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Results 301 - 350 of 2076
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Wong Amy P - - 2009
Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP) is one of the most abundant proteins in the airway surface fluid, and has many putative functions. Recent advances in the field of stem cells and lung regeneration have identified potentially new roles of CCSP and CCSP-expressing cell populations in airway maintenance, repair and regeneration. ...
Scipioni Angela - - 2009
In mammalian lung, at the transition to extrauterine life, NO/cGMP signal transduction system is known to play crucial roles in the regulation of vascular resistance and is supposed to act in angiogenesis. PDE5, which is the most abundant cGMP metabolizing enzyme within the lung, is highly expressed in the perinatal ...
Lu Xu-Dong - - 2009
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: CD40 signaling induces growth inhibition in some tumor cells in vitro, but the precise molecular mechanism remains unclear. This study was to investigate the biological effects and mechanisms of CD40 stimulation on proliferation of lung cancer cell lines NCI-H460 and A549, changes in tumor necrosis factor receptors ...
Koutras Angelos - - 2009
Recent evidence suggests that estrogen signaling may be involved in the pathogenesis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Aromatase is an enzyme complex that catalyses the final step in estrogen synthesis and is present in several tissues, including the lung. In the current study we investigated the activity of the ...
Tompkins David H - - 2009
The bronchioles of the murine lung are lined by a simple columnar epithelium composed of ciliated, Clara, and goblet cells that together mediate barrier function, mucociliary clearance and innate host defense, vital for pulmonary homeostasis. In the present work, we demonstrate that expression of Sox2 in Clara cells is required ...
Jungblut Melanie - - 2009
The preparation of single-cell suspensions from tissues is an important prerequisite for many experiments in cellular research. The process of dissociating whole organs requires specific parameters in order to obtain a high number of viable cells in a reproducible manner. The gentleMACS Dissociator optimizes this task with a simple, practical ...
Wang Yanyan - - 2009
Lung cancer is one of the most malignant tumors, representing a significant threat to human health. Lung cancer patients often exhibit tumor cell invasion and metastasis before diagnosis which often render current treatments ineffective. Here, we investigated the effect of staurosporine, a potent protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor on the ...
Tabet Lyes - - 2009
The aim of this study was to evaluate adverse effects of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), produced for industrial purposes, on the human epithelial cell line A549. MWCNT were dispersed in dipalmitoyl lecithin (DPL), a component of pulmonary surfactant, and the effects of dispersion in DPL were compared to those in ...
Tsuji Takanori - - 2008
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been considered essential for metastasis, a multistep process including local invasion, intravasation, extravasation, and proliferation at distant sites. However, controversy remains as to whether EMT truly happens and how important it is to metastasis. We studied the involvement of EMT in individual steps of metastasis and ...
De Proost Ian I Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, - - 2009
Pulmonary neuroepithelial bodies (NEBs) are densely innervated groups of complex sensory airway receptors involved in the regulation of breathing. Together with their surrounding Clara-like cells, they exhibit stem cell potential through their capacity to regenerate depopulated areas of the epithelium following lung injury. We have employed confocal live cell imaging ...
Silbert Ophira - - 2008
Mechanical forces are critical for normal fetal lung development. However, the signaling events that promote lung maturation are not fully understood. In this study, the authors analyzed the role of Rho family guanidine triphosphatases (GTPases) in isolated embryonic day 19 (E19) fetal type II epithelial cells exposed to 5% cyclic ...
Caples Sean M - - 2009
We measured the effects of raising perfusate pH on ventilator-induced cell wounding and repair in ex vivo mechanically ventilated hypercapnic rat lungs. Lungs were randomized to one of three perfusate groups: 1) unbuffered hypercapnic acidosis, 2) bicarbonate-buffered hypercapnia, or 3) tris-hydroxymethyl aminomethane (THAM)-buffered hypercapnia. The membrane-impermeant label propidium iodide was ...
McClenahan David - - 2009
Pneumonia in cattle is an important disease both economically and in terms of animal welfare. Recent evidence in other species has shown ATP to be an important modulator of inflammation in the lung, where it is released by activated alveolar macrophages and damaged lung cells. Whether ATP serves a similar ...
