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Results 301 - 350 of 1495
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Liang Q N - - 2009
Clivorine is an otonecine-type pyrrolizidine alkaloid isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine Ligularia hodgsonii Hook. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are well-known hepatotoxins widely distributed around the world. The present study sought to evaluate clivorineinduced oxidative injury in human normal liver L-02 cells. After cells were treated with various concentrations of clivorine ...
Sieff Colin A - - 2010
Diamond Blackfan anaemia (DBA) is a severe congenital failure of erythropoiesis. Despite mutations in one of several ribosome protein genes, including RPS19, the cause of the erythroid specificity is still a mystery. We hypothesized that, because the chromatin of late erythroid cells becomes condensed and transcriptionally inactive prior to enucleation, ...
Gallivan Justin P - - 2009
RNA stars in many roles within the cell. In a recent paper published in Cell, Loh et al. demonstrate a new mechanism of action for natural riboswitches and provide important insights into the regulation of virulence in a pathogenic bacterium.
Shibayama Masaki - - 2009
Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB) is a widely expressed RNA-binding protein with multiple roles in RNA processing, including the splicing of alternative exons, mRNA stability, mRNA localization, and internal ribosome entry site-dependent translation. Although it has been reported that increased expression of PTB is correlated with cancer cell growth, the role ...
M??nard Florian - - 2009
This paper reports the synthesis and characterization of a new class of tetrabenzoporphyrins bearing glucosyl or polyamine units on meso positions to improve the targeting of cancer cells. Photocytotoxic activity of these photosensitizers was tested on cell lines HaCaT and MCF-7 and compared to Photofrin II.
Mäkitie Laura T - - 2009
High activity of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the rate-limiting enzyme of polyamine synthesis, is typically present in rapidly proliferating normal and malignant cells. The mitotically inactive steroidogenic cells in rodent testis and ovaries, however, also display high ODC activity. The activity of ODC in these cells responds to luteinizing hormone, and ...
Chen Zhaojun - - 2009
We have characterized the transcription profiles of parvovirus B19 (B19V) genotype-2 A6 and genotype-3 V9 variants. The A6 RNA profile differs from that of the prototype B19V in both B19V non-permissive and permissive cells, whereas the overall profile of the V9 RNA in these cells is similar to that of ...
Tian Zhi-yong - - 2009
Though several naphthalimide derivatives have exhibited antitumor activity in clinical trials, some issues such as toxicity prompted further structural modifications on the naphthalimide backbone. A series of naphthalimides conjugated with polyamines were synthesized to harness the polyamine transporter (PAT) for drug delivery, which was beneficial for the tumor cell selectivity. ...
Dennison Jennifer B - - 2009
8-Chloroadenosine (8-Cl-Ado), an RNA-directed nucleoside analogue, is currently under evaluation in phase I clinical trials for treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. In the current study, the efficacy of 8-Cl-Ado was evaluated using mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) cell lines: Granta 519, JeKo, Mino, and SP-53. After continuous exposure to 10 mumol/l ...
Rechavi Oded - - 2009
In some organisms, small RNA pathways can act nonautonomously, with responses spreading from cell to cell. Dedicated intercellular RNA delivery pathways have not yet been characterized in mammals, although secretory compartments have been found to contain RNA. Here we show that, upon cell contact, T cells acquire from B cells ...
Yang Guang - - 2009
AIM: To investigate RNA interference targeting signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) on invasion of human pancreatic cancer cells. METHODS: We constructed three plasmids of RNA interference targeting the STAT3 gene. After LV (lentivirus)-STAT3siRNA (STAT3 small interfering RNA) the vector was transfected into the human pancreatic cell line, SW1990 ...
Benenson Yaakov - - 2009
Man-made molecular 'computers' that operate inside live cells will enable unprecedented level of control over cellular physiology. A promising approach to building these computers uses RNA molecules and RNA-based regulation. RNA naturally lends itself to create 'digital' molecular networks that embody standardized (normal) forms of logic functions. The network's inputs, ...
Gruber Joshua J JJ Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute and Department of Cancer Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, - - 2009
Here we identify a component of the nuclear RNA cap-binding complex (CBC), Ars2, that is important for miRNA biogenesis and critical for cell proliferation. Unlike other components of the CBC, Ars2 expression is linked to the proliferative state of the cell. Deletion of Ars2 is developmentally lethal, and deletion in ...
