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Botelho Mónica C - - 2012
Chronic infection with the blood fluke, Schistosoma haematobium, is associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder. Previously, it has been shown that soluble extracts of mixed sex adult S. haematobium worms (SWAP) are tumourigenic, both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, oestrogen-related molecules in SWAP of S. haematobium ...
Seol Dongrim D University of Iowa, Iowa City, - - 2012
Hypocellularity resulting from chondrocyte death in the aftermath of mechanical injury is thought to contribute to posttraumatic osteoarthritis. However, we observed that nonviable areas in cartilage injured by blunt impact were repopulated within 7-14 days by cells that appeared to migrate from the surrounding matrix. The aim of this study ...
Hegab Ahmed E - - 2012
The heterotopic syngeneic tracheal transplant mouse model is an acute hypoxic-ischemic injury model that undergoes complete repair and regeneration. We hypothesized that the repair and regeneration process of the surface epithelium and submucosal glands would occur in a reproducible pattern that could be followed by the expression of specific markers ...
Paik Daniel Y - - 2012
The reproductive role of the fallopian tube is to transport the sperm and egg. The tube is positioned to act as a bridge between the ovary where the egg is released and the uterus where implantation occurs. Throughout reproductive years the fallopian tube epithelium undergoes repetitive damage and regeneration. Although ...
Prehoda Kenneth E - - 2012
Injured tissues can replace damaged cells by proliferating. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Bossing et al. (2012) provide evidence that developing nervous system cells sense injury using their microtubule cytoskeleton and respond by dividing to replace the missing cells.
Ohtsubo Shin - - 2012
Object CD133(+) cells have the potential to enhance histological and functional recovery from peripheral nerve injury. However, the number of CD133(+) cells safely obtained from human peripheral blood is extremely limited. To address this issue, the authors expanded CD133(+) cells derived from human peripheral blood using the serum-free expansion culture ...
Li Yan Y Experimental Pathology Section, Cell and Cancer Biology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, - - 2012
Multiple cells contribute to the function of lungs. Pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNECs) are important for the regulation of breathing and carcinogenesis, although they represent only a small population of the airway lining. Achaete-Scute homologue-1 (Ascl1), a proneural basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, is critical for the development of PNECs. We postulated ...
Rowell Joanna J - - 2012
Birth dating neurons with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling is an established method widely employed by neurobiologists to study cell proliferation in embryonic, postnatal, and adult brain. Birth dating studies in the chick dorsal telencephalon and the mammalian striatum have suggested that these structures develop in a strikingly similar manner, in which ...
Lei Jixiao - - 2012
Recent studies suggest that mangiferin aglycone (norathyriol) has great potential as a novel radioprotector without any known toxic side effects. In this study, we assessed the protective effects of mangiferin aglycone against radiation-induced injuries on normal human intestinal epithelial cells (HIECs), while using mangiferin as a reference compound. The in ...
Terashvili M M Department of Physiology, Cardiovascular Research Center, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, United - - 2012
Astrocytes perform several functions that are essential for normal neuronal activity. They play a critical role in neuronal survival during ischemia and other degenerative injuries and also modulate neuronal recovery by influencing neurite outgrowth. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of astrocyte-derived 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (14,15-EET), metabolite of arachidonic ...
Bouayad Dikra - - 2012
Neutrophils are deprived of proliferative capacity and have a tightly controlled lifespan to avoid their persistence at the site of injury. We have recently described that the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a nuclear factor involved in DNA replication and repair of proliferating cells, is a key regulator of neutrophil ...
Dulauroy Sophie - - 2012
Profibrotic cells that develop upon injury generate permanent scar tissue and impair organ recovery, though their origin and fate are unclear. Here we show that transient expression of ADAM12 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease 12) identifies a distinct proinflammatory subset of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α-positive stromal cells that are activated upon ...
Benz Karin - - 2012
Regenerative repair is a promising new approach in treating damaged intervertebral discs. An experimental scheme was established for autologous and/or allogenic repair after massive disc injury. Disc healing was promoted in 11 animals by injecting in vitro expanded autologous/homologous disc cells 2 weeks after stab injury of lumbar discs L1-2. ...
