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Results 451 - 500 of 1831
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Zonia Laura - - 2002
Oscillatory growth of pollen tubes has been correlated with oscillatory influxes of the cations Ca(2+), H(+), and K(+). Using an ion-specific vibrating probe, a new circuit was identified that involves oscillatory efflux of the anion Cl(-) at the apex and steady influx along the tube starting at 12 microm distal ...
Baev Didi D Department of Oral Biology, School of Dental Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, 14214, - - 2002
Human salivary histatin 5 (Hst 5) is a nonimmune salivary protein with antifungal activity against an important human pathogen, Candida albicans. The candidacidal activity of histatins appears to be a distinctive multistep mechanism involving depletion of the C. albicans intracellular ATP content as a result of nonlytic ATP efflux. Hst ...
Hermoso Marcela - - 2002
Volume-sensitive osmolyte and anion channels (VSOACs) are activated upon cell swelling in most vertebrate cells. Native VSOACs are believed to be a major pathway for regulatory volume decrease (RVD) through efflux of chloride and organic osmolytes. ClC-3 has been proposed to encode native VSOACs in Xenopus laevis oocytes and in ...
Behnam-Motlagh Parviz - - 2002
PURPOSE: Highly 5-HT(3)-receptor-specific antiemetic agents may have different effects on ion transport of tumour cells during treatment with cytotoxic drugs. Cell volume regulation, which is dependent on potassium ion (K(+)) flux, is involved the control of cell growth, proliferation, and apoptosis. K(+)-flux response mechanisms to the antiemetics ondansetron and granisetron ...
Ogasawara K - - 2002
Previously, we have found that immunosuppressive macrophages (M(phi)s) induced by Mycobacterium intracellulare-infection (MI-M(phi)s) required cell contact with target T cells to express their suppressor activity against concanavalin A (Con A)-induced T cell mitogenesis. In this study, we examined the profiles of cell-to-cell interaction of MI-M(phi)s with target T cells. First, ...
Smets Ilse - - 2002
In renal ischemia, tubular obstruction induced by swelling of epithelial cells might be an important mechanism for reduction of the glomerular filtration rate. We investigated ischemic cell swelling by examining volume regulation of A6 cells during metabolic inhibition (MI) induced by cyanide and 2-deoxyglucose. Changes in cell volume were monitored ...
Vitko Yulia V - - 2002
The effects of intracellular application of trypsin on the Cl- current induced by hypotonic cell swelling (I(Cl,swell)) in human prostate cancer epithelial cells (LNCaP) was studied using the patch-clamp technique. In cells predialyzed with 1 mg/mL trypsin, I(Cl,swell)) developed and diminished in response to the application and withdrawal of hypotonic ...
Kraegeloh Annette - - 2002
The role of K(+) in osmoregulation of the halophilic bacterium Halomonas elongata was investigated. At lower salinities (0.51 M NaCl), K(+) was the predominant cytoplasmic solute (1.25 micro mol mg protein(-1)). At higher salinities (1.03 M NaCl) ectoine became the main cytoplasmic solute (1.57 micro mol mg protein(-1)), while the ...
Luo C - - 2002
It was reported previously that haemadsorption by the haemagglutinin (HA) protein of influenza B virus required that the protein must undergo desialidation. When MDCK and COS cells were infected with influenza B/Kanagawa/73 virus in the presence of a neuraminidase (NA) inhibitor, Zanamivir, haemadsorption on MDCK cells was inhibited but that ...
Gomes Pedro - - 2002
The present study describes characteristic features of two clonal subpopulations of opossum kidney (OK) cells (OK(LC) and OK(HC)) that are functionally different but morphologically identical. The most impressive differences between OK(HC) and OK(LC) cells are the overexpression of Na+-K+-ATPase and type 3 Na+/H+ exchanger by the former, accompanied by an ...
Luo Dawei - - 2002
A modified analytical and experimental method using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) was developed to determine the cell volume change during the freezing process. Two cell types were used in the study: human platelets and erythrocytes (red blood cells). Isotonic cell suspensions with different cytocrits were prepared and used in the ...
Sakamoto T - - 2002
Euryhaline teleosts rapidly regulate their ion flux at the chloride cells on entry to different salinities. The external trigger(s) for the rapid opening and closing of the chloride cell apical surface, the site of salt secretion, were examined in the skin of the mudskipper. With DASPEI (a mitochondrial probe) and ...
