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Results 551 - 600 of 1831
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Roberts M F - - 2000
The response of archaea to changes in external NaCl is reviewed and compared to what is known about osmoadaptation and osmoregulation in bacteria and eukaryotes. Cells placed in altered external NaCl exhibit short term and long term responses. The earliest events are likely to be water movement through aquaporin-like channels ...
Timmer R T - - 2000
The kinetics of sodium-stimulated phosphate flux and phosphate-stimulated sodium flux in human red cells have been previously described (Shoemaker, D.G., C.A. Bender, and R.B. Gunn. 1988. J. Gen. Physiol. 92:449-474). However, despite the identification of multiple isoforms in three gene families (Timmer, R.T., and R.B. Gunn. 1998. Am. J. Physiol. ...
Shen M R - - 2000
This study investigates the volume-sensitive KCI cotransporter (KCC) in various types of human cervical epithelial cell, testing the hypothesis that cervical malignancy is accompanied by differential expression of volume-sensitive KCC. Normal human cervical epithelial cells have KCCs which are quiescent in normal physiological conditions and are relatively refractory to hypotonic ...
Counillon L - - 2000
Medical therapy of glaucoma commonly aims at slowing aqueous humor formation by the ocular ciliary epithelial bilayer, but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The first step in secretion is NaCl uptake from the stroma into the pigmented ciliary epithelial (PE) cell layer by electroneutral transporters. After crossing gap junctions into ...
Koldkjaer P - - 2000
The ability of rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) red blood cells to volume regulate in vitro has been investigated. Blood was drawn through a catheter inserted in the dorsal aorta and equilibrated to gas mixtures of different composition. Cells shrunken osmotically by increasing the extracellular osmolarity from approximately 291 mosm l(-1) ...
Sun X - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Cardioplegia has been shown to induce significant cell swelling. This study tested the hypothesis that (1) the [K+][Cl-] product of the cardioplegia solution is the main determinant of myocyte swelling, and (2) reperfusion myocyte shrinkage results from a rectifying Cl- conductance. METHODS: Rabbit ventricular myocytes were superfused with 37 ...
Blanco G - - 2000
In addition to the three isoforms of the catalytic subunit of the Na, K-ATPase originally identified (alpha1, alpha2, and alpha3), a fourth alpha polypeptide (alpha4) has recently been found in mammalian cells. This novel alpha-subunit of the Na,K-ATPase is selectively expressed in male gonadal tissues. In the testes, alpha4 is ...
Tatara T - - 2000
The non-invasive characterisation of cell pathophysiology is clinically important. A cell suspension model is applied to derive the extracellular fluid (ECF) volume fraction and the equivalent dielectric constant of the cell membrane epsilon m from the dielectric properties of human arms. Frequency-dependent dielectric constants and electrical conductivities of arms are ...
Anderson A W - - 2000
Diffusion-weighted imaging was used to study the relationship between apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and cell volume fraction in cell suspensions and packed arrays. Cell volume fraction was varied by changing extracellular fluid osmolarity (for human glial cells) and by changing cell density (for human glial and red blood cells). In ...
Wheat V J - - 2000
Thickening of airway mucus and lung dysfunction in cystic fibrosis (CF) results, at least in part, from abnormal secretion of Cl(-) and HCO(3)(-) across the tracheal epithelium. The mechanism of the defect in HCO(3)(-) secretion is ill defined; however, a lack of apical Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange may exist in CF. To ...
Kim H D - - 2000
We examined the influence of serum and furosemide on K movement and cell volume in HCD57 cells, a murine erythroleukemia cell line, which require erythropoietin (EPO) for survival. We found that maintenance of cell volume depends on the concentration of serum in the culture medium. In isotonic medium containing 20% ...
RybczyƄska A - - 2000
Studies in respiratory alkalotic or short-term phosphate deprived rats raised the possibility that in straight portion of proximal tubules (PST) cAMP might be not a mediator of PTH in inhibition of phosphate reabsorption. The present experiments directly compared the sensitivity of Na-dependent phosphate [32P] (Na-Pi) uptake to PTH or cAMP ...
