of Medicine, UPR, San Juan, PR 00936-5067, - - 2009
It is known that long lasting changes in cell volume are incompatible with cellular functions. In the present review, I discussed the role of cell volume on gene expression and protein synthesis as well as the importance of the renin angiotensin system on the regulation of cell volume in the ...
Tran Truong-An - - 2009
Taxol is widely used in breast cancer chemotherapy. Its effects are primarily attributed to its anti-mitotic activity. Microtubule perturbators also exert antimetastatic activities which cannot be explained solely by the inhibition of proliferation. Voltage-dependent sodium channels (Na(V)) are abnormally expressed in the highly metastatic breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and ...
Montesano Roberto - - 2009
Polycystic kidney diseases result from disruption of the genetically defined program that controls the size and geometry of renal tubules. Cysts which frequently arise from the collecting duct (CD) result from cell proliferation and fluid secretion. From mCCD(cl1) cells, a differentiated mouse CD cell line, we isolated a clonal subpopulation ...
Oliveira P F - - 2009
Sertoli cells are responsible for regulating a wide range of processes that lead to the differentiation of male germ cells into spermatozoa. Cytoplasmic pH (pHi) has been shown to be an important parameter in cell physiology, regulating namely cell metabolism and differentiation. However, membrane transport mechanisms involved in pHi regulation ...
Alishahi, Kasra
This paper is devoted to the study of some asymptotic behaviors of Poisson-Voronoi tessellation in the Euclidean space as the space dimension tends to ∞. We consider a family of homogeneous Poisson-Voronoi tessellations with constant intensity λ in Euclidean spaces of dimensions n = 1, 2, 3, .... First we ...
Ogay Vyacheslav - - 2008
Recent studies have shown that specific sites of the skin related to the acupoints contain a high concentration of catecholamines, especially noradrenaline (NA). Considering this newly discovered property of the acupoints we assumed that heterogeneous distribution of cutaneous catecholamines could be associated with a specific location of catecholamine-storing cells in ...
Habela Christa W - - 2009
During brain development, progenitor cells migrate over long distances through narrow and tortuous extracellular spaces posing significant demands on the cell's ability to alter cell volume. This phenotype is recapitulated in primary brain tumors. We demonstrate here that volume changes occurring spontaneously in these cells are mediated by the flux ...
Blase Christopher - - 2009
Cell volume is an important parameter in many physiological processes, and is closely regulated in many cell types. In those cells, swelling induced by hypotonic media is followed by an ion-driven regulatory volume decrease. In many cell types, this regulatory volume decrease requires an intact actin cytoskeleton. Therefore, we investigated ...
Oliveira P F - - 2009
Sertoli cells are responsible for regulating a wide range of processes that lead to the differentiation of male germ cells into spermatozoa. Intracellular pH (pHi) is an important parameter in cell physiology regulating namely cell metabolism and differentiation. However, pHi regulation mechanisms in Sertoli cells have not yet been systematically ...
Koivusalo Mirkka - - 2009
Cell volume and shape are stringently regulated. This homeostasis requires the cells to sense their size and shape and to convey this information to effectors that will counteract deformations induced by osmotic or mechanical challenges. The sensors, transducers, and effectors of volume change are the subject of this review.
Hua Susan Z - - 2009
We report a microfluidic chip that is capable of measuring volume changes in single cells in real-time. Single eukaryotic cells were immobilized in the sensing area and changes in volume in response to hypotonic challenges and drugs were measured using the electrical impedance method. Experiments on MDCK cells showed that ...
Mao Jianwen - - 2009
The activation of volume-activated chloride Cl(-) channels has been implicated to play important roles in modulating cell cycle and cell migration. The aim of this study was to determine whether volume-activated Cl(-) channels are involved in cell-cycle-dependent regulation of cell migration in HeLa cells. Using techniques including cell-cycle synchronization, transwell ...