Vrede Katarina - - 2002
Marine bacterioplankton were isolated and grown in batch cultures until their growth became limited by organic carbon (C), nitrogen (N), or phosphorus (P). Samples were taken from the cultures at both the exponential and stationary phases. The elemental composition of individual bacterial cells was analyzed by X-ray microanalysis with an ...
Franco Jaime M - - 2002
The origin of T cells after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) is now under discussion. The possibility of renewed lymphopoiesis in aged thymuses is still controversial. In this work we combine the analysis of naïve T cells, T-cell receptor excision circles ...
Morbach Susanne - - 2002
Fluctuation of external osmolarity is one of the most common types of environmental stress factors for all kind of cells, both of prokaryotic and of eukaryotic origin. Cells try to keep their volume and/or turgor pressure constant; consequently, both a decrease (hypoosmotic stress) and an increase (hyperosmotic stress) of the ...
Fricke Wieland - - 2002
Biophysical parameters potentially involved in growth regulation were studied at the single-cell level in the third leaf of barley (Hordeum vulgare) after exposure to various degrees of NaCl stress for 3 to 5 d. Gradients of elongation growth were measured, and turgor pressure, osmolality, and water potentials (psi) were determined ...
Li Hongshan - - 2002
The pharmacokinetics and cell trafficking dynamics of 2-amino-2-[2-(4-octylphenyl)ethyl]propane-1,3-diol hydrochloride (FTY720), a novel immunosuppressive agent, were examined in cynomolgus monkeys (three males and three females). After single doses of 0.1 mg/kg p.o. or i.v. bolus and 1 mg/kg p.o. were administered to the animals, the concentrations of FTY720, and the numbers ...
Bourillot P-Y - - 2002
In vertebrate development, most signalling factors behave as morphogens, eliciting divergent cell fates according to their concentration. We ask how cells interpret morphogen concentration as it changes during the establishment of a gradient. Using dissociated blastula cells of Xenopus exposed to activin for only 10 minutes, we have followed the ...
Matthews Jeffrey B - - 2002
Defective regulation of epithelial secretion underlies the clinical manifestations of a number of important human diseases ranging from cystic fibrosis to secretory diarrhea. Although much attention has focused on the role of apical membrane chloride (Cl-) channels in this process, emerging evidence highlights the importance of a basolateral Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter ...
Camisard V - - 2002
A new in situ microscope (ISM) was developed and tested to perform in-line monitoring of average cell volume and cell concentration in agitated cultures subjected to osmotic stress. The ISM is directly immersed into the agitated broth in a bioreactor and generates still images of cells by using pulsed luminescent ...
Roomans G M - - 2002
X-ray microanalysis is commonly applied in biomaterials research to study changes in biomaterial composition, calcifications, or to identify particulates in tissue that has been in contact with biomaterials. Studies where the effect of biomaterials on the naturally occurring elements in the cells are studied are rare. Exposure to or contact ...
Fürst J - - 2002
The ability of cells to readjust their volume after swelling, a phenomenon known as regulatory volume decrease (RVD), is a fundamental biological achievement guaranteeing survival and function of cells under osmotic stress. This article reviews the mechanisms of RVD in mammalian cells with special emphasis on the activation of ion ...
Shiono Noritsugu - - 2002
Protective effects of L-arginine were evaluated in a human ventricular heart cell model of low-volume anoxia and reoxygenation independent of alternate cell types. Cell cultures were subjected to 90 min of low-volume anoxia and 30 min of reoxygenation. L-Arginine (0-5.0 mM) was administered during the preanoxic period or the reoxygenation ...
Han Kap-Hoon - - 2002
Free-living cells monitor extracellular 'osmotic strength' and respond metabolically to offset unfavourable osmotic intracellular solute concentrations. Here, we report the reconstruction of the Aspergillus nidulans salt stress-controlling MAP kinase pathway, based on homology analysis with known yeast genes. In A. nidulans, salt stress HOG genes, such as pbsA, hogA, ptpA ...
Cai Xinxia - - 2002
The fabrication of microelectrodes integrated within ultra-low-volume microtiter chambers for the amperometric determination of metabolites continues to be of interest in the subject of single-cell and high-throughput screening. The microsystem described in this paper consists of a two-microelectrode sensor with a microfluidic dispensation technology, which is able to deliver both ...
