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Results 401 - 450 of 2135
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House Suzanne J - - 2007
There is accumulating evidence that Ca(2+)-dependent signaling pathways regulate proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells, contributing to the intimal accumulation of VSM that is a hallmark of many vascular diseases. In this study we investigated the role of the multifunctional serine/threonine kinase, calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II ...
Ringsholt Merete - - 2007
YKL-40, a 40 kDa plasma protein, is secreted by macrophages, neutrophils, chondrocytes, vascular smooth muscle cells and cancer cells. High plasma YKL-40 is found in patients with inflammatory diseases and cancer, but it is not known how the protein is expressed in tissues. This immunohistochemical study was carried out with ...
Lavoie Brigitte - - 2007
Gallbladder smooth muscle (GBSM) exhibits spontaneous rhythmic electrical activity, but the origin and propagation of this activity are not understood. We used morphological and physiological approaches to determine whether interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are present in the guinea pig extrahepatic biliary tree. Light microscopic studies involving Kit tyrosine kinase ...
Bhadriraju Kiran - - 2007
BACKGROUND: In anchorage dependent cells, myosin generated contractile forces affect events closely associated with adhesion such as the formation of stress fibers and focal adhesions, and temporally distal events such as entry of the cell into S-phase. As occurs in many signaling pathways, a phosphorylation reaction (in this case, phosphorylation ...
Jacques Danielle - - 2007
The 3-dimensional confocal microscopy technique has allowed us to identify the presence of yet another cardioactive factor and its receptor, namely neuropeptide Y (NPY) and its Y1 receptor, at the level of vascular smooth muscle cells and heart cells including endocardial endothelial cells (EECs). Using this technique, we also demonstrated ...
Xu Yonghua - - 2007
PURPOSE: Iododeoxyuridine (IUdR) is a halogenated pyrimidine recognized as the thymidine substitute in DNA. When labeled with iodine 125, IUdR can be used as a carrier to incorporate the isotope into DNA and target the dividing cells. The purpose of this study was to assess the maximum uptake of IUdR ...
Begueret H - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Recent observations in asthma suggest that bronchial smooth muscle is infiltrated by inflammatory cells including mast cells. Such an infiltration may contribute to airway remodelling that is partly due to an increase in smooth muscle mass. Whether muscle increase is the result of smooth muscle cell hypertrophy remains controversial ...
Shafik Ahmed - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: Specialized pacemaker cells, similar to the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) of the gut, have been detected in the urinary organs and are thought to pace their motile activity. AIM: We investigated the hypothesis that such cells could also exist in the corpora cavernosa (CC) of the human penis. ...
Macfelda Karin - - 2007
Myocardial cell transplantation in patients with heart failure is emerging as a potential therapeutic option to augment the function of remaining myocytes. Nevertheless, further investigations on basic issues such as ideal cell type continue to be evaluated. Therefore, the aim of our studies was to compare the performance of skeletal ...
Rishniw Mark - - 2007
Following initial patterning as differentiated smooth muscle (SM) cells, the muscularis externa of the murine esophagus is replaced by skeletal muscle, but the mechanism underlying this process is controversial. The hypothesis that committed SM cells transdifferentiate into striated muscle is not consistent with fate mapping studies. Similarly, apoptosis does not ...
Sati Leyla - - 2007
The aim of the study was to investigate the distribution and differentiation of cell types in the stroma of human placental stem villi (SV). A total of 14 human term placental tissues were studied. Double immunolabeling was performed for desmin-vimentin, desmin-alpha-smooth actin and vimentin-alpha-smooth actin. Cytokeratin 7, proliferating cell nuclear ...
Yamanouchi Keitaro - - 2007
The importance of connexins is implicated in proliferation and differentiation of cells. In skeletal muscle cells, connexin43 (Cx43) has been identified as the major connexin, and gap-junctional communication mediated by connexins has been shown to be required for their myogenic differentiation. In addition, inhibition of connexin function has been shown ...
