Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 2135
< 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 >
Kelley, Owen A.
Despite decades of research, operational weather agencies still find it difficult to predict change in the intensity of a tropical cyclone's surface wind. This dissertation examines whether precipitation cells in a tropical cyclone eyewall provide information about change in wind intensity. Nine years of tropical cyclone overflights are studied with ...
Keklikoglu Nurullah - - 2008
The aim of this study was to compare the localization of some activator protein-1 (AP-1) proteins in healthy rat jejunum. For this purpose, the AP-1 members c-Jun, Fra-2, and ATF-2 immunoreactivity (c-Jun-IR, Fra-2-IR, ATF-2-IR) in villus epithelial cells (ECs), intravillous lamina propria cells (LPCs), crypt cells (CCs), and smooth muscle ...
Wang Wei Z - - 2008
Necrosis was considered to be the solo mechanism for ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced cell death. Recent evidence from I/R models of the heart, liver, kidney, and brain indicates that apoptosis is a major contributor to I/R-induced cell death. However, evidence of I/R-induced apoptosis in skeletal muscle is sparse and divided. The purpose ...
Knöfler M - - 2008
Trophoblast invasion during placental development helps to establish efficient physiological exchange between maternal and fetal circulatory systems. Trophoblast stem cells differentiate into multiple subtypes, including some that are highly invasive. Signalling to the trophoblast from decidua, uterine natural killer cells and vascular smooth muscle can regulate extravillous trophoblast differentiation. Important ...
Möller Clemens C - - 2008
Transient receptor potential (TRP) genes encode subunits that form cation-selective ion channels in a variety of organisms and cell types. TRP channels serve diverse functions ranging from thermal, tactile, taste, and osmolar sensing to fluid flow sensing. TRPC1 and TRPC6 belong to the TRPC subfamily, members of which are thought ...
Sun S - - 2008
Muscle satellite cells have long been considered a distinct myogenic lineage responsible for postnatal growth, repair and maintenance of skeletal muscle. Recent studies have demonstrated that they are multi-potential. Osterix (Osx), a novel zinc-finger-containing transcription factor of the sp family, is required for osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. It was ...
Kong Wuyi - - 2008
Wounds in fetal skin heal without scar, however the mechanism is unknown. We identified a novel group of E-cadherin positive cells in the blood of fetal and adult mice and named them "Dot cells". The percentage of Dot cells in E16.5 fetal mice blood is more than twenty times higher ...
Pho M - - 2008
The formation of myofibroblasts in valve interstitial cell (VIC) populations contributes to fibrotic valvular disease. We examined myofibroblast differentiation in VICs from porcine aortic valves. In normal valves, cells immunostained for alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA, a myofibroblast marker) were rare (0.69 +/- 0.48%), but in sclerotic valves of animals fed ...
Hamzic E - - 2008
In early pregnancy, fetal trophoblasts selectively invade and remodel maternal spiral arteries. A healthy pregnancy is dependent on this adaptation to allow sufficient maternal blood to reach the placenta and the developing fetus. However, little is known of the role played by trophoblasts in this adaptation process. In this study, ...
Austin Anita F - - 2008
Cells derived from the epicardium are required for coronary vessel development. Transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) induces loss of epithelial character and smooth muscle differentiation in chick epicardial cells. Here, we show that epicardial explants from embryonic day (E) 11.5 mouse embryos incubated with TGFbeta1 or TGFbeta2 lose epithelial character ...
Massy Z A - - 2008
There is increasing evidence to suggest that the initiation of vascular calcification is an active process involving vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) apoptosis and trans-differentiation into calcifying cells. This active process results in the deposition of an osteogenic extracellular matrix and may be exacerbated by a reduction in the levels ...
Kuang Shihuan - - 2008
Adult skeletal muscle contains an abundant and highly accessible population of muscle stem and progenitor cells called satellite cells. The primary function of satellite cells is to mediate postnatal muscle growth and repair. Owing to their availability and remarkable capacity to regenerate damaged muscle, satellite cells and their descendent myoblasts ...