Porcelli Anna Maria - - 2002
The molecular mechanisms responsible for intracellular pH regulation in the U2-OS osteosarcoma cell line were investigated by loading with 2',7'-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6) carboxyfluorescein ester and manipulation of Cl(-) and Na(+) gradients, both in HEPES- and HCO(3)(-)/CO(2)-buffered media. Both acidification and alkalinisation were poorly sensitive to 4,4'-diisothiocyanate dihydrostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid, inhibitor of the anion ...
Inglis S K SK Lung Membrane Transport Group, Tayside Institute of Child Health, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 9SY, UK. - - 2002
The Calu-3 human cell line exhibits features of submucosal gland serous cells and secretes HCO(3)(-). The aim of this study was to identify the HCO(3)(-) transporters present in these cells by studying their role in the regulation of intracellular pH (pH(i)). Calu-3 cells were grown on coverslips, loaded with the ...
Cui Suxia - - 2002
Dune reed, as an ecotype of reed plant (Phragmites communis Trin.), is an ideal material for studies on the adaptations of plant to environmental conditions. Scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, and plant tissue culture techniques were used to investigate the effect of extreme temperature, salt, and polyethylene glycol-induced osmotic ...
de Melo Silvana Regina - - 2002
Changes in the sinoatrial node represent the major mechanism of sudden death in humans, and because of the sparse knowledge about the effects of aging on this structure, light microscopic and quantitative studies of the sinoatrial node were undertaken. Twenty-one hearts were studied, seven rat hearts from each of the ...
Wang Yao Bing - - 2002
The concentration changes of the cyclic amino acid ectoine (1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2-methyl-4-pyridine carboxylic acid) in Brevibacterium sp. JCM 6894 cells subjected to an osmotic downshock were investigated. When the cells grown in the presence of 2 M NaCl were suspended in deionized water, they immediately released about 60% of the ectoine synthesized ...
Stein Wilfred D - - 2002
Plant cells and bacterial cells are surrounded by a massive polysaccharide wall, which constrains their high internal osmotic pressure (tens of atmospheres). Animal cells, in contrast, are in osmotic equilibrium with their environment, have no restraining surround, and can take on a variety of shapes and can change these from ...
Gomes Pedro - - 2002
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The enhanced renal reabsorption of Na(+) in hypertension is accompanied by a defective transduction of the renal dopamine D(1) receptor signal. The present study evaluated the response of the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger to dopamine D(1)-like receptor stimulation in two clonal subpopulations of opossum kidney (OK) cells (OK(LC) and OK(HC)) that ...
Barros Luis Felipe - - 2002
Cell death is preceded by severe disruption of inorganic ion homeostasis. Seconds to minutes after an injury, calcium, protons, sodium, potassium and chloride are exchanged between the cell and its environment. Simultaneously, ions are shifted between membrane compartments inside the cell, whereby mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum play a crucial role. ...
Salvi Aline - - 2002
Intracellular free H+ concentration (pHi) responds to numerous extracellular stimuli. The use of fluorescent indicator dyes to measure pHi is strongly influenced by the ability of target cells to retain activated dye within the cytoplasmic compartment. Here, 3 pH-sensitive indicator dye - acetoxymethyl (AM) esters of SNARF-1 and BCECF, and ...
Jakab Martin - - 2002
Cell volume alterations are involved in numerous cellular events like epithelial transport, metabolic processes, hormone secretion, cell migration, proliferation and apoptosis. Above all it is a need for every cell to counteract osmotic cell swelling in order to avoid cell damage. The defence against excess cell swelling is accomplished by ...
Shennan D B - - 2001
Cell-swelling, induced by a hyposmotic challenge, stimulated the efflux of L-carnitine from a human mammary cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231. The response was dependent upon the extent of the osmotic shock. Hyposmotically-activated L-carnitine efflux was inhibited by the anion transport blocker diiodosalicylate. The efflux of taurine from MDA-MB-231 cells was also ...
Mongin Alexander A. - - 2001
In animal organisms, cell volume undergoes dynamic changes in many physiological and pathological processes. To protect themselves against lysis and apoptosis and to maintain an optimal concentration of intracellular enzymes and metabolites, most animal cells actively regulate their volume. In the present review, we shortly summarize the data on ion ...
