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Results 301 - 350 of 2160
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Li Xuehui - - 2008
Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) is a potent inhibitor of muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. Decorin, a small proteoglycan in the extracellular matrix, binds to TGF-beta1 and modulates the activity of TGF-beta1 during muscle cell growth and development. However, its interaction with TGF-beta1 and involvement in myogenesis is not well characterized. ...
Jansen K M KM Department of Pharmacology, Emory University School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, - - 2008
During skeletal muscle growth and regeneration, the majority of differentiating myoblasts undergoes cell-cell fusion to form multinucleated myofibers, whereas a proportion of myoblasts undergoes apoptosis. The treatment of myoblasts with prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha) during myogenesis in vitro leads to the formation of large myotubes, but the mechanism by which PGF2alpha ...
Sui Jianjun - - 2008
Propranolol, a nonselective beta blocker, exerts blocking activity both on beta1 adrenoceptors and beta2 ones, with the S-enantiomer being more active than the R-enantiomer. The aim of the study was to investigate the secreted proteins with differential protein expression levels in culture medium of vascular smooth muscle cells (A7r5) incubated ...
Zhang Xiangfeng - - 2008
The syndecans are a family of cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans consisting of a core protein with covalently attached glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains. Syndecan-4 expression in skeletal muscle is increased in growth-selected animals during proliferation. Previous studies have suggested that cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans like syndecan-4 are involved in fibroblast growth factor ...
Kajstura Jan J Department of Anesthesia, and Division of Cardiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. - - 2008
Recent data indicate that the heart is a self-renewing organ and contains a pool of progenitor cells (PCs). According to the new paradigm, this resident population of multipotent undifferentiated cells gives rise to myocytes, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts. Understanding the function of cardiac PCs is critical for ...
Han Richard I - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To map the cellular distribution and phenotypic alteration of the predominant stromal cell population throughout the entire valve length of dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD). SAMPLE POPULATION: 31 mitral valve complexes (ie, mitral valve leaflets) collected from 4 clinically normal dogs and 27 dogs with MMVD of ...
Kondo Hirotaka - - 2008
A 1.5-y-old female Djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) presented with a large subcutaneous mass surrounding the right shoulder. Radiography revealed dislocation of the right humeral articulation and osteolytic lesions of the right scapula. Histologically, the mass was composed of spindle to stellate cells arranged in fascicles interwoven with delicate collagen fibers, ...
McCrann Donald J - - 2008
Polyploidy is a state in which a cell contains multiple copies of its entire genome, while a normal diploid cell contains only two sets of homologous chromosomes. Although widely studied and pervasive in nature, the signals and mechanisms of polyploidization and its accompanying operational consequences are still unclear. This review ...
Qiao Huan - - 2009
Vascular smooth muscle cells contribute both to the structure and function of arteries, but are also involved in pathologic changes that accompany inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis. Since inflammation is associated with oxidant stress, we examined the uptake and cellular effects of the antioxidant vitamin ascorbic acid in cultured A10 ...
Larsson Erik - - 2008
Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are key components of all hollow organs, where they perform contractile, synthetic and other functions. Unlike other muscle cells, SMCs are not terminally differentiated, but exhibit considerable phenotypic variation. Such variation is manifested both across disease states such as asthma and atherosclerosis, and physiological states such ...
Sakamoto K - - 2008
There is a discrepancy in the adverse effect of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors, statins between the clinical reports and the studies using skeletal muscle cell models. In the clinical reports, both hydrophilic and lipophilic statins induce myotoxicity, whereas in in vitro experiments using cell lines of myoblasts, lipophilic, but not hydrophilic, ...
Allix Sébastien - - 2008
In the gastrointestinal tract, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) generate a pacemaker activity. They produce electric slow waves that trigger and coordinate gut smooth muscle contractions. Interstitial cells of Cajal's slender shape is revealed by KIT immunostaining. Based on several features, including KIT expression and KIT dependence, ICC-like cells were ...
Farrugia G G Enteric NeuroScience Program, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. - - 2008
The gastrointestinal tract serves the physiological function of digesting and absorbing nutrients from food and physically mixing and propelling these contents in an oral to anal direction. These functions require the coordinated interaction of several cell types, including enteric nerves, immune cells and smooth muscle. Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) ...
