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Results 601 - 650 of 1831
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Jennings M L - - 1999
The kinetics of activation and inactivation of K(+)/Cl(-) cotransport (KCC) have been measured in rabbit red blood cells for the purpose of determining the individual rate constants for the rate-limiting activation and inactivation events. Four different interventions (cell swelling, N-ethylmaleimide [NEM], low intracellular pH, and low intracellular Mg(2+)) all activate ...
Shumaker H - - 1999
The purpose of the current experiments was 1) to assess basolateral Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC1) expression and 2) to ascertain the role of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in the regulation of this transporter in a prototypical pancreatic duct epithelial cell line. Previously validated human pancreatic duct cell lines (CFPAC-1), ...
Roman R M - - 1999
Extracellular ATP functions as an important autocrine and paracrine signal that modulates a broad range of cell and organ functions through activation of purinergic receptors in the plasma membrane. Because little is known of the cellular mechanisms involved in ATP release, the purpose of these studies was to evaluate the ...
Liang M - - 1999
Nitric oxide (NO) reduces the molecular activity of Na+-K+-ATPase in opossum kidney (OK) cells, a proximal tubule cell line. In the present study, we investigated the cellular mechanisms for the inhibitory effect of NO on Na+-K+-ATPase. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a NO donor, inhibited Na+-K+-ATPase in OK cells, but not in ...
Cavet M E - - 1999
NHE1, NHE2, and NHE3 are well-characterized cloned members of the mammalian Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE) gene family. Given the specialized function and regulation of NHE1, NHE2, and NHE3, we compared basal turnover numbers of NHE1, NHE2, and NHE3 measured in the same cell system: PS120 fibroblasts lacking endogenous NHEs. NHE1, NHE2, ...
Orlov S N - - 1999
We demonstrated recently that in renal epithelial cells from collecting ducts of Madin-Darby canine kidneys (MDCK), Na(+),K(+), Cl(-) cotransport is inhibited up to 50% by ATP via its interaction with P(2Y) purinoceptors (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1998. 1369:233-239). In the present study we examined which type of renal epithelial cells possesses ...
Guan S - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Light chain nephrotoxicity is frequently associated with Fanconi syndrome characterized by amino-aciduria, glycosuria, phosphaturia, and bicarbonaturia. The mechanisms of these transport abnormalities are unknown. To determine the role of Na-K-ATPase, we examined the effects of a lambda-light chain on both the activity and gene expression of Na-K-ATPase in primary ...
Häusler U H - - 1999
The pigeon cochlear nucleus angularis (NA) and nucleus magnocellularis (NM) were analyzed with Golgi and Nissl techniques. NA was divided into a medial NAm and NA proper, which could be subdivided further into an intermediate NAi and lateral NAl. NAm contained a mostly homogeneous population of a unique multipolar cell ...
Gschwentner M - - 1999
It is not resolved whether the anionic channel involved in volume regulation after cell swelling comprises one or more subunits. Moreover, it remains to be determined which of the different proteins cloned so far, for which an involvement in cell volume regulation has been postulated, is the ideal candidate. In ...
Shen M R - - 1999
Hypotonicity activates volume-sensitive Cl- currents, which are implicated in the regulatory volume decrease (RVD) responses and transport of taurine in human cervical cancer HT-3 cells. In this study, the role of cytoskeleton in the regulation of volume-sensitive Cl- channels and RVD responses in HT-3 cells was studied. Cells were incubated ...
Pedersen S F - - 1999
The role of the F-actin cytoskeleton in cell volume regulation was studied in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells, using a quantitative rhodamine-phalloidin assay, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and electronic cell sizing. A hypotonic challenge (160 mOsm) was associated with a decrease in cellular F-actin content at 1 and 3 min and ...
Müller M - - 1999
In interfaced rat hippocampal slices spreading depression (SD) and hypoxia-induced SD-like depolarization are associated with increased light reflectance and decreased light transmittance, indicating increased light scattering. By contrast, mild hypotonicity or electrical stimulation decrease light scattering, which is usually taken to be caused by cell swelling. This difference has been ...
Stutzin A - - 1999
Organic osmolyte and halide permeability pathways activated in epithelial HeLa cells by cell swelling were studied by radiotracer efflux techniques and single-cell volume measurements. The replacement of extracellular Cl- by anions that are more permeant through the volume-activated Cl- channel, as indicated by electrophysiological measurements, significantly decreased taurine efflux. In ...