Lee Beobyi - - 2008
The present study identified a novel mechanism for the effects of sanguinarine in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Sanguinarine treatment of VSMC resulted in significant growth inhibition as a result of G1-phase cell-cycle arrest mediated by induction of p27KIP1 expression, and resulted in a down-regulation of the expression of cyclins ...
Sevcencu Cristian - - 2008
The present experiments were performed to establish a method for simultaneous monitoring of excitation and contraction in isolated smooth muscle cells. The smooth muscle cells were dissociated from the colons of Wistar rats by enzymatic digestion. All the experiments were performed on mixtures of circular and longitudinal cells. In a ...
Shimizu Nobutaka - - 2008
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are exposed to fluid-mechanical forces, such as cyclic strain and shear stress, during the process of embryonic development but much remains to be elucidated concerning the role of fluid-mechanical forces in ES cell differentiation. Here, we show that cyclic strain induces vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) ...
van Tuyn, John
Injection of (stem) cells into the damaged heart has a positive effect on cardiac function. In this thesis two strategies for improving myocardial regeneration over classical cell therapy were investigated. The first is to induce cardiomyogenic differentiation by genetically engineering cells to express the transcription factor myocardin (a regulator of ...
Baba Tomomi T - - 2008
Statins, which are known as cholesterol-lowering drugs, have several additional effects including the enhancement of bone formation and the stimulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation. In this study, we investigated the signal pathway of simvastatin operating in C2C12 myoblast cells. Myotube formation of C2C12 cells was efficiently blocked by 1 ...
Li Feng - - 2008
Apelin is the endogenous ligand of the G protein-coupled receptor, APJ. Vascular smooth muscle cells express both apelin and APJ, which are important regulatory factors in the cardiovascular and nervous systems. Importantly, APJ is also involved in the pathogenesis if HIV-1 infection. We investigated whether vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation ...
Imamura Tetsuya - - 2008
This study is a preliminary investigation to determine if bone marrow-derived cells, when implanted into freeze-injured urinary bladders, differentiate into smooth muscle cells and reconstruct smooth muscle layers. Bone marrow cells were harvested from femurs of male ICR mice and cultured in collagen-coated dishes for 7 days. After 5 days ...
Rudnicki M A - - 2008
Muscle satellite cells are responsible for the postnatal growth and robust regeneration capacity of adult skeletal muscle. A subset of satellite cells purified from adult skeletal muscle is capable of repopulating the satellite cell pool, suggesting that it has direct therapeutic potential for treating degenerative muscle disease. Satellite cells uniformly ...
Murphy Jaime - - 2008
Very little is known regarding the function, origin, and turnover of airway smooth muscle (ASM). In this article, we discuss the embryological development of ASM, and provide information regarding candidate mesenchymal ASM progenitor cell populations specifically in relation to airway remodeling. This review also highlights the current limitations in studying ...
Praud C - - 2008
Myoblast transplantation is being considered as a potential strategy to improve muscle function in myopathies; hence, it is important to identify the transplanted cells and to have available efficient reagents to track these cells. We first validated a human to mouse xenotransplantation model warranting the complete and rapid rejection of ...
Hutchings Graham - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Myometrial smooth myocytes contract as a result of electrical signalling via a process called excitation-contraction coupling. This process is understood in great detail at the cellular level but the generation and coordination of electrical signals throughout the myometrium are incompletely understood. Recent evidence concerning the vital role of interstitial ...
Govindaraju Vasanthi - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Many cystic fibrosis (CF) patients display airway hyperresponsiveness and have symptoms of asthma such as cough, wheezing and reversible airway obstruction. Chronic airway bacterial colonization, associated with neutrophilic inflammation and high levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8) is also a common occurrence in these patients. The aim of this work was ...
Rigault Caroline - - 2008
Extracellular ATP regulates cell proliferation, muscle contraction and myoblast differentiation. ATP present in the muscle interstitium can be released from contracting skeletal muscle cells. L-Carnitine is a key element in muscle cell metabolism, as it serves as a carrier for fatty acid through mitochondrial membranes, controlling oxidation and energy production. ...
