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Results 651 - 700 of 1831
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Cherlet M - - 1999
In this paper, we propose an alternative strategy to the ones proposed before (Oh et al., 1993; Øyaas et al., 1994a) to get real increases of global final antibody titer and production at hyperosmotic stress, by reducing the detrimental effect of such a stress on cell growth, and conserving the ...
Rouzaire-Dubois B - - 1999
Volumes of neuroblastoma x glioma hybrid NG 108-15 cells were electronically measured in order to characterize the mechanisms involved in volume regulation in isosmotic and anisosmotic conditions. The cells behave as perfect osmometers when tonicity was changed at constant chloride concentration by adding sucrose or replacing NaCl with CaCl2 or ...
Bortner C D - - 1998
The loss of cell volume is a fundamental and universal characteristic of programmed cell death. However, what was once thought to be a passive, secondary feature of the cell death process has now become an area of research interest. Recent studies have integrated cell volume regulation and the movement of ...
Mastrocola T - - 1998
C127 cell lines transfected with wtCFTR, delta F508CFTR or vector were employed to determine HCO3- fluxes in the presence or absence of functional CFTR, using the pH-sensitive dye BCECF. Both cytosolic alkalinization and acidification were due to activity of anion exchanger and were similar in the three cell lines, indicating ...
Fang D - - 1998
The effects of alpha-MSH and cAMP on melanosomes in Cloudman S91 melanoma cells were investigated by modern stereological techniques. Cells were cultured for 4 days in medium containing alpha-MSH or cAMP, harvested at 24 hour intervals; some were frozen for melanin assay and the reminder embedded in Epon for light ...
Zegarra-Moran O - - 1998
Chromones (sodium cromoglycate and sodium nedocromil) block cell swelling-activated Cl- channels in NIH-3T3 fibroblasts and endothelial cells. This has led to hypothesize that cell volume regulation might be involved in asthma pathogenesis. Using whole-cell patch-clamp experiments, we studied the effect of chromones on volume-sensitive Cl- currents in transformed human tracheal ...
Tobey N A - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: The human esophagus is regularly exposed to refluxed gastric acid. Therefore, its epithelial cells require for survival a means of extruding excess H+ from the cytoplasm. Because Na+/H+ exchange activity has been observed in many mammalian cell types, including that of rabbit esophagus, we sought its presence in human ...
Cai S - - 1998
The role of myosin light chain phosphorylation in regulating the mechanical properties of the cytoskeleton was studied in NIH/3T3 fibroblasts expressing a truncated, constitutively active form of smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (tMK). Cytoskeletal stiffness determined by quantifying the force required to indent the apical surface of adherent cells ...
Grishin A V - - 1998
The human ATP1AL1-encoded protein (an alpha subunit of the human non-gastric H,K-ATPase) has previously been shown to assemble with the gastric H,K-ATPase beta subunit (gH,Kbeta) to form a functionally active ionic pump in HEK 293 cells. This pump has been found to be sensitive to both SCH 28080 and ouabain. ...
Hernández J A - - 1998
The purpose of this study is to contribute to understanding the role of Na+-K+-ATPase and of ionic cotransporters in the regulation of cell volume, by employing a model that describes the rates of change of the intracellular concentrations of Na+, K+, and Cl-, of the cell volume, and of the ...
Wright A R - - 1998
The osmolarity of bodily fluids is strictly controlled so that most cells do not experience changes in osmotic pressure under normal conditions, but osmotic changes can occur in pathological states such as ischemia, septic shock, and diabetic coma. The primary effect of a change in osmolarity is to acutely alter ...
Gouffi K - - 1998
Intracellular accumulation of sucrose in response to lowered water activity seems to occur only in photosynthetic organisms. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, the potent ability of this common sugar, supplied exogenously, to reduce growth inhibition of Sinorhizobium meliloti cells in media of inhibitory osmolarity. Independently of the nature ...
Roman R M - - 1998
Physiological increases in liver cell volume lead to an adaptive response that includes opening of membrane Cl- channels, which is critical for volume recovery. The purpose of these studies was to assess the potential role for protein kinase C (PKC) as a signal involved in cell volume homeostasis. Studies were ...
