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Vadalà Gianluca - - 2008
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Current therapies for intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) are aimed at treating the clinical symptoms arising from IDD rather than directly treating the underlying problem. Pathophysiology of IDD is characterized by a progressive decrease in proteoglycan content and cell density in the nucleus pulposus (NP). A cell-based therapy is ...
Wusteman Monica - - 2008
Propane-1,2-diol (PD) possesses physico-chemical properties that make it a useful biological vitrifying agent but, although of relatively low toxicity, it still has substantial damaging effects on cells. This study aimed to identify possible toxic mechanisms using primary cell cultures from vascular tissue: these were exposed to the cryoprotectant at room ...
Kook Sung-Ho - - 2008
Mechanical stress leads to satellite cell activation, which is an important event in the development, growth, and remodeling of postnatal skeletal muscle. Although there is a considerable knowledge on the events involved in skeletal muscle regeneration and development, the precise role of mechanical stress on activation of satellite cells remains ...
Watanabe Shuichi - - 2007
Satellite cells are usually mitotically quiescent muscle stem cells, located between the sarcolemma and the basement membrane of muscle fibers. When muscles are damaged, satellite cells become activated, proliferate and differentiate to form multinucleate myofibers. The molecular mechanisms underlying these processes are poorly understood. In the present study, we found ...
Pacheco-Rodriguez Gustavo - - 2007
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), a rare multisystem disease found primarily in women of childbearing age, is characterized by the proliferation of abnormal smooth muscle-like cells, LAM cells, that form nodules in the pulmonary interstitium. Proliferation of LAM cells results, in part, from dysfunction in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) genes TSC1 (hamartin) and/or ...
Rasmussen Helle - - 2007
Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are well described in the bowel wall. They are c-kit positive and play a role as pacemaker cells. Similar c-kit-positive cells have recently been described in the human bladder. The aim of this study was to characterize interstitial cells of the bladder detrusor using a ...
Kawaguchi Michiya M Stahlman Research Laboratories, Program for Developmental Biology and Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, - - 2007
Mesothelia comprise the epithelial covering of coelomic organs and line the cavities in which they are housed. Mesothelia contribute to the vasculature of the heart and the intestinal tract by developmental processes of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), migration, and differentiation into endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and pericytes. Here, we ...
Patruno M - - 2008
The paired box domain gene Pax7 plays a pivotal role in satellite cell physiology and may represent one of the candidate genes influencing the dynamic stages of early post-natal growth observed in pig. Quiescent satellite cells express Pax7 and, when activated, they co-express the myogenic bHLH protein MyoD. The aims ...
Balasubramanian Saravana Kumar - - 2008
Restenosis in peripheral arteries is a major health care problem in the United States. Typically, 30-40% of angioplasties result in restenosis and hence alternative treatment techniques are being actively investigated. Cryoplasty, a novel technique involving simultaneous stretching and freezing of the peripheral arteries (e.g., femoral, iliac, popliteal) using a cryogen-filled ...
Horvath Gabor G Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33101, USA. - - 2007
Organic cation transporters (OCTs) have an important role in tissue distribution and elimination of cationic drugs. Carrier-mediated disposal of cationic bronchodilators in the airway tissue, however, is incompletely understood. We sought to assess the uptake of long-acting beta(2)-agonist bronchodilators by bronchial and vascular smooth muscle cells. Human airway cells and ...
Pellegrin Stéphanie - - 2007
Animal cell movement is effected through a combination of protrusive and contractile events. Non-muscle cells contain stress fibres - bundles of actomyosin that are the major mediators of cell contraction and that can be compared to the highly organised actomyosin arrays of muscle cells. Recent studies have defined regulatory mechanisms ...
Sarna Sushil K - - 2008
The proposed functions of the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are to 1) pace the slow waves and regulate their propagation, 2) mediate enteric neuronal signals to smooth muscle cells, and 3) act as mechanosensors. In addition, impairments of ICC have been implicated in diverse motility disorders. This review critically ...