Putney L K - - 1999
The trabecular meshwork (TM) of the eye plays a central role in modulating intraocular pressure by regulating aqueous humor outflow, although the mechanisms are largely unknown. We and others have shown previously that aqueous humor outflow facility is modulated by conditions that alter TM cell volume. We have also shown ...
Danetz J S - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that neonatal cells are more sensitive to cardioplegia-induced cell swelling than more mature cells and spontaneous swelling in the absence of ischemia can be prevented by cardioplegia with a physiologic KCl product. METHODS: Cell volumes of isolated ventricular myocytes from neonatal (3-5 days), intermediate (10-13 ...
Serrar H - - 1999
In previous studies, we have shown that the rate of cell swelling induced by concentrative proline uptake in isolated rat hepatocytes decreased by 50 per cent after only 24 h of cold storage in University of Wisconsin (UW) solution, thereby representing a sensitive marker of alterations in hepatocyte functions after ...
Juvin P P Departement d'Anesthésie, Hôpital Bichat-Claude Bernard, Paris, France. - - 1999
Changes in intracellular pH (pHi) of alveolar type II (ATII) cells have been involved in the pathophysiology of pulmonary edema. ATII cells have evolved several ions transporters to regulate their pHi, including a Na+H+ antiporter. Because halothane alters the activity of ion transporters in various cells types, it may also ...
Stelmashook E V - - 1999
Granule cells in a dissociated neuro-glial cell culture of cerebellum when exposed to ouabain (10(-3) M) for 25 min apparently swell, increase their [Ca2+]i with obvious depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane. In 3 h after ouabain was omitted from the solution, 62 +/- 3% of granule cells had pycnotic nuclei. ...
Kreisman N R - - 1999
The role of swelling in hypoxic/ischemic neuronal injury is incompletely understood. We investigated the extent and time course of cell swelling during hypoxia, and recovery of cell volume during reoxygenation, in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices in vitro. Cell swelling was measured optically and compared with simultaneous measurements ...
Petrova TE - - 1999
The goal of this work is to analyse whether the generalized likelihood criterion can be used to find the best spherical envelope of a macromolecule in a unit cell. A family of spherical envelopes is ranged in accordance with their likelihood values calculated by means of a Monte Carlo-type computer ...
Bowman C L - - 1999
We monitored the volume of C6 glioma cells in suspension using a Coulter Counter and exposed the cells to micromolar or nanomolar levels of collagenase or clostripain. In 13 experiments, type IV collagenase (310 units ml-1; approximately 3 microM L-1) decreased the volume by 8-12%, 8 min after addition. In ...
van der Heijden A J - - 1999
Integumental and branchial chloride cells of tilapia larvae (Oreochromis mossambicus) were studied at the light-microscopical and ultrastructural level. Total numbers and distribution of chloride cells were quantified after immunostaining of cross sections of the entire larvae with an antibody against the alpha-subunit of Na+/K+-ATPase. The majority (66%) of Na+/K+-ATPase-immunoreactive (ir) ...
Roman R M - - 1999
P2Y receptor stimulation increases membrane Cl- permeability in biliary epithelial cells, but the source of extracellular nucleotides and physiological relevance of purinergic signaling to biliary secretion are unknown. Our objectives were to determine whether biliary cells release ATP under physiological conditions and whether extracellular ATP contributes to cell volume regulation ...
Walker V E - - 1999
The ciliary epithelium of the eye secretes the aqueous humor. It is a double epithelium arranged so that the apical surfaces of the nonpigmented ciliary epithelial (NPCE) and pigmented ciliary epithelial (PCE) cells face each other and the basolateral membranes face the inside of the eye and the blood, respectively. ...
O'Neill W C - - 1999
Research over the past 25 years has identified specific ion transporters and channels that are activated by acute changes in cell volume and that serve to restore steady-state volume. The mechanism by which cells sense changes in cell volume and activate the appropriate transporters remains a mystery, but recent studies ...