Brack Andrew S - - 2007
The myogenic stem cell (satellite cell) is almost solely responsible for the remarkable regeneration of adult skeletal muscle fibers after injury. The availability and the functionality of satellite cells are the determinants of efficient muscle regeneration. During aging, the efficiency of muscle regeneration declines, suggesting that the functionality of satellite ...
Takahashi Hiroshi - - 2007
PURPOSE: To investigate by immunohistochemical observation the effects of amniotic membrane (AM) patching on myofibroblastic differentiation and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression in the corneal stroma after an alkali burn in vivo. METHODS: A corneal alkali burn was made by placing a circular piece of filter paper containing 1 N NaOH ...
Stratton Matthew S - - 2007
Migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are important events in the progression of atherosclerosis. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) possesses both antiapoptotic and mitogenic/motogenic effects in VSMCs although the influence of life cycle on IGF-1-induced effects is unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of ...
Sakoda Tsuyoshi - - 2007
Lentivirus vectors provide a delivery system that can both transduce nondividing cells and integrate transgenes into the genome of target cells without cytotoxicity. However, their relatively low transduction efficiency presents a significant obstacle to progress. In the present paper, a simple and easy method using calcium phosphate (CaPi) to enhance ...
Shefer Gabi - - 2007
Postnatal muscle growth and repair is supported by satellite cells--myogenic progenitors positioned between the myofiber basal lamina and plasma membrane. In adult muscles, satellite cells are quiescent but become activated and contribute differentiated progeny when myofiber repair is needed. The development of cells expressing osteogenic and adipogenic genes alongside myoblasts ...
Curtis S K - - 2007
Grimontia hollisae, formerly Vibrio hollisae, produces both smooth and rugose colonial variants. The rugose colony phenotype is characterized by wrinkled colonies producing copious amounts of exopolysaccharide. Cells from a rugose colony grown at 30 degrees C form rugose colonies, while the same cells grown at 37 degrees C form smooth ...
Singh N K - - 2007
Ciglitizone, a class of thiazolidinediones, acts as a potent activator of the adipose differentiation program in established preadipose cell lines. Thiazolidinediones have also been investigated in diabetic patients and have been reported to act as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ligands. Intramuscular adipogenesis or marbling through transdifferentiation of satellite cells in cattle ...
Day Kenneth - - 2007
Repair of adult skeletal muscle depends on satellite cells, quiescent myogenic stem cells located beneath the myofiber basal lamina. Satellite cell numbers and performance decline with age and disease, yet the intrinsic molecular changes accompanying these conditions are unknown. We identified expression of GFP driven by regulatory elements of the ...
Rosenblatt Noah - - 2007
Airway smooth muscle cells exhibit stiffening during contractile activation. This stiffening may be interpreted as a result of the stabilizing influence of the mechanical prestress stored within the cytoskeleton (CSK). However, in vivo, airway smooth muscle cells contract while simultaneously experiencing breathing-induced stretching. Excessive stretching of cells could cause actin-myosin ...
Phung Anh D - - 2006
Hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells is a hallmark of atherosclerosis and related vascular complications. Microtubules are important for many aspects of mammalian cell responses including growth, migration and signaling. alpha-Tubulin, a component of the microtubule cytoskeleton, is unique amongst cellular proteins in that it undergoes a reversible posttranslational modification ...
Adams Gregory R - - 2006
Satellite cells are small, mononuclear cells found in close association with striated skeletal muscles cells (myofibers). These cells appear to function as reserve myoblasts. A critical role for these cells in the process of muscle regeneration following injury has been clearly established. In that role, satellite cells have been shown ...
Washington Benny - - 2006
Cadmium (Cd) is frequently used in various industrial applications and is a ubiquitous environmental toxicant, also present in tobacco smoke. An important route of exposure is the circulatory system whereas blood vessels are considered to be main stream organs of Cd toxicity. Our previous results indicate that cadmium chloride (CdCl2) ...
Luttun Aernout - - 2006
Stem cells are not only a promising in vivo tool for the treatment of diseases characterized by irreversible tissue damage, but can also be exploited as in vitro systems to study the conditions required to generate molecularly and functionally defined cell types. Constructing functional arteries with luminal arterial endothelial cells ...
