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Results 651 - 700 of 1934
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Bowman C L - - 1999
We monitored the volume of C6 glioma cells in suspension using a Coulter Counter and exposed the cells to micromolar or nanomolar levels of collagenase or clostripain. In 13 experiments, type IV collagenase (310 units ml-1; approximately 3 microM L-1) decreased the volume by 8-12%, 8 min after addition. In ...
Petrova TE - - 1999
The goal of this work is to analyse whether the generalized likelihood criterion can be used to find the best spherical envelope of a macromolecule in a unit cell. A family of spherical envelopes is ranged in accordance with their likelihood values calculated by means of a Monte Carlo-type computer ...
Kreisman N R - - 1999
The role of swelling in hypoxic/ischemic neuronal injury is incompletely understood. We investigated the extent and time course of cell swelling during hypoxia, and recovery of cell volume during reoxygenation, in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices in vitro. Cell swelling was measured optically and compared with simultaneous measurements ...
Walker V E - - 1999
The ciliary epithelium of the eye secretes the aqueous humor. It is a double epithelium arranged so that the apical surfaces of the nonpigmented ciliary epithelial (NPCE) and pigmented ciliary epithelial (PCE) cells face each other and the basolateral membranes face the inside of the eye and the blood, respectively. ...
Roman R M - - 1999
P2Y receptor stimulation increases membrane Cl- permeability in biliary epithelial cells, but the source of extracellular nucleotides and physiological relevance of purinergic signaling to biliary secretion are unknown. Our objectives were to determine whether biliary cells release ATP under physiological conditions and whether extracellular ATP contributes to cell volume regulation ...
O'Neill W C - - 1999
Research over the past 25 years has identified specific ion transporters and channels that are activated by acute changes in cell volume and that serve to restore steady-state volume. The mechanism by which cells sense changes in cell volume and activate the appropriate transporters remains a mystery, but recent studies ...
Voets T - - 1999
Most mammalian cell types, including endothelial cells, respond to cell swelling by activating a Cl- current termed ICl,swell, but it is not known how the physical stimulus of cell swelling is transferred to the channels underlying ICl,swell. We have investigated the precise relation between cell volume and ICl,swell in endothelial ...
Burger-Kentischer A - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Medullary cells of the concentrating kidney are exposed to high extracellular solute concentrations. It is well established that epithelial cells in this kidney region adapt osmotically to hypertonic stress by accumulating organic osmolytes. Little is known, however, of the adaptive mechanisms of a further medullary cell type, the papillary ...
Weiner I D - - 1999
The inner stripe of outer medullary collecting duct (OMCDis) is unique among collecting duct segments because both intercalated cells and principal cells secrete protons and reabsorb luminal bicarbonate. The current study characterized the mechanisms of OMCDis proton secretion. We used in vitro microperfusion, and we separately studied the principal cell ...
Kone B C - - 1999
Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated as an autocrine modulator of active sodium transport. To determine whether tonic exposure to NO influences active sodium transport in epithelial cells, we established transfected medullary thick ascending limb of Henle (MTAL) cell lines that overexpressed NO synthase-2 (NOS2) and analyzed the effects of ...
Fujiwara S - - 1999
1. Exocytotic events and changes of cell volume in mucous cells from guinea-pig antrum were examined by video-enhanced optical microscopy. 2. Acetylcholine (ACh) evoked exocytotic events following cell shrinkage, the frequency and extent of which depended on the ACh concentration. ACh actions were mimicked by ionomycin and thapsigargin, and inhibited ...
Bevensee M O - - 1999
Using the pH-sensitive dye 2', 7'-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF), we examined the effect of hyperosmolar solutions, which presumably caused cell shrinkage, on intracellular pH (pHi) regulation in mesangial cells (single cells or populations) cultured from the rat kidney. The calibration of BCECF is identical in shrunken and unshrunken mesangial cells if the ...
Hwang P P - - 1999
The purpose of this study is to provide biochemical evidence for the functions of the mitochondria-rich cell (MR cell) in the yolk-sac epithelium of the developing larvae of tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus. Western blotting with the antibody (6F) raised against avian Na-K-ATPase alpha1 subunit demonstrated the presence of Na-K-ATPase in yolk-sac ...