Manni Isabella - - 2009
MicroRNAs (miRs) are 21- to 23-nucleotide RNA molecules that regulate the stability or translational efficiency of target messenger RNAs of proteins involved in cell growth and apoptosis. miR-92 is part of the mir-17-92 cluster, which comprises members with an effect on cell proliferation. However, the role of miR-92 is unknown, ...
Jedidi Abire - - 2009
The JAK(V617F) mutation is responsible for the majority of breakpoint cluster region (BCR)/Abelson (ABL)-negative myeloproliferative disorders. Ongoing clinical trials of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) inhibitors in myeloproliferative disorder patients use small molecules targeting both wild-type and mutated JAK2. To selectively target malignant cells, we developed JAK2(V617F)-specific small interfering RNAs or ...
Han Yu - - 2009
The critical roles of polyamines in cell growth and differentiation have made polyamine metabolic pathway a promising target for antitumor therapy. Recent studies have demonstrated in vitro that some antitumor polyamine analogues could be used as substrates and oxidized by purified recombinant human N(1)-acetylpolyamine oxidase (APAO, an enzyme that catabolizes ...
Figueroa Angélica A MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology and Cell Biology Unit, Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University College London, London WC1E6BT, United - - 2009
During tumor development, cells acquire multiple phenotypic changes upon misregulation of oncoproteins and tumor suppressor proteins. Hakai was originally identified as an E3 ubiquitin-ligase for the E-cadherin complex that regulates cell-cell contacts. Here, we present evidence that Hakai plays a crucial role in various cellular processes and tumorigenesis. Overexpression of ...
Li Jianqiang - - 2009
Human Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells are characterized by a unique specificity for certain tumors (e.g., Daudi), cells presenting so-called phosphoantigens such as isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP), or cells treated with aminobisphosphonates. We now report conversion of hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic tumor cell lines into Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cell activators by means of short hairpin ...
Billaudel Bernard - - 2009
PURPOSE: An increase in Ornithine Decarboxylase (ODC) activity was reported in L929 murine fibroblast cells after exposure to a digital cellular telephone signal. This result was not confirmed by several other studies, including the one reported in a companion paper. As a partner in the Perform-B programme, we extended this ...
Billaudel Bernard - - 2009
PURPOSE: A temporary increase in ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity was reported in lysed L-929 fibroblasts after exposure to the microwaves emitted by Digital Advanced Mobile Phone System (DAMPS-835 MHz, 2.5 W/kg, 8 hours). Confirmation of these data was undertaken, given the suggested potential physiopathological consequences, i.e., tumour promotion. MATERIALS AND ...
Wang Baofeng - - 2009
The leucine-rich and immunoglobulin-like domains (LRIG) gene family contains LRIG1, 2 and 3. LRIG1 is a negative regulator of EGFR, but little is known about the function of LRIG2. To determine the role of LRIG2 in the progression of glioma, we performed RNA interference-mediated knockdown of LRIG2 in a human ...
Miwa Satoshi - - 2009
Yellowfin goby Acanthogobius flavimanus affected with X-cell pseudotumors were sampled from a river estuary in Tokyo Bay, Japan. We amplified the gene for small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) of X-cells of the goby with PCR using universal primers. The gene that we obtained (DDBJ Accession no. AB451874) showed 91% ...
Cao Fang - - 2009
Small RNAs play important roles in the establishment and maintenance of heterochromatin structures. We show the presence of telomere specific small RNAs (tel-sRNAs) in mouse embryonic stem cells that are approximately 24 nucleotides in length, Dicer-independent, and 2'-O-methylated at the 3' terminus. The tel-sRNAs are asymmetric with specificity toward telomere ...
Miller Michael R - - 2009
We found that the combination of spatially restricted uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT) expression with 4-thiouracil delivery can be used to label and purify cell type-specific RNA from intact complex tissues in Drosophila melanogaster. This method is useful for isolating RNA from cell types that are difficult to isolate by dissection or ...
Bistulfi G - - 2009
Folate (vitamin B9) is utilized for synthesis of both S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) and deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP), which are required for methylation reactions and DNA synthesis, respectively. Folate depletion leads to an imbalance in both AdoMet and nucleotide pools, causing epigenetic and genetic damage capable of initiating tumorigenesis. Polyamine biosynthesis also utilizes ...