Schultz Edward - - 2006
Satellite cells are the myogenic cells lying between the myofiber sarcolemma and basal lamina. The objective of this study was to determine the expression patterns of MyoD, myogenin, and Pax7 within the satellite cell population in the growing rat soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles. Secondly, the expression of ...
Gawlitta Debby - - 2007
Deep pressure ulcers develop in tissues subjected to sustained mechanical loading. Though it has been hypothesized that this damage mechanism results from local tissue ischemia, it has recently been shown with a cell model that sustained compression can cause cell deformation, leading to tissue breakdown. The present study focuses on ...
Yoon Soonsang - - 2007
We have identified a gene by microarray analysis that is located on chromosome 6 (c6orf32), whose expression is increased during human fetal myoblast differentiation. The protein encoded by c6orf32 is expressed both in myogenic and non-myogenic primary cells isolated from 18-week old human fetal skeletal muscle. Immunofluorescent staining indicated that ...
Kook Sung-Ho - - 2006
This study examined whether adult bovine muscle satellite cells from 30-month-old Hanwoo cattle are multipotential. The satellite cells were found to have the potential to proliferate and differentiate into myoblasts with the formation of multinucleated cells. In addition, treatment with the peroxisome proliferator activating receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) agonist, rosiglitazone, promoted their ...
Golding Jon P JP Department of Biological Sciences, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, UK. - - 2007
To be effective for tissue repair, satellite cells (the stem cells of adult muscle) must survive the initial activation from quiescence. Using an in vitro model of satellite cell activation, we show that erbB1, erbB2 and erbB3, members of the EGF receptor tyrosine kinase family, appear on satellite cells within ...
Jiang Zhilong - - 2006
Cachexia is a frequent complication of cancer or other chronic diseases. To investigate the pathophysiology of cancer cachexia and pursue treatment options, we developed an in vitro assay of the effects of cancer cell-produced cytokines on primary muscle cells derived from murine skeletal muscle. These studies led to the novel ...
Gladfelter Amy S - - 2006
Multinucleated cells are found in diverse contexts and include filamentous fungi, developing insect embryos, skeletal muscle and metastasizing tumor cells. Some multinucleated cells such as those in muscles arise from cell fusion events, but many are formed through specialized cell cycles in which nuclear and cell division are uncoupled. Recent ...
López Natalia - - 2006
Cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) produces longitudinal elongation of neonatal cardiomyocytes, but its effects in adult cardiomyocytes are not known. Recent observations indicate that CT-1 may be involved in pressure overload left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). We investigated whether the hypertrophic effects of CT-1 are different in cardiomyocytes isolated from adult normotensive and spontaneously ...
Siegel Jerome M - - 2006
Narcolepsy is a neurological disorder that is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy--a loss of muscle tone generally triggered by certain strong emotions with sudden onset. The underlying cause of most cases of human narcolepsy is a loss of neurons that produce hypocretin (Hcrt, also known as orexin). These ...
Deissler Heidrun - - 2006
Transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) both inhibits proliferation of macrovascular endothelial cells and promotes their transdifferentiation to alpha-smooth-muscle-actin (alphaSMA)-expressing mesenchymal cells in vitro. Recently, we have confirmed that proliferation of immortalized bovine retinal microvascular endothelial cells (iBREC) is strongly inhibited by TGFbeta2. We now demonstrate a complete transition of both ...
Wagner William D - - 2007
White carneau (WC) pigeons develop spontaneous atherosclerosis in contrast to atherosclerosis-resistant show racer (SR) pigeons. In this study, cellular and extracellular components and smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation rates of specific aortic sites were assessed in both breeds of pigeons prior to lesion development. The atherosclerosis-susceptible site of the WC ...
Kosuge Hisanori - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and migration and accumulation of monocytes and T cells are landmark events in the development of arteriosclerosis. SMC proliferation in the intima induces interruption of blood flow and results in ischemia and graft rejection. Inducible costimulator (ICOS) is a major costimulator ...
van Tuyn John - - 2007
Myocardial and coronary development are both critically dependent on epicardial cells. During cardiomorphogenesis, a subset of epicardial cells undergoes an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invades the myocardium to differentiate into various cell types, including coronary smooth muscle cells and perivascular and cardiac interstitial fibroblasts. Our current knowledge of epicardial EMT ...