Breborowicz A - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate changes in volume of mesothelial cells exposed to hypertonic medium and the role of volume regulatory mechanisms in adaptation to hyperosmolality. DESIGN: Experiments were performed on primary cultures of human peritoneal mesothelial cells. Cell volume was estimated by measuring equilibrated (intracellular/extracellular space) 14C-urea in cellular water. Cells ...
Crawford J L - - 1999
The aim of this study was to describe and quantify the changes that occur in cul-de-sac tissue, in particular to epithelial cells and their constituents, at specific stages of the estrous cycle in the brushtail possum. Stereological techniques were used to quantify changes in cul-de-sac epithelial cells collected at four ...
Khunkitti W - - 1999
Energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) was used to study the effects of chlorhexidine diacetate (CHA) and polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) on Acanthamoeba castellanii. A high variation of elements occurred in untreated individual cells and only two elements, Cl (a biocide marker) and P, were investigated. X-ray dot mapping of untreated ...
Rivers D B - - 1999
The lethal effects of crude venom prepared from the ectoparasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis were examined with cultured cells from six insect and two vertebrate species. Venom caused cells from Sarcophaga peregrina (NIH SaPe4), Drosophila melanogaster (CRL 1963), Trichoplusia ni (TN-368 and BTI-TN-5B1-4), Spodoptera frugiperda (SF-21AE), and Lymantria dispar (IPL-Ldfbc1) to ...
Breton S - - 1999
Active proton secretion and bicarbonate reabsorption by epithelial cells of the mammalian excurrent duct system maintains an acidic luminal pH that is involved in creating a suitable environment for sperm maturation and storage. Both an apical Na/H exchanger and an apical H+ ATPase have been implicated in luminal acidification. The ...
Putney L K - - 1999
PURPOSE: Previous results from this laboratory showed that intracellular volume of trabecular meshwork (TM) cells is regulated by the Na-K-Cl cotransport system. Other studies suggest that TM cell volume, in turn, is a determinant of permeability across the TM. Given that a decrease in outflow facility across the TM is ...
Scorneaux B - - 1999
In order to compare the intracellular concentration of antimicrobial agents in phagocytic and nonphagocytic cells, the knowledge of their cell volume is essential. For the first time, the determination of the avian, porcine, and bovine polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), monocyte-derived macrophages, macrophages, and bovine mammary epithelial cell volume was performed using ...
Park K - - 1999
Several members of the Na+/H+ exchanger gene family (NHE1, NHE2, NHE3, and NHE4) with unique functional properties have been cloned from rat epithelial tissues. The present study examined the molecular and pharmacological properties of Na+/H+ exchange in rat parotid salivary gland cells. In acinar cells superfused with a physiological salt ...
Campbell W G - - 1999
In the present study, we demonstrate that the rabbit cortical collecting duct cell line RCCT-28A possesses three distinct H-K-ATPase catalytic subunits (HKalpha). Intracellular measurements of RCCT-28A cells using the pH-sensitive dye 2', 7'-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) indicated that the mechanism accounting for recovery from an acid load exhibited both K+ dependence and ...
Wong C K - - 1999
High-purity viable cells with low mitochondria (pavement cells) and mitochondria-rich content (chloride cells) were successfully isolated from the gill epithelium of Japanese eels, using three-step Percoll gradient low-speed centrifugation. Cytochemistry (silver staining for chloride, rhodamine-123, and Mitotracker for mitochondria and actin/spectrin immunofluorescence) and scanning electron microscope images were used to ...
Gillen C M - - 1999
We have studied the regulation of the K-Cl cotransporter KCC1 and its functional interaction with the Na-K-Cl cotransporter. K-Cl cotransporter activity was substantially activated in HEK-293 cells overexpressing KCC1 (KCC1-HEK) by hypotonic cell swelling, 50 mM external K, and pretreatment with N-ethylmaleimide (NEM). Bumetanide inhibited 86Rb efflux in KCC1-HEK cells ...
Doroshenko P - - 1999
1. The relationship between cell volume and volume-sensitive Cl- conductance during hyposmotic cell swelling of patched cells and the effects of intracellular chloride on the conductance have been studied in mouse L-fibroblasts. To this end, swelling-activated current and cell volume were measured simultaneously in cells dialysed with low-Cl- (16 mM) ...