Lohr J W - - 2000
Rat C6 glioma cells undergo regulatory volume decrease (RVD) following sudden exposure to hypo-osmolality, but little or no regulatory volume increase (RVI) is observed when cells cultured in hypo-osmotic media are suddenly returned to isoosmolality. Because C6 glioma cells would rarely be exposed to sudden large changes in osmolality in ...
Stephenson E R ER - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Previous work has shown significant swelling of isolated rabbit myocytes exposed to cold hyperkalemic cardioplegia; however, the effect of warm hyperkalemic cardioplegia on myocyte volume is unknown. This study examined the effect of warm hyperkalemic cardioplegia (St. Thomas' solution) on myocyte volume. METHODS: Myocytes were enzymatically isolated and placed ...
Klein M - - 2000
Cell migration is crucial for processes such as immune defense, wound healing, or the formation of tumor metastases. Typically, migrating cells are polarized within the plane of movement with lamellipodium and cell body representing the front and rear of the cell, respectively. Here, we address the question of whether this ...
Grant A C - - 2000
Cell swelling, induced by a hyposmotic shock, increased the fractional release of taurine from INS-1 cells. Volume-sensitive taurine release was (a) dependent upon the extent of cell swelling; (b) fully reversible; and (c) temperature dependent. Volume-sensitive taurine efflux was independent from the trans-membrane Na(+)-gradient. DIDS markedly inhibited volume-activated taurine efflux ...
Morales-Mulia M - - 2000
The role of the phospholemman (PLM) on the efflux of taurine and chloride induced by swelling was studied in HEK293 cells overexpressing stable transfected PLM. PLM, a substrate for protein kinases C and A, is a protein that induces an anion current in Xenopus oocytes and forms taurine-selective channels in ...
Thinnes F P - - 2000
Cell volume regulation receives increasing attention not only as the basis of regulatory volume increase or regulatory volume decrease (RVD) of cells in surroundings of changing osmolarity, but also appears to be relevant in cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. A central event in RVD is the opening of a volume-sensitive ...
Morishima S - - 2000
In human epithelial cell lines, whole-cell swelling-activated Cl(-) current was not directly correlated to cell volume per se, membrane tension or hydrostatic pressure. The current density exhibited a relation described by a Boltzmann function to the square of the cell diameter. Cytochalasin D enhanced the volume sensitivity. These results suggest ...
Nobel C S - - 2000
To investigate the involvement of K+ efflux in apoptotic cell shrinkage, we monitored efflux of the K+ congener, 86Rb+, and cell volume during CD95-mediated apoptosis in Jurkat cells. An anti-CD95 antibody caused apoptosis associated with intracellular GSH depletion, a significant increase in 86Rb+ efflux, and a decrease in cell volume ...
Winkler A S - - 2000
Accumulation of arachidonic acid (AA) in the brain during ischaemia may contribute to development of brain oedema. In this study we investigated the effect of selected drugs on AA-induced cytotoxic brain oedema in C6 glioma cells. Suspended C6 glioma cells were preincubated with drugs and AA (0.1 mM) was added. ...
Bennekou P - - 2000
A low cation conductance and a high anion conductance are characteristic of normal erythrocytes. In sickle cell anemia, the polymerization of hemoglobin S (HbS) under conditions of low oxygen tension is preceded by an increase in cation conductance. This increase in conductance is mediated in part through Ca(++)-activated K(+) channels. ...
Cutaia M - - 2000
We investigated the role of intracellular pH (pH(i)) and Na/H exchange in cell death in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAEC) following a metabolic insult (inhibition-oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis). Metabolic inhibition in medium at pH 7. 4 decreased viability (0-15% live cells) over 6 h. Cell death was attenuated by maneuvers ...
Paemeleire K - - 2000
Mechanically poking or damaging a single cell within a confluent astrocyte culture produces the so-called intercellular calcium (Ca(2+)) waves, that is, cell-to-cell propagating changes of intracellular free Ca(2+). We were interested whether intercellular Ca(2+) waves are also associated with changes in other intra- or extracellular ions. To that purpose, we ...