Honda M J - - 2007
AIM: To investigate the presence of side population (SP) cells by the Hoechst exclusion method in human adult dental pulp tissue. METHODOLOGY: Human adult dental pulp-derived cells were generated from third molar teeth. The cells were stained with Hoechst 33342 and sorted into SP cells or non-SP cells [main population ...
Fukada So-Ichiro - - 2008
Laminin alpha2 is a component of skeletal and cardiac muscle basal lamina. A defect of the laminin alpha2 chain leads to severe congenital muscular dystrophy (MDC1A) in humans and dy/dy mice. Myogenic cells including myoblasts, myotubes, and myofibers in skeletal muscle are a possible source of the laminin alpha2 chain, ...
Chung Kian Fan - - 2007
The airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell is an important part of the airway wall of asthma patients because of its increased contractile properties, which appear to be enhanced in this condition and which contribute to airflow obstruction and bronchial hyper-responsiveness. ASM cells are also abnormal in asthma with increased expression ...
Zeini Miriam - - 2007
Apoptosis plays an important role in a great number of pathological processes, including atherosclerotic disease. Although apoptosis occurs in the major cell types found in atherosclerotic lesions (e.g. macrophages, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells), the mechanism involved in this process differs depending on the stage, the localization and the ...
Kirillova Irina I Department of Biological Structure, University of Washington School of Medicine, Magnuson Health Sciences Center, Box 357420, Room I-146, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Seattle, WA 98195, - - 2007
Satellite cells are recognized as the main source for myoblasts in postnatal muscle. The possible participation of other cell types in myofiber maintenance remains a subject of debate. Here, we investigated the potential of vascular preparations from mouse retina to undergo myogenesis when cultured alone or with differentiated primary myogenic ...
Du Xiao-Jun - - 2007
While the approaches of regenerating cardiac muscle remain undetermined, recent evidence indicates that paracrine function of transplanted cells contributes significantly to the beneficial effects of cell therapy. Combination of such paracrine function of grafted cells with extracellular matrix remodelling by relaxin represents a promising complement to cell-based therapy for cardiac ...
Uchida K - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the phenotypic differences of primary rat mesenchymal bone marrow cells (MBMCs) and subcultured cells, the influence of subculture and cell density on the cellular phenotypes, and the difference in the migratory responses of these cells to cytokines. METHODS: MBMCs were isolated ...
Zheng Bo - - 2007
We document anatomic, molecular and developmental relationships between endothelial and myogenic cells within human skeletal muscle. Cells coexpressing myogenic and endothelial cell markers (CD56, CD34, CD144) were identified by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. These myoendothelial cells regenerate myofibers in the injured skeletal muscle of severe combined immunodeficiency mice more effectively ...
Vallbacka Jennifer J - - 2007
Vascularization caused by encapsulated cells engineered to secrete vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) improved the in vivo survival of the encapsulated cells in a syngeneic mouse Matrigel plug model. Murine fibroblast cells (L929) were engineered to secrete recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor (rhVEGF(165)). Transfected and nontransfected L929 cells were ...
Ratnovsky Anat - - 2007
Obesity is a risk factor for asthma. The purpose of this study was to determine whether metformin, an agent used in the treatment of an obesity-related condition (type II diabetes), might have therapeutic potential for modifying the effects of obesity on airway smooth muscle (ASM) function. Metformin acts via activation ...
Mazzone Amelia A Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, - - 2007
The enteric nervous system is an independent nervous system with a complexity comparable with the central nervous system. This complex system is integrated into several other complex systems, such as interstitial cells of Cajal networks and immune cells. The result of these interactions is effective coordination of motility, secretion, and ...
Salinthone Sonemany - - 2007
Airway smooth muscle (ASM) hypertrophy and hyperplasia are characteristics of asthma that lead to thickening of the airway wall and obstruction of airflow. Very little is known about mechanisms underlying ASM remodeling, but in vascular smooth muscle, it is known that progression of atherosclerosis depends on the balance of myocyte ...
Tünnemann Gisela - - 2007
In contrast to immortal cell lines, primary cells are hardly susceptible to intracellular delivery methods such as transfection. In this study, we evaluated the direct delivery of several cell-permeable peptides under noninvasive conditions into living primary adult rat cardiomyocytes. We specifically monitored the functional effects of a cell-permeable peptide containing ...