Hoel Andrew W - - 2012
The healing response of blood vessels from the vascular injury induced by therapeutic interventions is characterized by increased cellularity and tissue remodeling. Frequently, this leads to intimal hyperplasia and lumen narrowing, with significant clinical sequelae. Vascular smooth muscle cells are the primary cell type involved in this process, wherein they ...
Guo Luyang - - 2012
Co-expression of membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) with kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) in HEK293T cells resulted in cleavage and shedding of KIM-1 ectodomain. Analysis of cleavage products using KIM-1 mutants localized cleavage site at the juxtamembrane region. HT1080 cells were stably transfected with expression plasmid for KIM-1 or its mutant ...
Bossing Torsten - - 2012
Mechanisms of CNS repair have vital medical implications. We show that traumatic injury to the ventral midline of the embryonic Drosophila CNS activates cell divisions to replace lost cells. A pilot screen analyzing transcriptomes of single cells during repair pointed to downregulation of the microtubule-stabilizing GTPase mitochondrial Rho (Miro) and ...
Sullivan-Brown Jessica - - 2012
Your brain and spinal cord began as a flat sheet, which narrowed, elongated, and rolled up to form a tube. A new study identifies a key molecular link underlying vertebrate neural tube formation, connecting planar cell polarity patterning to contraction of specific cell-cell junctions.
Pêgo Ana Paula - - 2012
Spinal cord injury triggers a complex set of events that lead to tissue healing without the restoration of normal function due to the poor regenerative capacity of the spinal cord. Nevertheless, current knowledge about the intrinsic regenerative ability of central nervous system axons, when in a supportive environment, has made ...
Guan Hongjing - - 2012
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect and associated cell signaling mechanisms of indole-3-carbinol (I3C) on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced proliferation and migration of cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and neointima formation in a carotid injury model. Our data demonstrated that I3C inhibited PDGF-BB-induced proliferation of ...
Shugo Haruhiko - - 2012
The high regenerative capacity of liver contributes to the maintenance of its size and function when injury occurs. Partial hepatectomy induces division of mature hepatocytes to maintain liver function, whereas severe injury stimulates expansion of undifferentiated hepatic precursor cells, which supply mature cells. Although several factors reportedly function in liver ...
Saha Dalia - - 2012
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to use micro-autoradiography to investigate the lung cell types responsible for 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-: glucose (FDG) uptake in murine models of acute lung injury (ALI). PROCEDURES: C57/BL6 mice were studied in three groups: controls, ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), and endotoxin. VILI was produced by high ...
Mizuno Aki - - 2012
Adult newt retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells are mitotically quiescent in the physiological condition, but upon a traumatic injury of the neural retina (NR) they re-enter the cell-cycle and eventually regenerate the missing NR. Here, to understand the mechanism underlying the cell-cycle re-entry of RPE cells following NR injury, we ...
Fu Zheng - - 2012
Exendin-4 is a peptide resembling glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), which has protective effects on nerve cells. However, the effects of Exendin-4 on retinal ganglion cells (RGC) are still under clear. The purpose of the present study is to demonstrate that exenatide prevents high- or low-glucose-induced retinal ganglion cell impairment. We observed ...
Anon Ester E Laboratoire Matière et Systèmes Complexes, Université Paris Diderot and Unité Mixte de Recherche 7057 Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13, - - 2012
Fundamental biological processes such as morphogenesis and wound healing involve the closure of epithelial gaps. Epithelial gap closure is commonly attributed either to the purse-string contraction of an intercellular actomyosin cable or to active cell migration, but the relative contribution of these two mechanisms remains unknown. Here we present a ...
Duarte Emília P - - 2012
The glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) was first identified as a survival factor for midbrain dopaminergic neurons, but additional studies provided evidences for a role as a trophic factor for other neurons of the central and peripheral nervous systems. GDNF regulates cellular activity through interaction with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored cell surface ...