Féray J C - - 2000
When incubated in 150 mM KCl, rat thymocytes exhibited a very important magnesium efflux (11.4 +/- 0.7 mmoles/liter cells/20 min, n = 29), about 90 times higher than the physiological magnesium efflux catalyzed by the Na-Mg exchanger (0.126 +/- 0.093 mmoles/liter cells/20 min). Cells remained viable (trypan blue test) and ...
Rich I N - - 2000
The Na(+)/H(+) exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) is primarily responsible for the regulation of intracellular pH (pH(i)). It is a ubiquitous, amiloride-sensitive, growth factor-activatable exchanger whose role has been implicated in cell-cycle regulation, apoptosis, and neoplasia. Here we demonstrate that leukemic cell lines and peripheral blood from primary patient leukemic samples ...
Plesnila N - - 2000
1. The cell volume of suspended C6 glioma cells and primary cultured rat astrocytes was measured at normothermia (37 degrees C), and at mild (32 degrees C) and moderate (27 degrees C) hypothermia by flow cytometry with electrical cell sizing. 2. Under control conditions (37 degrees C), C6 glioma cells ...
Trzaskawka E - - 2000
Intracellular pH (pHi) and several ion transport mechanisms in cultured murine salivary gland cells (SCA-9) were studied using a videomicrofluorometric method and the H+-specific probe C-SNARF-1. The aim of this study was to test SCA-9 cells' pHi regulation mechanisms and evaluate if this cell line is representative of submandibular gland ...
Gregory T R - - 2000
Genome and body sizes were measured in 38 species of turbellarian flatworms and 16 species of copepod crustaceans. Significant positive relationships existed between genome size and body size in both groups. The slopes of these regressions indicated that increases in cell volume are reinforced by increased cell numbers, or that ...
Visviki I - - 2000
The effects of hydrogen ions on the growth and ultrastructure of Chlamydomonas applanata Pringsheim were examined. This species exhibits wide tolerance growing at pH values ranging from 3.4 to 8.4, with optimum growth obtained at 7.4. Growth is noticeably depressed at pH 4.4 and 3.4. At the ultrastructural level, exposure ...
Schlenker T - - 2000
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Oxidative stress leads to a rapid initial loss of liver cell volume, but the adaptive mechanisms that serve to restore volume have not been defined. This study aimed to evaluate the functional interactions between oxidative stress, cell volume recovery, and membrane ion permeability. METHODS: In HTC rat ...
Schwuchow J M - - 2000
Determinations of plant or algal cell density (cell mass divided by volume) have rarely accounted for the extracellular matrix or shrinkage during isolation. Three techniques were used to indirectly estimate the density of intact apical cells from protonemata of the moss Ceratodon purpureus. First, the volume fraction of each cell ...
Panet R - - 2000
Na(+)/K(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter activity is stimulated in early G(1) phase of the cell cycle and this stimulation was shown to be an essential event in fibroblast cell proliferation. In order to elucidate further the role of the Na(+)/K(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter in cell proliferation, we overexpressed the gene encoding the Na(+)/K(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter in ...
Bortner C D - - 2000
The loss of cell volume is a defining characteristic of programmed cell death, which separates apoptosis from necrosis. Assessment of cell volume during apoptosis can easily be accomplished by flow cytometry, by examining changes in the light-scattering properties of living cells that are directly proportional to cell size and density. ...
Razaq S - - 2000
Extracellular acidity is an important determinant of intervertebral disc matrix turnover, possibly exerting effects through changes of intracellular pH (pHi). There is, however, little information concerning the ways in which these cells regulate their pHi. Fluorimetric techniques have been used in the present study to measure pH in isolated intervertebral ...
Oberleithner H - - 2000
The response of target cells to the steroid hormone aldosterone has been divided into acute nongenomic (< 10 min) and sustained genomic (> 10 min) action. In the light of recent experiments this nomenclature does not hold anymore and should be abandoned. By applying atomic force microscopy (AFM) we observed ...
Reuss L - - 2000
Cell-volume regulation after hyposmotic swelling is common in transporting epithelial cells. Acute regulatory volume decrease is mediated in several cell types by loss of K(+) and Cl(-) via channels either activated by the swelling phenomenon or active in the cell membrane prior to swelling. In the last two decades, it ...