Hirt-Burri Nathalie - - 2008
Myoblast transfer therapy has been extensively studied for a wide range of clinical applications, such as tissue engineering for muscular loss, cardiac surgery or Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy treatment. However, this approach has been hindered by numerous limitations, including early myoblast death after injection and specific immune response after transplantation with ...
Nishimura Takanori - - 2008
Skeletal muscle satellite cells are quiescent stem cells that localized between the plasmalemma and the basement membrane of muscle fiber. When muscle is injured, satellite cells are activated, migrate to the injured site and contribute to the regeneration of muscle. However, little is known about the mechanism by which satellite ...
Pieri L - - 2008
We had previously shown that microscopically detectable infiltration of dendritic cells and expression of Hsp47 in tissue lysates occur during repair upon experimental arterial injury. We have further analysed here the cell types involved in the repair process by histology, electron microscopy and immunofluorescence. Rat carotid arteries were subjected to ...
Buxton Iain L O - - 2008
The role of cGMP in the myometrium of pregnant women is not completely known. We have previously shown in guinea pig, monkey and man that NO-induced relaxation of oxytocin-induced contractions is independent of cGMP accumulation. To approach an understanding of the role of cGMP in myometrium, we have developed smooth ...
Badri Kameswara Rao - - 2008
Airway smooth muscle (SM) develops from local mesenchymal cells located around the tips of growing epithelial buds. These cells gradually displace from distal to proximal position alongside the bronchial tree, elongate, and begin to synthesize SM-specific proteins. Mechanical tension (either generated by cell spreading/elongation or stretch), as well as epithelial ...
Wu Zhiliang - - 2008
Trichinella infection results in formation of a capsule in infected muscles. The capsule is a residence of the parasite which is composed of the nurse cell and fibrous wall. The process of nurse cell formation is complex and includes infected muscle cell response (de-differentiation, cell cycle re-entry and arrest) and ...
Faustino Randolph S - - 2008
Nucleocytoplasmic trafficking is an essential and responsive cellular mechanism that directly affects cell growth and proliferation, and its potential to address metabolic challenge is incompletely defined. Ceramide is an antiproliferative sphingolipid found within vascular smooth muscle cells in atherosclerotic plaques, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. The hypothesis that ...
Hu Jin-Jia - - 2008
Arteries undergo marked structural and functional changes in human and experimental hypertension that generally involve smooth muscle cell (SMC) hypertrophy/hyperplasia as well as abnormal extracellular matrix turnover. In this study we examined time courses of changes in SMC activity and matrix protein content in a novel mini-pig aortic coarctation model. ...
Guo Yan-Lin - - 2007
p38 MAP kinase alpha (p38alpha) regulates various cellular processes in adult cells, but little is known about its function in stem cells. We investigated the potential of wild type and p38alpha deficient mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to differentiate into endothelial cells (ECs), smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and neurons. Our ...
Leskinen Markus J - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: Chemically modified tetracyclines (CMTs) are a group of nonantimicrobial derivatives of tetracycline, which exert antiproliferative and anticollagenolytic properties. The molecular mechanisms, however, are poorly understood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effect of CMT-3 on cultured, subconfluent rat aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs) was analyzed by [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation, counting cell numbers, ...
Toyoda M - - 2007
Cells with myogenic potential are present in many tissues, and these cells readily form skeletal muscle in culture. We here focus on menstrual blood as another cell source for regenerative medicine. Menstrual blood-derived cells have high replicative ability, similar to progenitors or stem cells, and transdifferentiate or meta-differentiate into myocytes ...
Vadalà Gianluca - - 2008
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Current therapies for intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) are aimed at treating the clinical symptoms arising from IDD rather than directly treating the underlying problem. Pathophysiology of IDD is characterized by a progressive decrease in proteoglycan content and cell density in the nucleus pulposus (NP). A cell-based therapy is ...
Wusteman Monica - - 2008
Propane-1,2-diol (PD) possesses physico-chemical properties that make it a useful biological vitrifying agent but, although of relatively low toxicity, it still has substantial damaging effects on cells. This study aimed to identify possible toxic mechanisms using primary cell cultures from vascular tissue: these were exposed to the cryoprotectant at room ...