Yoshida Taiko - - 2012
Background/Aims: Renal tubular cell death in ischemia-reperfusion does not follow the classical apoptosis or necrosis phenotype. We characterized the morphological and biochemical features of injured tubular epithelial cells in ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI). Methods: Ischemic AKI was induced in rats by 60 min of ischemia followed by 24 h ...
Martin Ina - - 2012
Schwann cells (SCs) are the supporting cells of the peripheral nervous system and originate from the neural crest. They play a unique role in the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves and have themselves a highly unstable phenotype as demonstrated by their unexpectedly broad differentiation potential. Thus, SCs can be considered ...
Prozialeck Walter C - - 2012
Cadmium is an important industrial agent and environmental pollutant that is a major cause of kidney disease. With chronic exposure, cadmium accumulates in the epithelial cells of the proximal tubule, resulting in a generalized reabsorptive dysfunction characterized by polyuria and low-molecular-weight proteinuria. The traditional view has been that as cadmium ...
Xu He-Jing - - 2012
Alleviation of cold preservation-induced injury is a critical part of the heart transplantation process. In this study we investigate the protective effect of connexin 43 (Cx43) overexpression against hypothermic preservation-induced injury in cardiomyocytes. Total RNA was prepared from H9c2 cells using TRIzol reagent to construct a recombinant vector pEGFP-c1-Cx43, which ...
Tyrrell Christine - - 2012
ABSTRACT The integrity of the alveolar epithelium is a key factor in the outcome of acute lung injury. Here, we investigate alveolar epithelial injury and the expression of epithelial-selective markers in Streptococcus pneumoniae-induced acute lung injury. S. pneumoniae was instilled into rat lungs and alveolar type I (RTI(40)/podoplanin, MMC6 antigen) ...
Kobayashi Masaki - - 2012
Schwann cells exhibit a high degree of plasticity in adult peripheral nerves after mechanical injury; they have, therefore, been implicated in promoting nerve regeneration. However, Schwann cell behavior after ischemic injury has not yet been elucidated. To determine how Schwann cell plasticity may contribute to recovery from ischemic neuropathy, we ...
Quoilin C - - 2012
To study the mechanism of oxygen regulation in inflammation-induced acute kidney injury, we investigate the effects of a bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) on the basal respiration of proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2) both by high-resolution respirometry and electron spin resonance spectroscopy. These two complementary methods have shown that HK-2 cells ...
Abdullah Aisha Iman - - 2012
Cell fate reprogramming makes possible the generation of new cell types from healthy adult cells to replace those lost or damaged in disease. Additionally, reprogramming patient cells into specific cell types allows for drug screening and the development of new therapeutic tools. Generation of new neurons is of particular interest ...
Lewis Kate M - - 2012
It is not yet known how tumour cells traverse the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to form brain metastases. Substance P (SP) release is a key component of neurogenic inflammation which has been recently shown to increase the permeability of the BBB following CNS insults, making it a possible candidate as a ...
Weerasinghe Priya - - 2012
It is now known that there are at least two basic patterns of cell injury progressing to cell death: cell injury with swelling, known as oncosis, and cell injury with shrinkage, known as apoptosis. Both types of cell death are "programmed" in the sense that the genetic information and many ...
Zotos Dimitra - - 2012
The humoral immune system generates immunological memory comprising affinity matured, long-lived memory B cells and plasma cells (PCs), which are generated primarily in germinal centres (GCs). Although many factors are essential in this process, those that specifically govern B cell fate are not fully understood. The provision of T cell ...
Baer Patrick C - - 2012
Isolation of epithelial cells for cell culture is based on destruction of epithelial integrity. The consequences are manifold: cell polarity and specific cell functions are lost, cells acquire non-epithelial characteristics and start to proliferate. This situation may also occur in situ when parts of the epithelium are lost, either by ...
Zhangxue Hu - - 2012
Bile acid-induced lung injury has become an important topic for neonatologists after the discovery of a high incidence of infant respiratory distress syndrome complicated from maternal intrahepatic cholestasis. To explore the molecular pathway of bile acid-induced lung injury, we investigated the cytotoxicity of the glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDC) to alveolar epithelial type ...