ZieliƄska M - - 1999
Rat cerebrocortical minislices were incubated with physiological saline in the absence or presence of 5 mM ammonium acetate ("ammonia") and/or inhibitors of osmosensitive amino acid transport: 50 microM niflumic acid and 100 microM N-ethyl-maleimide for 60 min, with medium changes after 20 min and 40 min. The efflux of endogenous ...
Plesnila N - - 1999
The effect of mild to moderate hypothermia (32/27 degrees C) was analyzed on the cell volume of C6 glioma cells and primary cultured astrocytes at normal pH, during lactacidosis (pH6.2) and during exposure to glutamate or arachidonic acid in vitro. The cells were suspended in an incubation chamber under continuous ...
Timmer R T - - 1999
A permanent cell line with inducible expression of the human anion exchanger protein 1 (hAE1) was constructed in a derivative of human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293). In the absence of the inducer, muristerone A, the new cell line had no detectable hAE1 protein by Western analysis or additional 36Cl flux. ...
Rouzaire-Dubois B - - 1999
Volumes of neuroblastoma x glioma hybrid NG 108-15 cells were electronically measured in order to characterize the mechanisms involved in volume regulation in isosmotic and anisosmotic conditions. The cells behave as perfect osmometers when tonicity was changed at constant chloride concentration by adding sucrose or replacing NaCl with CaCl2 or ...
Kim J - - 1999
At least two populations of intercalated cells, type A and type B, exist in the connecting tubule (CNT), initial collecting tubule (ICT), and cortical collecting duct (CCD). Type A intercalated cells secrete protons via an apical H+-ATPase and reabsorb bicarbonate by a band 3-like Cl-/HCO3-exchanger, AE1, located in the basolateral ...
Cherlet M - - 1999
In this paper, we propose an alternative strategy to the ones proposed before (Oh et al., 1993; Øyaas et al., 1994a) to get real increases of global final antibody titer and production at hyperosmotic stress, by reducing the detrimental effect of such a stress on cell growth, and conserving the ...
Lew V L - - 1999
The control of erythrocyte volume, pH, membrane potential and ion content results from the interaction of many passive and active transport systems, cytoplasmic buffers, and from the charge and osmotic properties of haemoglobin and other impermeant solutes. The complexity of the system is such that the understanding of cell responses ...
Behnam-Motlagh P - - 1999
A technique of microscopy with computerised detection of early morphological changes during continuous perifusion was used to monitor the geometry changes of cultured glioma cells (MG-251) when exposed to 40 mg/L estramustine phosphate (EMP) alone or in combination with granisetron (0.1 mumol/L), ondansetron (0.1 mumol/L), or serotonin (1 mumol/L). When ...
Bortner C D - - 1998
The loss of cell volume is a fundamental and universal characteristic of programmed cell death. However, what was once thought to be a passive, secondary feature of the cell death process has now become an area of research interest. Recent studies have integrated cell volume regulation and the movement of ...
Mastrocola T - - 1998
C127 cell lines transfected with wtCFTR, delta F508CFTR or vector were employed to determine HCO3- fluxes in the presence or absence of functional CFTR, using the pH-sensitive dye BCECF. Both cytosolic alkalinization and acidification were due to activity of anion exchanger and were similar in the three cell lines, indicating ...
Fang D - - 1998
The effects of alpha-MSH and cAMP on melanosomes in Cloudman S91 melanoma cells were investigated by modern stereological techniques. Cells were cultured for 4 days in medium containing alpha-MSH or cAMP, harvested at 24 hour intervals; some were frozen for melanin assay and the reminder embedded in Epon for light ...
Tobey N A - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: The human esophagus is regularly exposed to refluxed gastric acid. Therefore, its epithelial cells require for survival a means of extruding excess H+ from the cytoplasm. Because Na+/H+ exchange activity has been observed in many mammalian cell types, including that of rabbit esophagus, we sought its presence in human ...
Cai S - - 1998
The role of myosin light chain phosphorylation in regulating the mechanical properties of the cytoskeleton was studied in NIH/3T3 fibroblasts expressing a truncated, constitutively active form of smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (tMK). Cytoskeletal stiffness determined by quantifying the force required to indent the apical surface of adherent cells ...