Kinne R K - - 2000
It is well accepted that organic osmolytes, including sorbitol, play a major role in the volume regulation of renal medullary cells. The signal leading to an activation of release channels during RVD is, however, poorly understood. Hypotonicity induced sorbitol efflux was investigated in freshly isolated rat inner medullary collecting duct ...
Weiergräber O - - 2000
In recent years it has become increasingly evident that cell volume represents a major determinant of cellular function in a variety of cell types. In mammalian cells, hydration may change dynamically in response to hormones, ethanol, aniso-osmotic environments, oxidative stress or by cumulative substrate uptake. The aim of this review ...
Lang F - - 2000
Cell proliferation must - at some time point - lead to increase of cell volume and one of the hallmarks of apoptosis is cell shrinkage. At constant extracellular osmolarity those alterations of cell volume must reflect respective changes of cellular osmolarity which are hardly possible without the participation of cell ...
Schneider S W - - 2000
Migration of transformed renal epithelial cells (transformed Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, MDCK-F cells) relies on the activity of a Ca(2+)-sensitive K+ channel (IK channel) that is more active at the rear end of these cells. We have postulated that intermittent IK channel activity induces local cell shrinkage at the rear ...
van der Wijk T - - 2000
Most mammalian cells have developed compensatory mechanisms to respond to the variable osmotic stress caused by changes in the concentrations of intracellular osmo-active substances (e.g. glucose, amino acids, lactate) or by variations in the osmolarity of the surrounding medium. In response to osmotic cell swelling, the Regulatory Volume Decrease (RVD) ...
Mueller E - - 2000
In view of the increasing significance of mild hypothermia (32 degrees C) as an efficient procedure of neuroprotection, the present study was performed to examine the influence of this level of hypothermia on the volume of glial cells under physiological as well as under pathological conditions. The influence of mild ...
Korchev Y E - - 2000
We report a novel scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) technique for assessing the volume of living cells, which allows quantitative, high-resolution characterization of dynamic changes in cell volume while retaining the cell functionality. The technique can measure a wide range of volumes from 10(-19) to 10(-9) liter. The cell volume, ...
Zelenina M - - 2000
We have developed a method for measurement of plasma membrane water permeability (P(f)) in intact cells using laser scanning confocal microscopy. The method is based on confocal recording of the fluorescence intensity emitted by calcein-loaded adherent cells during osmotic shock. P(f) is calculated as a function of the time constant ...
Russell J M - - 2000
Obligatory, coupled cotransport of Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-) by cell membranes has been reported in nearly every animal cell type. This review examines the current status of our knowledge about this ion transport mechanism. Two isoforms of the Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC) protein (approximately 120-130 kDa, unglycosylated) are currently known. One ...
Theroux Pierre - - 2000
Inhibition of the sodium-hydrogen exchanger (NHE) is a powerful experimental tool to inhibit sodium and calcium accumulation within the ischemic myocyte and halt progression of cell ischemia to cell necrosis. This paper describes the protocol and rationale of a first large-scale clinical trial designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy ...
Burg M B MB National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. - - 2000
The non-ideal properties of solutions containing high concentrations of macromolecules can result in enormous increases in the activity of the individual macromolecules. There is considerable evidence that macromolecular crowding and confinement not only occur in cells, but that these are major determinants of the activity of the proteins and other ...
Dang Z - - 2000
Chloride cells were identified by Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase immunocytochemistry at the light and electron microscope levels in gills of freshwater tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus. Turnover of chloride cells was enhanced by exposing the fish to waterborne copper (3.2 micromol l(-)(1)) for 14 days, as indicated by a 38 % increase in cells expressing ...
Strbák V - - 2000
Exocytosis of intravesicular material should help a cell meet a relative extracellular hyposmotic challenge by expanding the plasmalemma through fusion with vesicular membrane. Cell swelling evokes an immediate secretory burst of hormones stored in secretory vesicles with dynamics indistinguishable from those induced by specific secretagogues. Hormone secretion induced by cell ...
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