Khalil Ashraf M - - 2012
Germinal centers (GCs) generate memory B and plasma cells, which are essential for long-lived humoral immunity. GC B cells with high-affinity B cell receptors (BCRs) are selectively expanded. To enable this selection, BCRs of such cells are thought to signal differently from those with lower affinity. We show that, surprisingly, ...
Joo D J - - 2012
Although Islet cell isolation and culture have been well developed, there has been little progress to prolong transplanted islet sruvival. Hepatic ischemia and insufficient neovascularization of islets are considered to be the barriers to long-term survival, Hepatocytes that survive ischemic injury have been reported to protect themeslves and regenerate using ...
Shlomchik Mark J - - 2012
A hallmark of adaptive immune responses is the generation of long-lived protection after primary exposure to a pathogen. In humoral responses, this protection stems from a combination of sustained antibody titers and long-lived memory B cells (MBCs), with the former deriving from long-lived plasma cells (PCs). Both types of cell ...
Liu Shuya - - 2012
Autophagy is responsible for the degradation of protein aggregates and damaged organelles. Several studies have reported increased autophagic activity in tubular cells after kidney injury. Here, we examine the role of tubular cell autophagy in vivo under both physiological conditions and stress using two different tubular-specific Atg5-knockout mouse models. While ...
D'Agati Vivette D - - 2012
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a major cause of nephrotic syndrome and renal failure. All forms of FSGS share podocyte injury and depletion as central mediators. This review focuses on new insights into pathogenesis from study of extrinsic toxins in experimental models, permeability factors in human disease, and novel genetic ...
Wu Junfang - - 2012
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) causes tissue loss and associated neurological dysfunction through mechanical damage and secondary biochemical and physiological responses. We have previously described the pathobiological role of cell cycle pathways following rat contusion SCI by examining the effects of early intrathecal cell cycle inhibitor treatment initiation or gene ...
Hernández-Gea Virginia V Division of Liver Diseases, Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, - - 2012
Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC), a resident pericytic cell in liver, into a proliferative and fibrogenic cell type, is the principal event underlying hepatic fibrosis following injury. Release of lipid droplets (LD) containing retinyl esters and triglyceride is a defining feature of HSC activation, yet the basis for this ...
Xing Yiming Y Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Will Rogers Institute Pulmonary Research Center, University of Southern California, Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California, - - 2012
The airways of the mammalian lung are lined with highly specialized epithelial cell types that are the targets of airborne toxicants and injury. Notch signaling plays an important role in the ontogeny of airway epithelial cells, but its contributions to recruitment, expansion or differentiation of resident progenitor/stem cells, and repair ...
Weinstein Jason S JS Department of Internal Medicine, Rheumatology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, - - 2012
Follicular helper T (Tfh) cells play an essential role in helping B cells generate antibodies upon pathogen encounters. Such T-cell help classically occurs in germinal centers (GCs) located in B-cell follicles of secondary lymphoid organs, a site of immunoglobulin affinity maturation and isotype switching. B-cell maturation also occurs extrafollicularly, in ...
Habener Joel F JF Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. - - 2012
This review considers the role of α-cells in β-cell generation and regeneration. We present recent evidence obtained from lineage-tracing studies showing that α-cells can serve as progenitors of β-cells and present a hypothetical model how injured β-cells might activate α-cells in adult islets to promote β-cell regeneration. β-cells appear to ...
Yang Hao - - 2012
It has long been promulgated that microglial cells serve beneficial roles in the central nervous system (CNS). The beneficial role of microglial cells is considered to be linked with microglial activation and consequent up-regulation of various trophic factors. However, what triggers microglial activation and consequent elevated level of trophic factors, ...
Doddrell Robin D S - - 2012
Pax-3 is a paired domain transcription factor that plays many roles during vertebrate development. In the Schwann cell lineage, Pax-3 is expressed at an early stage in Schwann cells precursors of the embryonic nerve, is maintained in the nonmyelinating cells of the adult nerve, and is upregulated in Schwann cells ...
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