Ait Mou Younss Y INSERM, U 637, Université MONTPELLIER I, UFR de Médecine, F-34295, Montpellier, - - 2008
The present study examined the contribution of myofilament contractile proteins to regional function in guinea pig myocardium. We investigated the effect of stretch on myofilament contractile proteins, Ca(2+) sensitivity, and cross-bridge cycling kinetics (K (tr)) of force in single skinned cardiomyocytes isolated from the sub-endocardial (ENDO) or sub-epicardial (EPI) layer. ...
Young Jennifer L - - 2008
The two currently employed approaches restricting gene delivery and/or expression to desired cell types in vivo rely on cell surface targeting or cell-specific promoters. We have developed a third approach based on cell-specific nuclear transport of the delivered plasmid DNA. We have previously shown that plasmid nuclear import in non-dividing ...
de Lima Marcus Aurelho - - 2008
Chagasic visceromegalies are the most important digestive manifestations of Chagas disease and are characterized by motor disorders and dilation of organs such as esophagus and colon. One of the theories raised to explain the physiopathogenesis of chagasic megas is the plexus theory. Recent studies have shown a reduction of interstitial ...
Huhtinen Anna - - 2008
A vascular smooth muscle cell line stably expressing the human alpha 2B-adrenoceptor at a density of 1.5 pmol/mg membrane protein was generated by transfection of rat A7r5 cells. [35S]GTPgammaS binding experiments and [3H]thymidine incorporation experiments indicated that the expressed receptors were functional, had the expected pharmacological characteristics and efficiently stimulated ...
Odenlund M - - 2009
Polyamines are important for cell growth and proliferation and they are formed from arginine and ornithine via arginase and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). Arginine may alternatively be metabolised to NO via NO synthase. Here we study if vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation can be reversed by polyamine synthesis inhibitors and investigate ...
Wier W Gil WG Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Maryland Baltimore, 655 West Baltimore St, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA. - - 2008
FRET (Forster resonance energy transfer)-based biosensor molecules are powerful tools to reveal specific molecular interactions in cells. Typically however, they are used in cultured cells that (inevitably) express different genes than their counterparts in intact organisms. In such cells it may be impossible to administer physiological stimuli and measure physiological ...
Gensch Nicole - - 2008
The development of myogenic cells is mainly determined by expression of two myogenic factors, Myf5 and Myod1 (MyoD), which genetically compensate for each other during embryogenesis. Here, we demonstrate by conditional cell ablation in mice that Myf5 determines a distinct myogenic cell population, which also contains some Myod1-positive cells. Ablation ...
Nishimura Takanori - - 2008
Satellite cells are quiescent muscle stem cells that promote postnatal muscle growth and repair. When satellite cells are activated by myotrauma, they proliferate, migrate, differentiate, and ultimately fuse to existing myofibers. The remainder of these cells do not differentiate, but instead return to quiescence and remain in a quiescent state ...
Hill Bradford G - - 2008
Proteins modified by aldehydes generated from oxidized lipids accumulate in cells during oxidative stress and are commonly detected in diseased or aged tissue. The mechanisms by which cells remove aldehyde-adducted proteins, however, remain unclear. Here, we report that products of lipid peroxidation such as 4-HNE (4-hydroxynonenal) and acrolein activate autophagy ...
Roura-Ferrer Meritxell - - 2008
Voltage-dependent K(+) channels (Kv) are involved in myocyte proliferation and differentiation by triggering changes in membrane potential and regulating cell volume. Since Kv7 channels may participate in these events, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether skeletal muscle Kv7.1 and Kv7.5 were involved during proliferation and myogenesis. Here ...
Verstraeten Valerie L R M VL Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham & Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, - - 2008
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), reportedly a model for normal aging, is a genetic disorder in children marked by dramatic signs suggestive for premature aging. It is usually caused by de novo mutations in the nuclear envelope protein lamin A. Lamins are essential to maintaining nuclear integrity, and loss of lamin ...
Kelley, Owen A.