Ceelen K K - - 2008
Deep pressure ulcers are caused by sustained mechanical loading and involve skeletal muscle tissue injury. The exact underlying mechanisms are unclear, and the prevalence is high. Our hypothesis is that the aetiology is dominated by cellular deformation (Bouten et al. in Ann Biomed Eng 29:153-163, 2001; Breuls et al. in ...
Gerhart Jacquelyn - - 2007
The epiblast of the chick embryo contains cells that express MyoD mRNA but not MyoD protein. We investigated whether MyoD-positive (MyoDpos) epiblast cells are stably committed to the skeletal muscle lineage or whether their fate can be altered in different environments. A small number of MyoDpos epiblast cells were tracked ...
de Jongh Rik - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: To establish the functional consequences of exposing the isolated whole bladder preparation to exogenous prostaglandins (PGE(1), PGE(2), PGF(2alpha)) and to determine which cells express cyclooxygenase (COX) types I and II, to generate PG to effect these changes in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen female guinea pigs (270-350 g) were ...
Gierer Philip - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Extensive surgical trauma leads to activation of the coagulation cascade and is often complicated by systemic inflammation and infection. Activated protein C, a natural coagulatory inhibitor, was recently shown to reduce mortality in septic patients. We herein report on the actions of activated protein C on skeletal muscle injury ...
Chen Chun-Hung - - 2007
Cell transplantation via local intramuscular injection is a promising therapy. However, the cells used are usually expanded in vitro and dissociated by trypsinization, which may be harmful to the cells. In the study, a novel method for the construction of fragmented sheets of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with a uniform ...
Giangrande Paloma H - - 2007
Intimal hyperplasia (IH) and restenosis limit the long-term utility of bypass surgery and angioplasty due to pathological proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) into the intima of treated vessels. Consequently, much attention has been focused on developing inhibitory agents that reduce this pathogenic process. The E2F transcription ...
Romano Francesca - - 2007
When chronically stimulated with agonists of contraction, smooth muscle cells (SMCs) undergo cell hypertrophy, a process defined as increase in size and potentiation of the contractile phenotype in the absence of proliferation. Hypertrophic response has long been associated to a number of pathologies of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. We ...
Kolb S - - 2007
Apoptosis participates in every step of atherogenesis, but the process of clearance of apoptotic cells by phagocytosis has been underestimated. Rapid removal of apoptotic cells is critical for tissue homeostasis, in order to avoid accumulation of necrotic material and subsequent inflammation in the pathological vascular wall. We have demonstrated by ...
Menasché Philippe - - 2007
Cell transplantation is emerging as a new treatment designed to improve the poor outcome of patients with cardiac failure. Its rationale is that implantation of contractile cells into postinfarction scars could functionally rejuvenate these areas. Primarily for practical reasons, autologous skeletal myoblasts have been the first to be considered for ...
Pucovský Vladimír - - 2007
This work aimed to establish the lineage of cells similar to the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), the arterial ICC-like (AIL) cells, which have recently been described in resistance arteries, and to study their location in the artery wall. Segments of guinea-pig mesenteric arteries and single AIL cells freshly isolated ...
Li Li - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Implantation of a haemodialysis arteriovenous graft is often followed by the development of neointimal hyperplasia (NH) at the venous anastomosis. The nature of the proliferating cells in these lesions is not well understood. A better understanding of the cells contributing to NH is important to the development of preventive ...
Banerjee Indroneal - - 2007
Cardiac fibroblasts, myocytes, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells are the major cellular constituents of the heart. The aim of this study was to observe alterations in myocardial cell populations during early neonatal development in the adult animal and to observe any variations of the cardiac cell populations in ...
Fukada So-ichiro - - 2007
Skeletal muscle satellite cells play key roles in postnatal muscle growth and regeneration. To study molecular regulation of satellite cells, we directly prepared satellite cells from 8- to 12-week-old C57BL/6 mice and performed genome-wide gene expression analysis. Compared with activated/cycling satellite cells, 507 genes were highly upregulated in quiescent satellite ...