Rødgaard Tina - - 2008
The transcription factor, tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP), is involved in the adaptive response against hypertonicity. TonEBP regulates the expression of genes that catalyze the accumulation of osmolytes, and its transcriptional activity is increased by hypertonicity. The goal of the present investigation was to investigate whether cell shrinkage or high ...
Lambert I H - - 2008
Cell volume perturbation initiates a wide array of intracellular signalling cascades, leading to protective and adaptive events and, in most cases, activation of volume-regulatory osmolyte transport, water loss, and hence restoration of cell volume and cellular function. Cell volume is challenged not only under physiological conditions, e.g. following accumulation of ...
Sampaio M S - - 2008
The lack of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase expression in intercalated cells (IC) is an intriguing condition due to its fundamental role in cellular homeostasis. In order to better understand this question we compared the activities of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Na(+)-ATPase in two MDCK cell clones: the C11, with IC characteristics, and the C7, with ...
Nguyen, Anh-Nguyet Thi
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common monogenic disease, and is characterized by multiple fluid-filled cysts that impair the organ, ultimately leading to renal failure. Formation and enlargement of the cysts require abnormal proliferation and cell death, as well as changes in the transport properties of the ...
Galvez Fernando - - 2008
The lack of a suitable flat epithelial preparation isolated directly from the freshwater fish gill has led, in recent years, to the development of cultured gill epithelia on semipermeable supports. To date, their minimal capacity to actively transport ions has limited their utility as ionoregulatory models. The current study describes ...
Rouzaire-Dubois Béatrice - - 2009
Cell volume controls many functions and is itself regulated. To study cell volume regulations, the mean volume of C6-BU-1 rat glioma cells was electronically measured under isotonic and anisotonic conditions. Two isotonic solutions were used containing either normal (solution 1) or low (solution 2) NaCl. Anisotonicity was induced by changing ...
Lawhorn Collene - - 2008
Huntington's disease is characterized by striatal degeneration and progressive motor deficits. To examine striatal compartment-specific pathology and its relation to motor symptoms, we used immunohistochemistry to identify and measure the striosomes and matrix of 7-13-month-old YAC128 and wild type (WT) mice that were previously tested on motor tasks. Compared to ...
Doucha J - - 2008
The following bead mills used for disruption of the microalga Chlorella cells were tested: (1) Dyno-Mill ECM-Pilot, grinding chamber volume 1.5 L; KDL-Pilot A, chamber volume 1.4 L; KD 20 S, chamber volume 18.3 L; KD 25 S, chamber volume 26 L of Willy A. Bachofen, Basel, Switzerland, (2) LabStar ...
Fisher Omar Z - - 2009
In this work a novel pH-responsive nanoscale polymer network was investigated for potential applications in nanomedicine. These consisted of a polybasic core surface stabilized with poly(ethylene glycol) grafts. The ability to control swelling properties via changes in core hydrophobicity and crosslinking feed density was assessed. The nanomatrices were also evaluated ...
Heo Jinseok - - 2008
Here we demonstrate that an impedance-based microfluidic cell volume sensor can be used to study the roles of aquaporin (AQP) in cellular water permeability and screen AQP-specific drugs. Human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cells were transiently transfected with AQP3- or AQP4-encoding genes to express AQPs in plasma membranes. The swelling of ...
Vergara M Natalia - - 2009
Adult newts are able to regenerate their retina and lens after injury or complete removal through transdifferentiation of the pigmented epithelial tissues of the eye. This process needs to be tightly controlled, and several different mechanisms are likely to be recruited for this function. The Na(+)/K(+) ATPase is a transmembrane ...
Berner, Tamar
Branches of the hermatypic coral Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus) were exposed for 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks to ammonium concentrations of < 1 uM (nutrient-stripped), 2 uM (seawater as a control), 20 uM, and 50 uM (enriched), after which their symbiotic zooxanthellae were examined for changes in their ultrastructure. No ...
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