Harmison H R - - 1998
It is well understood that the solidification of a solution results in a redistribution of solute in the liquid zone. For the freezing of suspensions of cells it is anticipated that accumulation of solute in the region leading a growing ice phase will cause an osmotic response in cells before ...
Kuwahara S - - 1998
Ouabain-sensitive ATP hydrolysis (Na,K-ATPase activity) was measured in digitonin-permeabilized monolayers of cultured cells derived from rabbit non-pigmented ciliary epithelium. Diminished Na,K-ATPase activity was observed in cells that had been pre-treated 10 min with the protein kinase C activator, PDBu, as well as in cells that had been cooled to 4 ...
Kitai R - - 1998
Hyperthermia has been introduced as a new modality of treatment for glioma. In these experiments, the cytotoxicity of hyperthermia in C6 glioma cells was enhanced by increasing the intracellular acidity with amiloride and/or 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2' disulfonic acid (DIDS). Intracellular pH (pHi) is regulated mainly by Na+/H+ and HCO3-/Cl- antiports through the ...
Yamauchi A - - 1998
Myo-inositol is a major compatible osmolyte in the renal medulla and is accumulated in cells under hypertonic conditions by uptake via a Na+/myo-inositol cotransporter (SMIT). SMIT is regulated by extracellular osmolarity at the transcription level. We investigated localization of SMIT in rat kidney by immunohistochemical staining using an anti-SMIT-antibody raised ...
Sundaram M - - 1998
The non-steroidal ecdysone agonist, RH-5992, induces a precocious incomplete molt in lepidopteran insects but is refractory to insects of other orders. We used two lepidopteran cell lines, FPMI-CF-203 (CF-203) and IPRI-MD-66 (MD-66) and two dipteran cell lines, DM-2 and Kc, to investigate the lepidopteran specificity of RH-5992. The mRNAs for ...
Borgmann S - - 1998
Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells of confluent epithelial sheets grown on permeable supports respond to hyperosmotic stress by short- and long-term regulatory volume increase (RVI). Although short-term RVI includes the uptake of inorganic electrolytes, long-term RVI does not and seems therefore to result from accumulation of organic osmolytes.
Bond T D - - 1998
1. The swelling-activated outwardly rectifying Cl- current (ICl(swell)) recorded in T84 human intestinal cells was completely blocked by 10 microM tamoxifen, while 300 microM Cd2+ had no effect. 2. A ClC-2-like, inwardly rectifying Cl- current was activated after strong hyperpolarization in T84 cells. This current was completely inhibited by 300 ...
Wang L - - 1998
Native ciliary epithelial cells from the ciliary epithelium of the eye exhibit anti-P-glycoprotein (P-gp) immunofluorescence. We have used an antisense 'knock-down' approach to investigate the relationship between P-gp and the volume-activated chloride current (IC1,swell) and its role in volume regulation. An antisense oligonucleotide to the human multidrug resistance (MDR1) gene, ...
Weinlich M - - 1998
The combination of confocal laser scan microscopy and the pH-sensitive fluorescent dye BCECF allowed us to record simultaneously intracellular pH, cell viability and relative cell volume. pH was measured by using the pH-sensitive excitation wavelength at 488 nm and the pH-independent excitation wavelength at 442 nm to obtain ratio images. ...
Steward M C - - 1998
The regulation of acinar cell volume and the properties of intracellular water were investigated in perfused rat mandibular salivary glands by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Using an inversion-recovery pulse sequence, and an extracellular relaxation reagent (10 mM Gd-DTPA) to suppress the proton NMR signal from extracellular water, acinar ...
Lang F - - 1998
One of the hallmarks of apoptosis is cell shrinkage which appears to be important for cell death. The mechanisms mediating cell volume decrease have, however, not been addressed. Mechanisms employed by swollen cells to decrease their cell volume include activation of ion transport pathways, such as ion channels and KCl ...
Bocian-Sobkowska J - - 1998
During the first weeks of postnatal development the fetal zone (FZ) of the human adrenal cortex rapidly disappears. Present studies aimed to describe cellular aspects of this involution and to correlate them with apoptosis. Adrenals of 38 newborns and infants (aged 1-240 days) were obtained from autopsies due to accidental ...