Voets T - - 1999
Most mammalian cell types, including endothelial cells, respond to cell swelling by activating a Cl- current termed ICl,swell, but it is not known how the physical stimulus of cell swelling is transferred to the channels underlying ICl,swell. We have investigated the precise relation between cell volume and ICl,swell in endothelial ...
Kone B C - - 1999
Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated as an autocrine modulator of active sodium transport. To determine whether tonic exposure to NO influences active sodium transport in epithelial cells, we established transfected medullary thick ascending limb of Henle (MTAL) cell lines that overexpressed NO synthase-2 (NOS2) and analyzed the effects of ...
Fujiwara S - - 1999
1. Exocytotic events and changes of cell volume in mucous cells from guinea-pig antrum were examined by video-enhanced optical microscopy. 2. Acetylcholine (ACh) evoked exocytotic events following cell shrinkage, the frequency and extent of which depended on the ACh concentration. ACh actions were mimicked by ionomycin and thapsigargin, and inhibited ...
Weiner I D - - 1999
The inner stripe of outer medullary collecting duct (OMCDis) is unique among collecting duct segments because both intercalated cells and principal cells secrete protons and reabsorb luminal bicarbonate. The current study characterized the mechanisms of OMCDis proton secretion. We used in vitro microperfusion, and we separately studied the principal cell ...
Burger-Kentischer A - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Medullary cells of the concentrating kidney are exposed to high extracellular solute concentrations. It is well established that epithelial cells in this kidney region adapt osmotically to hypertonic stress by accumulating organic osmolytes. Little is known, however, of the adaptive mechanisms of a further medullary cell type, the papillary ...
Bevensee M O - - 1999
Using the pH-sensitive dye 2', 7'-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF), we examined the effect of hyperosmolar solutions, which presumably caused cell shrinkage, on intracellular pH (pHi) regulation in mesangial cells (single cells or populations) cultured from the rat kidney. The calibration of BCECF is identical in shrunken and unshrunken mesangial cells if the ...
Hwang P P - - 1999
The purpose of this study is to provide biochemical evidence for the functions of the mitochondria-rich cell (MR cell) in the yolk-sac epithelium of the developing larvae of tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus. Western blotting with the antibody (6F) raised against avian Na-K-ATPase alpha1 subunit demonstrated the presence of Na-K-ATPase in yolk-sac ...
Breborowicz A - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate changes in volume of mesothelial cells exposed to hypertonic medium and the role of volume regulatory mechanisms in adaptation to hyperosmolality. DESIGN: Experiments were performed on primary cultures of human peritoneal mesothelial cells. Cell volume was estimated by measuring equilibrated (intracellular/extracellular space) 14C-urea in cellular water. Cells ...
Khunkitti W - - 1999
Energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) was used to study the effects of chlorhexidine diacetate (CHA) and polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) on Acanthamoeba castellanii. A high variation of elements occurred in untreated individual cells and only two elements, Cl (a biocide marker) and P, were investigated. X-ray dot mapping of untreated ...
Crawford J L - - 1999
The aim of this study was to describe and quantify the changes that occur in cul-de-sac tissue, in particular to epithelial cells and their constituents, at specific stages of the estrous cycle in the brushtail possum. Stereological techniques were used to quantify changes in cul-de-sac epithelial cells collected at four ...
Gillen C M - - 1999
We have studied the regulation of the K-Cl cotransporter KCC1 and its functional interaction with the Na-K-Cl cotransporter. K-Cl cotransporter activity was substantially activated in HEK-293 cells overexpressing KCC1 (KCC1-HEK) by hypotonic cell swelling, 50 mM external K, and pretreatment with N-ethylmaleimide (NEM). Bumetanide inhibited 86Rb efflux in KCC1-HEK cells ...
Rivers D B - - 1999
The lethal effects of crude venom prepared from the ectoparasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis were examined with cultured cells from six insect and two vertebrate species. Venom caused cells from Sarcophaga peregrina (NIH SaPe4), Drosophila melanogaster (CRL 1963), Trichoplusia ni (TN-368 and BTI-TN-5B1-4), Spodoptera frugiperda (SF-21AE), and Lymantria dispar (IPL-Ldfbc1) to ...
Campbell W G - - 1999
In the present study, we demonstrate that the rabbit cortical collecting duct cell line RCCT-28A possesses three distinct H-K-ATPase catalytic subunits (HKalpha). Intracellular measurements of RCCT-28A cells using the pH-sensitive dye 2', 7'-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) indicated that the mechanism accounting for recovery from an acid load exhibited both K+ dependence and ...