Zegarra-Moran O - - 1998
Chromones (sodium cromoglycate and sodium nedocromil) block cell swelling-activated Cl- channels in NIH-3T3 fibroblasts and endothelial cells. This has led to hypothesize that cell volume regulation might be involved in asthma pathogenesis. Using whole-cell patch-clamp experiments, we studied the effect of chromones on volume-sensitive Cl- currents in transformed human tracheal ...
Grishin A V - - 1998
The human ATP1AL1-encoded protein (an alpha subunit of the human non-gastric H,K-ATPase) has previously been shown to assemble with the gastric H,K-ATPase beta subunit (gH,Kbeta) to form a functionally active ionic pump in HEK 293 cells. This pump has been found to be sensitive to both SCH 28080 and ouabain. ...
Hernández J A - - 1998
The purpose of this study is to contribute to understanding the role of Na+-K+-ATPase and of ionic cotransporters in the regulation of cell volume, by employing a model that describes the rates of change of the intracellular concentrations of Na+, K+, and Cl-, of the cell volume, and of the ...
Roman R M - - 1998
Physiological increases in liver cell volume lead to an adaptive response that includes opening of membrane Cl- channels, which is critical for volume recovery. The purpose of these studies was to assess the potential role for protein kinase C (PKC) as a signal involved in cell volume homeostasis. Studies were ...
Wright A R - - 1998
The osmolarity of bodily fluids is strictly controlled so that most cells do not experience changes in osmotic pressure under normal conditions, but osmotic changes can occur in pathological states such as ischemia, septic shock, and diabetic coma. The primary effect of a change in osmolarity is to acutely alter ...
Gouffi K - - 1998
Intracellular accumulation of sucrose in response to lowered water activity seems to occur only in photosynthetic organisms. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, the potent ability of this common sugar, supplied exogenously, to reduce growth inhibition of Sinorhizobium meliloti cells in media of inhibitory osmolarity. Independently of the nature ...
Harmison H R - - 1998
It is well understood that the solidification of a solution results in a redistribution of solute in the liquid zone. For the freezing of suspensions of cells it is anticipated that accumulation of solute in the region leading a growing ice phase will cause an osmotic response in cells before ...
Sundaram M - - 1998
The non-steroidal ecdysone agonist, RH-5992, induces a precocious incomplete molt in lepidopteran insects but is refractory to insects of other orders. We used two lepidopteran cell lines, FPMI-CF-203 (CF-203) and IPRI-MD-66 (MD-66) and two dipteran cell lines, DM-2 and Kc, to investigate the lepidopteran specificity of RH-5992. The mRNAs for ...
Borgmann S - - 1998
Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells of confluent epithelial sheets grown on permeable supports respond to hyperosmotic stress by short- and long-term regulatory volume increase (RVI). Although short-term RVI includes the uptake of inorganic electrolytes, long-term RVI does not and seems therefore to result from accumulation of organic osmolytes.
Kitai R - - 1998
Hyperthermia has been introduced as a new modality of treatment for glioma. In these experiments, the cytotoxicity of hyperthermia in C6 glioma cells was enhanced by increasing the intracellular acidity with amiloride and/or 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2' disulfonic acid (DIDS). Intracellular pH (pHi) is regulated mainly by Na+/H+ and HCO3-/Cl- antiports through the ...
Kuwahara S - - 1998
Ouabain-sensitive ATP hydrolysis (Na,K-ATPase activity) was measured in digitonin-permeabilized monolayers of cultured cells derived from rabbit non-pigmented ciliary epithelium. Diminished Na,K-ATPase activity was observed in cells that had been pre-treated 10 min with the protein kinase C activator, PDBu, as well as in cells that had been cooled to 4 ...
Yamauchi A - - 1998
Myo-inositol is a major compatible osmolyte in the renal medulla and is accumulated in cells under hypertonic conditions by uptake via a Na+/myo-inositol cotransporter (SMIT). SMIT is regulated by extracellular osmolarity at the transcription level. We investigated localization of SMIT in rat kidney by immunohistochemical staining using an anti-SMIT-antibody raised ...
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