Morbiato L - - 2001
The protein vacuolating toxin A (VacA) of Helicobacter pylori converts late endosomes into large vacuoles in the presence of permeant bases. Here it is shown that this phenomenon corresponds to an accumulation of permeant bases and Cl(-) in HeLa cells and requires the presence of extracellular Cl(-). The net influx ...
Nilius B - - 2001
The detection of changes in volume and osmolality is an essential function in vertebrate cells. A novel member of the transient receptor potential (trp) family of ion channels, which is sensitive to changes in cell volume, has been described recently. Heterologous expression of TRP12 in HEK cells resulted in the ...
Hashikura S - - 2001
Photostimulation of sulfonated aluminum phthalocyanine (SALPC)-loaded mast cells (20,000 lux, 2 min) itself caused neither exocytosis nor [Ca2+]i increase in isolated rat peritoneal mast cells. This result is incompatible with that reported in other cell types such as pancreatic acinar cells. Stimulation with 50 micrograms/ml compound 48/80, a direct G-protein ...
Barros L F - - 2001
Whether a lethally injured mammalian cell undergoes necrosis or apoptosis may be determined by the early activation of specific ion channels at the cell surface. Apoptosis requires K+ and Cl- efflux, which leads to cell shrinking, an active phenomenon termed apoptotic volume decrease (AVD). In contrast, necrosis has been shown ...
Guo X H - - 2001
AIM: To investigate the effects of rhein on cell hypertrophy and accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the renal tubular epithelial cells. METHODS: LLC-PK1 cells were incubated with transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1) 2 microg/L for 24 h to induce cell hypertrophy and production of ECM. To evaluate the effects ...
Kültz D - - 2001
Changes in environmental salinity/osmolality impose an osmotic stress upon cells because, if left uncompensated, such changes will alter the conserved intracellular ionic milieu and macromolecular density, for which cell metabolism in most extant cells has been optimized. Cell responses to osmotic stress include rapid posttranslational and slower transcriptional events for ...
Wärntges S - - 2001
One of the striking morphological features of renal failure is an increase of cell volume. This review explores the role of cell volume regulatory mechanisms in the pathophysiology of progressive renal disease. The case is made that TGF-beta, a major cytokine involved in the development of progressive renal failure, upregulates ...
Barrière H - - 2001
To study the potential influence of cystic fibrosis conductance regulator (CFTR) on intracellular pH regulation during apoptosis induction, we used PS120 Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts devoid of the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE1 isoform) transfected with constructs, allowing the expression of CFTR and/or NHE1. Kinetics of lovastatin-induced apoptosis were measured by orcein ...
Kolajova M - - 2001
Anion channels activated by increased cell volume are a nearly ubiquitous mechanism of cell volume regulation, including in early preimplantation mouse embryos. Here, we show that the swelling-activated anion current (I(Cl,swell)) in early mouse embryos is cell-cycle dependent, and also that this dependence is developmentally regulated. I(Cl,swell) is present both ...
Al-Habori M - - 2001
Macromolecular crowding has been proposed as a mechanism by means of which a cell can sense relatively small changes in volume or, more accurately, the concentration of intracellular solutes. According to the macromolecular theory, the kinetics and equilibria of enzymes can be greatly influenced by small changes in the concentration ...
Martínez de Marañón I - - 2001
Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been subjected to hyperosmotic shocks by using permeating (sorbitol, xylitol, glycerol, NaCl) and nonpermeating (PEG 600) solutes. The proton extrusion rate decreased as the osmotic pressure increased, whichever solute was used. However, the total inhibition of the cellular H+ extrusion depended on the solute used. A total ...
Boll I T - - 2001
The high-resolution phase-contrast, time-lapse cinematography using oil immersion lenses and 16-mm film demonstrates the kinetic cell events as maturation, locomotion, mitosis, and apoptosis of cells cultivated at 37 degrees C for up to 10 days. 0.5 v/v frozen-thawed sera with presumably high cytokine concentrations were added to the plasma or ...
Stamer W D - - 2001
PURPOSE: Drainage of aqueous humor from the human eye appears dependent on intracellular volume of trabecular meshwork (TM) cells, the predominant cell type of the human outflow pathway. Thus, the modulation of water and solute flux across the plasma membrane of TM cells is predicted to be an important factor ...
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