Roomans G M - - 1998
Ion transport properties of the human submandibular gland cell line A253 were investigated by X-ray microanalysis. The cells were grown on ultrathin plastic films on titanium grids. After the experiment, where the cells were exposed to various agonists and inhibitors, the specimens were briefly rinsed in distilled water, frozen, and ...
Hatton J P - - 1998
The results of experiments performed in recent years on board facilities such as the Space Shuttle/Spacelab have demonstrated that many cell systems, ranging from simple bacteria to mammalian cells, are sensitive to the microgravity environment, suggesting gravity affects fundamental cellular processes. However, performing well-controlled experiments aboard spacecraft offers unique challenges ...
Hiroi J - - 1998
The developmental sequence of chloride cells was examined in both the body skin and gills of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) larvae by whole-mount immunocytochemistry using an antiserum specific for Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. In premetamorphic larvae at 0 and 4 days after hatching (days 0 and 4), immunoreactive chloride cells were distributed only ...
Rouzaire-Dubois B - - 1998
1. A variety of studies have suggested that K+ channel activity is a key determinant for cell progression through the G1 phase of mitosis. We have previously proposed that K+ channels control the activity of cell cycle-regulating proteins via regulation of cell volume. In order to test this hypothesis, we ...
Peng J - - 1998
According to Hanss's initial-flow rate method, F. Liao designed a new cell filtrometer in the early 1990s. The parameters, cell initial transit time (Tc) and membrane clogging rate (CR), can be determined by a single measurement with timing accuracy of 1 ms. The new cell filtrometer has two valuable features: ...
Noonan K J - - 1998
To define the contributions of changes in cell, matrix compartment, and fibrillar collagen volumes to longitudinal bone growth, we measured the differences in cell, pericellular/territorial matrix and interterritorial matrix volumes, and fibrillar collagen concentrations between the upper proliferative and lower hypertrophic zones of the proximal tibial physes of six miniature ...
Bosman I J - - 1998
The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of a new, compact, dynamic diffusion cell for in vitro transdermal permeation. These so-called Kelder-cells were developed as an automated alternative to the static Franz diffusion cells. The new cells were used in combination with the ASPEC-system (automatic sample preparation ...
Piasecka A - - 1998
Proliferation of Chinese hamster cells B-14 was inhibited by irradiation, by incubation with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and by a combination of both treatments. The reduction in proliferation was assayed by the colony formation test, which was evaluated by an automatic colony analyser according to the number and volume of the colonies. ...
Martins G G - - 1998
In the present investigation, nuclei of endodermal cells, primary and secondary mesenchyme cells (PMCs and SMCs), and small micromere descendants (SMDs) of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus were counted and mapped at five developmental stages, ranging from primary invagination to pluteus larva. The archenteron and its derivatives were measured three ...
McManus M L - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Mannitol is widely used in anesthesia and critical care medicine. Although its clinical effects were originally attributed to osmotic dehydration of brain cells, other mechanisms have also been proposed. Osmotic dehydration of astroglial cells is opposed by powerful volume-regulating mechanisms that involve inward transport of electrolytes. These mechanisms have ...
Factor P - - 1998
We hypothesized that viral mediated transfer of Na+,K+-ATPase subunit genes to alveolar epithelial cells to overexpress Na+, K+-ATPase could increase Na+,K+-ATPase function. We produced replication-deficient human type 5 adenoviruses that contained cytomegalovirus (CMV)-driven cDNAs for the rat alpha1 and beta1 subunits of Na+,K+-ATPase (AdMRCMValpha1 and AdMRCMVbeta1, respectively). These viruses were ...
Rothenbacher K P - - 1998
1. Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) possesses a great industrial value as a plasticizing agent and has become an ubiquitous environmental contaminant. In most species it is rapidly metabolized to mono-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (MEHP) and 2-ethylhexanoic acid (2-EHA). Evaluation of toxicity of DEHP and its primary metabolites has been focussed on reproductive toxicity and hepatocarcinogenic ...