Lang Richard J - - 2006
Pyeloureteric peristalsis has long been considered to be triggered by pacemaker atypical smooth muscle cells (SMC) located in the proximal regions of the renal pelvis. However, interstitial cells with many of the morphological features and c-Kit immuno-reactivity of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), the established pacemaker cells in the intestine, ...
Jejurikar Sameer S - - 2006
The mechanisms causing the impaired regenerative response to injury observed in skeletal muscle of old animals are unknown. Satellite cells, stem cell descendants within adult skeletal muscle, are the primary source of regenerating muscle fibers. Apoptosis may be a mechanism responsible for the depletion of satellite cells in old animals. ...
Jacobs, Leila Susan
The role of sphingolipids in mediating the action of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) has been investigated in the vascular smooth muscle-derived A7r5 cell line. L-cycloserine (2 mM), an inhibitor of sphingolipid synthesis, caused time-dependent inhibition of ({dollar}{bsol}sp3{dollar}H) serine incorporation into ({dollar}{bsol}sp3{dollar}H) sphingomyelin in A7r5 cells. PDGF-AB (10 ng/ml), PDGF-BB (10 ...
Clements Debbie - - 2007
The products of the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) genes, hamartin and tuberin (TSC1 and 2), form a heteromer, which represses the kinase mammalian target of rapamycin. Loss of TSC1 or 2 results in diseases characterized by loss of cell-cycle control, including TSC and lymphangioleiomyomatosis. As tuberin has multiple signaling inputs, ...
Zammit Peter S - - 2006
The muscle satellite cell was first described and actually named on the basis of its anatomic location under the basement membrane surrounding each myofiber. For many years following its discovery, electron microscopy provided the only definitive method of identification. More recently, several molecular markers have been described that can be ...
Ling Shanhong - - 2006
Although pre-menopausal women enjoy relative cardiovascular protection, hormone (oestrogen+/-progestin)-replacement therapy has not shown cardiovascular benefits in post-menopausal women, suggesting that the effects of oestrogens on the cardiovascular system are much more complex than previously expected. Endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts, the cellular components of blood vessels ...
Wu Dongmei - - 2006
Abnormal growth of vascular smooth muscle cells is seen in various pathological conditions such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, and restenosis. Na/H exchanger (NHE) activation appears to play a permissive role in vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and vascular remodeling. The present study investigated the effect of a new specific NHE-1 inhibitor, ...
Zheng Jun Ke - - 2006
We have examined the myogenic potential of human embryonic stem (hES) cells in a xeno-transplantation animal model. Here we show that precursors differentiated from hES cells can undergo myogenesis in an adult environment and give rise to a range of cell types in the myogenic lineage. This study provides direct ...
Sanders Kenton M - - 2006
Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) were described more than 100 years ago by Ramon y Cajal. For many years these cells were identified only by non-specific histological stains and later, more reliably, by electron microscopy. Ultrastructural features and the anatomical locations of ICC suggested important physiological roles for these cells. ...
Matschke Katharina - - 2006
Continuous changes in the length of smooth muscles require a highly organized sarcolemmal structure. Yet, smooth muscle cells also adapt rapidly to altered environmental cues. Their sarcolemmal plasticity must lead to profound changes which affect transmembrane signal transduction as well as contractility. We have established porcine vascular and human visceral ...
Nagata Yosuke - - 2006
Adult skeletal muscle is able to repeatedly regenerate because of the presence of satellite cells, a population of stem cells resident beneath the basal lamina that surrounds each myofiber. Little is known, however, of the signaling pathways involved in the activation of satellite cells from quiescence to proliferation, a crucial ...
Shinin Vasily - - 2006
Satellite cells assure postnatal skeletal muscle growth and repair. Despite extensive studies, their stem cell character remains largely undefined. Using pulse-chase labelling with BrdU to mark the putative stem cell niche, we identify a subpopulation of label-retaining satellite cells during growth and after injury. Strikingly, some of these cells display ...
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