Nuutinen Ulla - - 2009
Based on Bcl-X(L) overexpression studies we identified type I and type II follicular lymphoma cell lines in response to TRAIL. We demonstrate here that either amount of caspase-8 activation or Bid cleavage could not define the dependence on mitochondria. Furthermore, an inhibitor of NF-kappaB, PDTC, enabled TRAIL to activate type ...
Roque T - - 2008
Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) has attracted a great deal of attention in cystic fibrosis (CF) pathology due to its capacity to traffic DeltaF508-CFTR to the cell membrane and restore CFTR chloride function at the plasma membrane of CF lung cells in vitro and in vivo. Using two different DeltaF508-CFTR lung epithelial ...
Wang Chang-Li - - 2009
PURPOSE: CC chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1) plays a critical role in the recruitment of leukocytes to the site of inflammation. Tumor invasion and metastasis share many similarities with leukocyte trafficking, which is critically regulated by chemokines and their receptors. In this study, we aimed to assess the role of CCR1 ...
Aune Gregory J - - 2008
Ecteinascidin 743 (Et743; trabectedin, Yondelis) has recently been approved in Europe for the treatment of soft tissue sarcomas and is undergoing clinical trials for other solid tumors. Et743 selectively targets cells proficient for TC-NER, which sets it apart from other DNA alkylating agents. In the present study, we examined the ...
Vernooy J H J - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by an abnormal inflammatory reaction of the lungs involving activation of epithelial cells. Leptin is a pleiotropic cytokine important in the regulation of immune responses via its functional receptor Ob-Rb. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that severe COPD is ...
Scaglia Natalia - - 2008
Saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated (MUFA) fatty acids, the most abundant fatty acid species, have many divergent biological effects including the regulation of cell proliferation, programmed cell death and lipid-mediated cytotoxicity. Their distribution is regulated by Stearoyl-CoA Desaturases (SCD), the enzymes that convert SFA into MUFA. A positive correlation between high ...
Kuwano Kazuyoshi - - 2008
Lung epithelium is the primary site of lung damage in various lung diseases. Epithelial cell death has been considered to be the initial event in lung injury and is followed by remodeling processes. When the degree of lung injury is mild, damaged tissue will be repaired normally, whereas excess cell ...
Swain Robin J RJ Department of Materials and Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Imperial College London, London, United - - 2008
In this study, we report on the noninvasive identification of spectral markers of alveolar type II (ATII) cell differentiation in vitro using Raman microspectroscopy. ATII cells are progenitor cells for alveolar type I (ATI) cells in vivo, and spontaneously differentiate toward an ATI-like phenotype in culture. We analyzed undifferentiated and ...
Yamamoto Masatsugu - - 2008
The Rad9-Hus1-Rad1 protein complex is believed to respond to DNA damage and play important roles in the cell cycle. We studied the role of Rad9 protein in alveolar epithelial cells in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury. In a mouse model of lung injury induced by bleomycin or lipopolysaccharide, Rad9 ...
Schmiedl A - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The surfactant proteins SP-A and SP-D, components of the innate immune system, are involved in host defence. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that ovalbumin (OVA) challenge leads to an upregulation of both proteins in alveolar epithelial type II cells (AEII) and Clara cells and to an enhanced uptake by ...
Desai Leena P - - 2008
Mechanical ventilation can overdistend the lungs or generate shear forces in them during repetitive opening/closing, contributing to lung injury and inflammation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Repair of the injured lung epithelium is important for restoring normal barrier and lung function. In the current study, we investigated ...
Sekhon, Harmanjatinder S.
Altered oxygen balance in the body at high altitude and in some physiological and pathological conditions may induce adaptive changes in the body which may be organ specific. Because gas exchange is the primary function of the lungs, they may undergo structural changes to adapt to the imbalance of oxygen. ...