Park K - - 1999
Several members of the Na+/H+ exchanger gene family (NHE1, NHE2, NHE3, and NHE4) with unique functional properties have been cloned from rat epithelial tissues. The present study examined the molecular and pharmacological properties of Na+/H+ exchange in rat parotid salivary gland cells. In acinar cells superfused with a physiological salt ...
Putney L K - - 1999
PURPOSE: Previous results from this laboratory showed that intracellular volume of trabecular meshwork (TM) cells is regulated by the Na-K-Cl cotransport system. Other studies suggest that TM cell volume, in turn, is a determinant of permeability across the TM. Given that a decrease in outflow facility across the TM is ...
Scorneaux B - - 1999
In order to compare the intracellular concentration of antimicrobial agents in phagocytic and nonphagocytic cells, the knowledge of their cell volume is essential. For the first time, the determination of the avian, porcine, and bovine polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), monocyte-derived macrophages, macrophages, and bovine mammary epithelial cell volume was performed using ...
Breton S - - 1999
Active proton secretion and bicarbonate reabsorption by epithelial cells of the mammalian excurrent duct system maintains an acidic luminal pH that is involved in creating a suitable environment for sperm maturation and storage. Both an apical Na/H exchanger and an apical H+ ATPase have been implicated in luminal acidification. The ...
Wong C K - - 1999
High-purity viable cells with low mitochondria (pavement cells) and mitochondria-rich content (chloride cells) were successfully isolated from the gill epithelium of Japanese eels, using three-step Percoll gradient low-speed centrifugation. Cytochemistry (silver staining for chloride, rhodamine-123, and Mitotracker for mitochondria and actin/spectrin immunofluorescence) and scanning electron microscope images were used to ...
Doroshenko P - - 1999
1. The relationship between cell volume and volume-sensitive Cl- conductance during hyposmotic cell swelling of patched cells and the effects of intracellular chloride on the conductance have been studied in mouse L-fibroblasts. To this end, swelling-activated current and cell volume were measured simultaneously in cells dialysed with low-Cl- (16 mM) ...
Timmer R T - - 1999
A permanent cell line with inducible expression of the human anion exchanger protein 1 (hAE1) was constructed in a derivative of human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293). In the absence of the inducer, muristerone A, the new cell line had no detectable hAE1 protein by Western analysis or additional 36Cl flux. ...
Plesnila N - - 1999
The effect of mild to moderate hypothermia (32/27 degrees C) was analyzed on the cell volume of C6 glioma cells and primary cultured astrocytes at normal pH, during lactacidosis (pH6.2) and during exposure to glutamate or arachidonic acid in vitro. The cells were suspended in an incubation chamber under continuous ...
ZieliƄska M - - 1999
Rat cerebrocortical minislices were incubated with physiological saline in the absence or presence of 5 mM ammonium acetate ("ammonia") and/or inhibitors of osmosensitive amino acid transport: 50 microM niflumic acid and 100 microM N-ethyl-maleimide for 60 min, with medium changes after 20 min and 40 min. The efflux of endogenous ...
Kim J - - 1999
At least two populations of intercalated cells, type A and type B, exist in the connecting tubule (CNT), initial collecting tubule (ICT), and cortical collecting duct (CCD). Type A intercalated cells secrete protons via an apical H+-ATPase and reabsorb bicarbonate by a band 3-like Cl-/HCO3-exchanger, AE1, located in the basolateral ...
Lew V L - - 1999
The control of erythrocyte volume, pH, membrane potential and ion content results from the interaction of many passive and active transport systems, cytoplasmic buffers, and from the charge and osmotic properties of haemoglobin and other impermeant solutes. The complexity of the system is such that the understanding of cell responses ...
Behnam-Motlagh P - - 1999
A technique of microscopy with computerised detection of early morphological changes during continuous perifusion was used to monitor the geometry changes of cultured glioma cells (MG-251) when exposed to 40 mg/L estramustine phosphate (EMP) alone or in combination with granisetron (0.1 mumol/L), ondansetron (0.1 mumol/L), or serotonin (1 mumol/L). When ...
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