Davis R J - - 1998
The effects of urea on the rate of efflux of preloaded taurine and volume regulation have been examined in incubated minislices from rat superficial cerebral cortex. As external urea was increased in the range 0-100 mmol/L, there was a concentration-dependent slowing of cellular taurine efflux. Cell volumes progressively increased over ...
Isenring P - - 1998
The Na-K-Cl cotransporter (NKCC) mediates the coupled movement of ions into most animal cells, playing important roles in maintenance of cell volume and in epithelial Cl transport. Two forms of NKCC have been described: NKCC1, the "housekeeping" isoform that is also responsible for Cl accumulation in secretory epithelial cells, and ...
Park J H - - 1998
It is increasingly evident that cell swelling is associated with the triggering of many biological processes, including progression of the cell cycle, hormonal response, and gene expression. However, the mechanism by which cell swelling is initially sensed and converted into intracellular signals is still ill-defined. We report here an early ...
Das J R - - 1998
Differences in opacity between wells of a microtitre plate containing different volumes of inoculated growth medium reflected planktonic growth without any contribution from cells attached at the well surface. Simple algebra and a knowledge of the dependence of optical density upon sample path length (volume) for suspensions of differing cell ...
Waldegger S - - 1998
A wide variety of factors challenge constancy of cell volume. Alterations of cell volume activate diverse cell volume regulatory mechanisms including ion transport, osmolyte accumulation, metabolism and expression of appropriate genes. A wealth of cellular signalling pathways link cell volume to the respective regulatory mechanisms. Cell volume emerges as a ...
Tenenhouse H S - - 1998
While there is considerable evidence for phosphate (Pi) reabsorption in the distal tubule, Pi transport and its regulation have not been well characterized in this segment of the nephron. In the present study, we examined Na+-dependent Pi transport in immortalized mouse distal convoluted tubule (MDCT) cells. Pi uptake by MDCT ...
Basavappa S - - 1998
Arachidonic acid or its metabolites have been implicated in the regulatory volume decrease (RVD) response after hypotonic cell swelling in some mammalian cells. The present study investigated the role of arachidonic acid (AA) during RVD in the human neuroblastoma cell line CHP-100. During the first nine minutes of hypo-osmotic exposure ...
Butt A G - - 1998
The response of the villus and crypt cells of the mouse jejunum to secretagogues has been assessed through measurements of cellular composition with x-ray microanalysis. In nonstimulated tissues the Na concentration ([Na]c) of the crypt cells was significantly less, and the K ([K]c) and Cl ([Cl]c) concentrations were significantly greater, ...
Sekulić M - - 1998
The structure and function of C cells of middle-aged female rats (14-months old) treated with estradiol dipropionate (EDP), calcium (Ca) or a combination of EDP+Ca were studied. A stereological method was used to determine the volume of calcitonin (CT)-immunoreactive C cells and their nuclei, and the relative volume density and ...
Bando T - - 1998
cis-Diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (CDDP) is the most active anticancer agent. It has been reported that intracellular accumulation of CDDP is an important step as a determinant for resistance to CDDP, which may be modulated by Na+, K(+)-ATPase activity. In this study, the significance of membrane Na+, K(+)-ATPase activity in the intracellular accumulation ...
Basavappa S - - 1998
The Na+ pump (Na+, K+-ATPase) has been implicated in the regulation of many cellular functions, including cell volume regulation. The effects of inhibiting Na+ pump activity on cell volume and taurine efflux were evaluated in the human neuroblastoma cell line CHP-100. Cell volume changes monitored with the Coulter Multisizer technique ...
Viegas C A - - 1998
Saccharomyces cerevisiae plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity was stimulated during octanoic acid-induced latency, reaching maximal values at the early stages of exponential growth. The time-dependent pattern of ATPase activation correlated with the decrease of cytosolic pH (pHi). The cell population used as inoculum exhibited a significant heterogeneity of pHi, and the ...
Lang F - - 1998
To survive, cells have to avoid excessive alterations of cell volume that jeopardize structural integrity and constancy of intracellular milieu. The function of cellular proteins seems specifically sensitive to dilution and concentration, determining the extent of macromolecular crowding. Even at constant extracellular osmolarity, volume constancy of any mammalian cell is ...
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