Franks Teri J - - 2008
The purpose of the workshop was to identify still obscure or novel cellular components of the lung, to determine cell function in lung development and in health that impacts on disease, and to decide promising avenues for future research to extract and phenotype these cells. Since robust technologies are now ...
Gibbs J E - - 2009
In addition to the core circadian oscillator, located within the suprachiasmatic nucleus, numerous peripheral tissues possess self-sustaining circadian timers. In vivo these are entrained and temporally synchronized by signals conveyed from the core oscillator. In the present study, we examine circadian timing in the lung, determine the cellular localization of ...
Sudo Hiroko - - 2008
Allele-specific mismatch amplification mutation assays (MAMA) of anatomically distinct sectors of the upper bronchial tracts of nine nonsmokers revealed many numerically dispersed clusters of the point mutations C742T, G746T, G747T of the TP53 gene, G35T of the KRAS gene and G508A of the HPRT1 gene. Assays of these five mutations ...
Zhang Shelley X L - - 2009
Whole-body hypoxic preconditioning (WHPC) prolongs survival of mice exposed to severe hypoxia by attenuating pulmonary edema and preserving gas exchange. However, the cellular and molecular mechanism(s) of this protection remains unclear. The objective of this study was to identify the cellular target(s) of WHPC in the lung. Conscious mice were ...
Yoshikawa Yumiko - - 2008
Granzyme A (GrA) is a serine protease produced in cytotoxic lymphocytes, lung epithelial cells (alveolar type-II cells), and alveolar macrophages. In the present study, recombinant rat GrA (rGrA) was found to cause rounding and detachment of an alveolar type-II epithelial cell line, A549. Also, rGrA stimulated release of a neutrophil ...
Chen Jinfeng - - 2008
Placenta growth factor (PlGF) is a member of the VEGF family and has been implicated in the aggressive capacity of solid tumours, partly via its impact on angiogenesis. The present study determined the direct biological function of endogenous PlGF in lung cancer cells. From the human non-small cell lung cancer ...
Hu Weiwei - - 2008
It is well known that bubble rupture has a detrimental effect on mammalian cells. As a result, Pluronic F-68 (PF-68), a nonionic surfactant, is commonly used to reduce bubble-associated cell damage in sparged bioreactors. While PF-68 is currently effective, there is a concern with respect to its decrease in effectiveness ...
Stripp Barry R - - 2008
Dynamic changes to the developing lung endoderm during the process of lung development result in the establishment of functionally distinct epithelial compartments that vary both in their cellular composition and mechanisms contributing to their maintenance in adulthood. This focused review compares the hierarchical organization of cells within slowly and rapidly ...
Felder Edward - - 2008
Mechanical forces exert multiple effects in cells, ranging from altered protein expression patterns to cell damage and death. Despite undisputable biological importance, little is known about structural changes in cells subjected to strain ex vivo. Here, we undertake the first transmission electron microscopy investigation combined with fluorescence imaging on pulmonary ...
Savi Melanie - - 2008
Epidemiologic studies have shown correlations between morbidity and particles < or = 2.5 microm generated from pollution processes and manufactured nanoparticles. Thereby nanoparticles seem to play a specific role. The interaction of particles with the lung, the main pathway of undesired particle uptake, is poorly understood. In most studies investigating ...
Koch Lin-Kristin - - 2008
Histopathologic and clinical findings suggest that small cell lung cancer is derived from a multipotent proximal airway epithelial cell. In order to investigate the histogenetic origin of small cell lung cancer, we compared stem cell marker expression in human fetal lung tissue, human adult bronchial tissue, and a cohort of ...
Newland Nik - - 2008
The aim of this study was to investigate an in vitro lung epithelial model for assessment of potential inhalation toxicity. The selected NCI-H292 lung carcinoma cell line is sensitive to cigarette smoke, responds in a similar manner to primary human lung epithelial cells and produces airway mucins. The following agents ...
Russell Brooke H - - 2008
Inhalational anthrax is initiated by the entry of Bacillus anthracis spores into the lung. A critical early event in the establishment of an infection is the dissemination of spores from the lung. Using in vitro cell culture assays, we previously demonstrated that B. anthracis spores are capable of entering into ...