Fascetti-Leon Francesco - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Mini-invasive techniques for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), such as endoscopic injections of inert materials, have been introduced in recent years. However, results are still preliminary. Cell injection has emerged as an alternative strategy in both vesicoureteral reflux and incontinence. Here we report, for the first time, the injection of ...
Bridger P S - - 2007
In order to study feto-maternal interactions in the bovine synepitheliochorial placenta primary cell cultures of both placentomal components throughout pregnancy, namely caruncular epithelial cells and trophoblast cells were developed. The aim of this study was to validate and improve a method to culture caruncular epithelial cells and fetal trophoblast from ...
Daggett David F DF Department of Molecular and Cell Biology and Center for Integrative Genomics, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-3200, - - 2007
As the vertebrate myotome is generated, myogenic precursor cells undergo extensive and coordinated movements as they differentiate into properly positioned embryonic muscle fibers. In the zebrafish, the "adaxial" cells adjacent to the notochord are the first muscle precursors to be specified. After initially differentiating into slow-twitch myosin-expressing muscle fibers, these ...
Gui Yu - - 2007
Somatic mutations in the tuberous sclerosis complex-2 (TSC2) gene are associated with pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), a disorder characterized by benign lesions of smooth muscle and/or smooth muscle-like cells in the lung. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying LAM disease are largely unknown. Given that the TSC2 gene product tuberin is involved ...
Van der Aa, Frank
The urinary bladder is a hollow structure, consisting mainly of smooth muscle cell bundles under neural control. It has two important functions: storage and emptying. During storage it must maintain low pressure. During emptying all smooth muscle bundles must contract synchronously. The neural control functions as an on/off switch. During ...
Cossu Giulio - - 2007
Satellite cells are crucial for maintaining muscle homeostasis and for regeneration following injury. In this issue, Kuang et al. (2007) reveal that muscle satellite cells are a heterogeneous mixture of stem cells and committed myogenic progenitors. They show that asymmetric division of stem cells in the satellite cell niche is ...
Aguilar Victor V INSERM, U845, Paris F-75015, France; Université Paris Descartes, UMRS-845, Paris F-75015, - - 2007
S6 kinase (S6K) deletion in metazoans causes small cell size, insulin hypersensitivity, and metabolic adaptations; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. Here we show that S6K-deficient skeletal muscle cells have increased AMP and inorganic phosphate levels relative to ATP and phosphocreatine, causing AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) upregulation. Energy stress ...
Fontana M - - 2007
Prostanoids have been shown to improve exercise tolerance, hemodynamics and quality of life in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We investigated whether treprostinil exerts direct contractile effects on cardiomyocytes that may explain partly the beneficial effects of these drugs. Ventricular cardiomyocytes from adult rats were paced at a constant ...
Takaki Miyako - - 2007
Using an embryoid body (EB) culture system, we developed a functional organ-like cluster, a "gut", from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells (ES gut). Each ES gut exhibited various types of spontaneous movements. In these spontaneously contracting ES guts, dense distributions of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) (c-kit, a transmembrane receptor ...
Yau, Lorraine
Failure of revascularization procedures for the treatment of coronary artery disease, such as balloon angioplasty, typically occurs as a result of restenosis, a renarrowing of the lumen at the site of intervention. Restenosis is characterized by the formation of a neointimal lesion, a process that involves migration of smooth muscle ...
Figallo Elisa - - 2007
High throughput experiments can be used to spatially and temporally investigate the many factors that regulate cell differentiation. We have developed a micro-bioreactor array (MBA) that is fabricated using soft lithography and contains twelve independent micro-bioreactors perfused with culture medium. The MBA enables cultivation of cells that are either attached ...
Baumert Hervé - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Long ureteric defects may theoretically be repaired with the use of tissue-engineered neoureter. However, attempts to construct such a neoureter in animal models have failed because of major inflammatory response. Avoidance of such inflammation requires a well-differentiated urothelium. We investigated whether omental maturation of a seeded construct in a ...
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