Despite decades of research, operational weather agencies still find it difficult to predict change in the intensity of a tropical cyclone's surface wind. This dissertation examines whether precipitation cells in a tropical cyclone eyewall provide information about change in wind intensity. Nine years of tropical cyclone overflights are studied with ...
Keklikoglu Nurullah - - 2008
The aim of this study was to compare the localization of some activator protein-1 (AP-1) proteins in healthy rat jejunum. For this purpose, the AP-1 members c-Jun, Fra-2, and ATF-2 immunoreactivity (c-Jun-IR, Fra-2-IR, ATF-2-IR) in villus epithelial cells (ECs), intravillous lamina propria cells (LPCs), crypt cells (CCs), and smooth muscle ...
Wang Wei Z - - 2008
Necrosis was considered to be the solo mechanism for ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced cell death. Recent evidence from I/R models of the heart, liver, kidney, and brain indicates that apoptosis is a major contributor to I/R-induced cell death. However, evidence of I/R-induced apoptosis in skeletal muscle is sparse and divided. The purpose ...
Knöfler M - - 2008
Trophoblast invasion during placental development helps to establish efficient physiological exchange between maternal and fetal circulatory systems. Trophoblast stem cells differentiate into multiple subtypes, including some that are highly invasive. Signalling to the trophoblast from decidua, uterine natural killer cells and vascular smooth muscle can regulate extravillous trophoblast differentiation. Important ...
Möller Clemens C CC Nephrology Division and Program in Glomerular Disease, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Suite 8214, CNY 149 13th Street, Boston, MA 02129, - - 2008
Transient receptor potential (TRP) genes encode subunits that form cation-selective ion channels in a variety of organisms and cell types. TRP channels serve diverse functions ranging from thermal, tactile, taste, and osmolar sensing to fluid flow sensing. TRPC1 and TRPC6 belong to the TRPC subfamily, members of which are thought ...
Sun S - - 2008
Muscle satellite cells have long been considered a distinct myogenic lineage responsible for postnatal growth, repair and maintenance of skeletal muscle. Recent studies have demonstrated that they are multi-potential. Osterix (Osx), a novel zinc-finger-containing transcription factor of the sp family, is required for osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. It was ...
Kong Wuyi W Children's Surgical Research Laboratory, Stanford University School of Medicine, 257 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305-5148, USA. - - 2008
Wounds in fetal skin heal without scar, however the mechanism is unknown. We identified a novel group of E-cadherin positive cells in the blood of fetal and adult mice and named them "Dot cells". The percentage of Dot cells in E16.5 fetal mice blood is more than twenty times higher ...
Pho M - - 2008
The formation of myofibroblasts in valve interstitial cell (VIC) populations contributes to fibrotic valvular disease. We examined myofibroblast differentiation in VICs from porcine aortic valves. In normal valves, cells immunostained for alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA, a myofibroblast marker) were rare (0.69 +/- 0.48%), but in sclerotic valves of animals fed ...
Hamzic E - - 2008
In early pregnancy, fetal trophoblasts selectively invade and remodel maternal spiral arteries. A healthy pregnancy is dependent on this adaptation to allow sufficient maternal blood to reach the placenta and the developing fetus. However, little is known of the role played by trophoblasts in this adaptation process. In this study, ...
Massy Z A - - 2008
There is increasing evidence to suggest that the initiation of vascular calcification is an active process involving vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) apoptosis and trans-differentiation into calcifying cells. This active process results in the deposition of an osteogenic extracellular matrix and may be exacerbated by a reduction in the levels ...
Austin Anita F AF Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232-6600, - - 2008
Cells derived from the epicardium are required for coronary vessel development. Transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) induces loss of epithelial character and smooth muscle differentiation in chick epicardial cells. Here, we show that epicardial explants from embryonic day (E) 11.5 mouse embryos incubated with TGFbeta1 or TGFbeta2 lose epithelial character ...
Kuang Shihuan - - 2008
Adult skeletal muscle contains an abundant and highly accessible population of muscle stem and progenitor cells called satellite cells. The primary function of satellite cells is to mediate postnatal muscle growth and repair. Owing to their availability and remarkable capacity to regenerate damaged muscle, satellite cells and their descendent myoblasts ...