Wan Huajing H Division of Pulmonary Biology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center and the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229-3039, - - 2008
The transition to air breathing after birth requires both anatomic and biochemical maturation of the lung. Lung morphogenesis is mediated by complex paracrine interactions between respiratory epithelial cells and mesenchymal cells that direct transcriptional programs guiding patterning and cytodifferentiation of the lung. In the present study, transgenic mice were generated ...
Seki Satoru - - 2008
Amiodarone (AMD)-induced pulmonary toxicity (AIPT) is the most life-threatening side-effect of AMD treatment. N-Monodesethylamiodarone (DEA), an active metabolite of AMD, also exhibits cytotoxicity and tends to accumulate in the lung more intensively than AMD. In this study, we characterized the mechanism of DEA accumulation using A549 cells as a model ...
Oeckler Richard A - - 2008
Acute lung injury (ALI) is a common, frequently hospital-acquired condition with a high morbidity and mortality. The stress associated with invasive mechanical ventilation represents a potentially harmful exposure, and attempts to minimize deforming stress through low tidal ventilation have proven efficacious. Lung cells are both sensors and transducers of deforming ...
Helms My N - - 2008
The alveolar surface of the lung is lined by alveolar type 1 (AT1) and type 2 (AT2) cells. Using single channel patch clamp analysis in lung slice preparations, we are able to uniquely study AT1 and AT2 cells separately from intact lung. We report for the first time the Na+ ...
Kemp Sarah J SJ Lung Cell Biology, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London, - - 2008
Primary human alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells were immortalized by transduction with the catalytic subunit of telomerase and simian virus 40 large-tumor antigen. Characterization by immunochemical and morphologic methods demonstrated an AT1-like cell phenotype. Unlike primary AT2 cells, immortalized cells no longer expressed alkaline phosphatase, pro-surfactant protein C, and thyroid ...
Azeloglu Evren U - - 2008
To understand the connection between alveolar mechanics and key biochemical events such as surfactant secretion, one first needs to characterize the underlying mechanical properties of the lung parenchyma and its cellular constituents. In this study, the mechanics of three major cell types from the neonatal rat lung were studied; primary ...
Chen Hui William - - 2008
Early diagnosis is the way to improve the rate of lung cancer survival, but is almost impossible today due to the lack of molecular probes that recognize lung cancer cells sensitively and selectively. We developed a new aptamer approach for the recognition of specific small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell-surface molecular ...
Furugen, Makoto
Abstract Background Legionella pneumophila pneumonia often exacerbates acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells is considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of ALI and ARDS. In this study, we investigated the precise mechanism by which A549 alveolar epithelial cells ...
Saxena Rajiv K - - 2008
A new procedure for isolating and estimating ingested carbonaceous diesel exhaust particles (DEP) or carbon black (CB) particles by lung epithelial cells and macrophages is described. Cells were incubated with DEP or CB to examine cell-particle interaction and ingestion. After various incubation periods, the cells were separated from free extracellular ...
Sung Ji-Min - - 2008
We isolated a stem cell subpopulation from human lung cancer A549 cells using FACS/Hoechst 33342. This side population (SP), which comprised 24% of the total cell population, totally disappeared after treatment with the selective ABCG 2 inhibitor fumitremorgin C. In a repopulation study, isolated SP and non-SP cells were each ...
Krause Diane S - - 2008
Although it has been many years since publication of the first peer-reviewed studies showing that bone marrow (BM)-derived cells can become mature-appearing epithelial cells, we still know very little regarding the mechanisms, kinetics, cells, and potential clinical utility or pathology associated with this phenomenon. The initial discovery of BM-derived epithelial ...
Yildirim A O - - 2008
Airway epithelial cells are exposed to environmental toxicants that result in airway injury. Naphthalene (NA) causes site-selective damage to Clara cells in mouse distal airways. N-terminally truncated recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor (DeltaN23-KGF) protects against acute lung injury. The present study investigated whether or not DeltaN23-KGF protects against NA-induced acute ...
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