Kook Sung-Ho - - 2008
Mechanical stress leads to satellite cell activation, which is an important event in the development, growth, and remodeling of postnatal skeletal muscle. Although there is a considerable knowledge on the events involved in skeletal muscle regeneration and development, the precise role of mechanical stress on activation of satellite cells remains ...
Watanabe Shuichi - - 2007
Satellite cells are usually mitotically quiescent muscle stem cells, located between the sarcolemma and the basement membrane of muscle fibers. When muscles are damaged, satellite cells become activated, proliferate and differentiate to form multinucleate myofibers. The molecular mechanisms underlying these processes are poorly understood. In the present study, we found ...
Pacheco-Rodriguez Gustavo - - 2007
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), a rare multisystem disease found primarily in women of childbearing age, is characterized by the proliferation of abnormal smooth muscle-like cells, LAM cells, that form nodules in the pulmonary interstitium. Proliferation of LAM cells results, in part, from dysfunction in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) genes TSC1 (hamartin) and/or ...
Rasmussen Helle - - 2007
Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are well described in the bowel wall. They are c-kit positive and play a role as pacemaker cells. Similar c-kit-positive cells have recently been described in the human bladder. The aim of this study was to characterize interstitial cells of the bladder detrusor using a ...
Kawaguchi Michiya - - 2007
Mesothelia comprise the epithelial covering of coelomic organs and line the cavities in which they are housed. Mesothelia contribute to the vasculature of the heart and the intestinal tract by developmental processes of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), migration, and differentiation into endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and pericytes. Here, we ...
Patruno M - - 2008
The paired box domain gene Pax7 plays a pivotal role in satellite cell physiology and may represent one of the candidate genes influencing the dynamic stages of early post-natal growth observed in pig. Quiescent satellite cells express Pax7 and, when activated, they co-express the myogenic bHLH protein MyoD. The aims ...
Balasubramanian Saravana Kumar - - 2008
Restenosis in peripheral arteries is a major health care problem in the United States. Typically, 30-40% of angioplasties result in restenosis and hence alternative treatment techniques are being actively investigated. Cryoplasty, a novel technique involving simultaneous stretching and freezing of the peripheral arteries (e.g., femoral, iliac, popliteal) using a cryogen-filled ...
Horvath Gabor - - 2007
Organic cation transporters (OCTs) have an important role in tissue distribution and elimination of cationic drugs. Carrier-mediated disposal of cationic bronchodilators in the airway tissue, however, is incompletely understood. We sought to assess the uptake of long-acting beta(2)-agonist bronchodilators by bronchial and vascular smooth muscle cells. Human airway cells and ...
Pellegrin Stéphanie - - 2007
Animal cell movement is effected through a combination of protrusive and contractile events. Non-muscle cells contain stress fibres - bundles of actomyosin that are the major mediators of cell contraction and that can be compared to the highly organised actomyosin arrays of muscle cells. Recent studies have defined regulatory mechanisms ...
Sarna Sushil K - - 2008
The proposed functions of the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are to 1) pace the slow waves and regulate their propagation, 2) mediate enteric neuronal signals to smooth muscle cells, and 3) act as mechanosensors. In addition, impairments of ICC have been implicated in diverse motility disorders. This review critically ...
Honda M J - - 2007
AIM: To investigate the presence of side population (SP) cells by the Hoechst exclusion method in human adult dental pulp tissue. METHODOLOGY: Human adult dental pulp-derived cells were generated from third molar teeth. The cells were stained with Hoechst 33342 and sorted into SP cells or non-SP cells [main population ...
Fukada So-Ichiro - - 2008
Laminin alpha2 is a component of skeletal and cardiac muscle basal lamina. A defect of the laminin alpha2 chain leads to severe congenital muscular dystrophy (MDC1A) in humans and dy/dy mice. Myogenic cells including myoblasts, myotubes, and myofibers in skeletal muscle are a possible source of the laminin alpha2 chain, ...
< 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 >