Lee Beobyi - - 2008
The present study identified a novel mechanism for the effects of sanguinarine in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Sanguinarine treatment of VSMC resulted in significant growth inhibition as a result of G1-phase cell-cycle arrest mediated by induction of p27KIP1 expression, and resulted in a down-regulation of the expression of cyclins ...
Sevcencu Cristian - - 2008
The present experiments were performed to establish a method for simultaneous monitoring of excitation and contraction in isolated smooth muscle cells. The smooth muscle cells were dissociated from the colons of Wistar rats by enzymatic digestion. All the experiments were performed on mixtures of circular and longitudinal cells. In a ...
Shimizu Nobutaka - - 2008
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are exposed to fluid-mechanical forces, such as cyclic strain and shear stress, during the process of embryonic development but much remains to be elucidated concerning the role of fluid-mechanical forces in ES cell differentiation. Here, we show that cyclic strain induces vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) ...
van Tuyn, John
Injection of (stem) cells into the damaged heart has a positive effect on cardiac function. In this thesis two strategies for improving myocardial regeneration over classical cell therapy were investigated. The first is to induce cardiomyogenic differentiation by genetically engineering cells to express the transcription factor myocardin (a regulator of ...
Baba Tomomi T - - 2008
Statins, which are known as cholesterol-lowering drugs, have several additional effects including the enhancement of bone formation and the stimulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation. In this study, we investigated the signal pathway of simvastatin operating in C2C12 myoblast cells. Myotube formation of C2C12 cells was efficiently blocked by 1 ...
Li Feng - - 2008
Apelin is the endogenous ligand of the G protein-coupled receptor, APJ. Vascular smooth muscle cells express both apelin and APJ, which are important regulatory factors in the cardiovascular and nervous systems. Importantly, APJ is also involved in the pathogenesis if HIV-1 infection. We investigated whether vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation ...
Imamura Tetsuya - - 2008
This study is a preliminary investigation to determine if bone marrow-derived cells, when implanted into freeze-injured urinary bladders, differentiate into smooth muscle cells and reconstruct smooth muscle layers. Bone marrow cells were harvested from femurs of male ICR mice and cultured in collagen-coated dishes for 7 days. After 5 days ...
Rudnicki M A - - 2008
Muscle satellite cells are responsible for the postnatal growth and robust regeneration capacity of adult skeletal muscle. A subset of satellite cells purified from adult skeletal muscle is capable of repopulating the satellite cell pool, suggesting that it has direct therapeutic potential for treating degenerative muscle disease. Satellite cells uniformly ...
Murphy Jaime - - 2008
Very little is known regarding the function, origin, and turnover of airway smooth muscle (ASM). In this article, we discuss the embryological development of ASM, and provide information regarding candidate mesenchymal ASM progenitor cell populations specifically in relation to airway remodeling. This review also highlights the current limitations in studying ...
Praud C - - 2008
Myoblast transplantation is being considered as a potential strategy to improve muscle function in myopathies; hence, it is important to identify the transplanted cells and to have available efficient reagents to track these cells. We first validated a human to mouse xenotransplantation model warranting the complete and rapid rejection of ...
Hutchings Graham - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Myometrial smooth myocytes contract as a result of electrical signalling via a process called excitation-contraction coupling. This process is understood in great detail at the cellular level but the generation and coordination of electrical signals throughout the myometrium are incompletely understood. Recent evidence concerning the vital role of interstitial ...
Govindaraju Vasanthi - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Many cystic fibrosis (CF) patients display airway hyperresponsiveness and have symptoms of asthma such as cough, wheezing and reversible airway obstruction. Chronic airway bacterial colonization, associated with neutrophilic inflammation and high levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8) is also a common occurrence in these patients. The aim of this work was ...
Rigault Caroline - - 2008
Extracellular ATP regulates cell proliferation, muscle contraction and myoblast differentiation. ATP present in the muscle interstitium can be released from contracting skeletal muscle cells. L-Carnitine is a key element in muscle cell metabolism, as it serves as a carrier for fatty acid through mitochondrial membranes, controlling oxidation and energy production. ...
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