Beisner Julia - - 2009
The antisense oligonucleotide 2'-O-methyl-RNA is a selective telomerase inhibitor targeting the telomerase RNA component and represents a potential candidate for anticancer therapy. The poor cellular uptake of 2'-O-methyl-RNA is a limiting factor that may contribute to the lack of functional efficacy. To improve delivery of 2'-O-methyl-RNA and consequently antitumoral efficiency ...
Basso Katia - - 2009
The full set of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the human genome is not known. Because presently known miRNAs have been identified by virtue of their abundant expression in a few cell types, many tissue-specific miRNAs remain unrevealed. To understand the role of miRNAs in B cell function and lymphomagenesis, we generated ...
Smetana K - - 2010
The present study was undertaken to provide more information on the nucleolar and cytoplasmic RNA concentration in differentiating cells of the erythroid lineage. These cells represent a convenient model to study cell differentiation since all stages are morphologically well characterised. The bone marrow of patients suffering from the chronic phase ...
Roucou Xavier - - 2009
The chromatoid body is a large perinuclear ribonucleoprotein particle of germ cells. The chromatoid body is also present in stem cells from planarians. This particle shares markers specific to protein aggresomes and P-bodies, and concentrate several RNA pathways. The assembly mechanism of chromatoid bodies is unknown, and in the absence ...
Ernst Nancy Lewis - - 2009
Mitochondrial RNAs in trypanosomes are edited by the insertion and deletion of uridine (U) nucleotides to form translatable mRNAs. Editing is catalyzed by three distinct editosomes that contain two related U-specific exonucleases (exoUases), KREX1 and KREX2, with the former present exclusively in KREN1 editosomes and the latter present in all ...
Amin-ul Mannan M - - 2009
Conventional methods of RNA isolation are not suitable for yeast cells from stationary phase and fermentation broth. Methods specially reported for such cells are cumbersome and do not lend themselves for use with large number of samples. Here we report a facile method of RNA isolation from such recalcitrant yeast ...
Bazzi Rana - - 2009
2-(4-Amino-3-methylphenyl)-5-fluorobenzothiazole (5F 203) and related compounds are a series of anti-cancer candidate pharmaceuticals, that have been shown to activate the AhR. We show that these compounds are high-affinity ligands for the rat AhR, but a quantitative assay for their ability to induce CYP1A1 RNA in H4IIEC3 cells, a measure of ...
Al-Ahmadi W - - 2009
Ribonuclease L (RNase L) is an intracellular enzyme that is vital in innate immunity, but also is a tumor suppressor candidate. Here, we show that overexpression of RNase L decreases cellular growth and downmodulates the RNA-binding protein, HuR, a regulator of cell-cycle progression and tumorigenesis. The effect is temporal, occurring ...
Storck Sébastien - - 2009
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Nucleolin is a major nucleolar protein which is highly expressed in rapidly dividing cells and cancer cell lines. This protein is claimed to be multifunctional and could play a role in rRNA (ribosomal RNA) synthesis, as well as in cell division or response to cellular stresses. Therefore, how ...
Mäkitie Laura T - - 2009
Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is the rate-limiting enzyme of polyamine synthesis. Polyamines and ODC are connected to cell proliferation and transformation. Resting cells display a low ODC activity while normal, proliferating cells display fluctuations in ODC activity that coincide with changes in the actin cytoskeleton during the cell cycle. Cancerous cells ...
Ding Biao - - 2009
Cell-to-cell trafficking of RNA is an emerging biological principle that integrates systemic gene regulation, viral infection, cellular antiviral response, and cell-to-cell communication. The mechanisms regulating this trafficking remain to be understood. A testable hypothesis is that many RNAs have distinct structural motifs to direct trafficking across various cellular boundaries. The ...
Peterková M - - 2009
cDNA microarray technology is widely used in various biological and medical disciplines to determine gene expression profiles. Unfortunately, this technology requires a large quantity of input RNA. Since there is an increasing need for more precise analyses of defined cell subpopulations with low cell counts, working protocols using a minimal ...
Yen Laising - - 2009
RNA cleavage is a catalytic reaction which defines many types of RNA processing events, including those of metabolite-sensing riboswitch, self-splicing introns, mRNA splicing, tRNA processing, polyA-cleavage, and various small ribozymes such as hairpin and hammerhead ribozyme. In this chapter, we describe a general methodology for developing a mammalian cell-based high-throughput ...
Skinner Amy M - - 2009
Eukaryotic cell communication is based on protein signaling cascades that require direct cell-cell apposition, or receptor engagement by secreted molecules. The transmission of genetic information is thought to be uncommon, apart from recent reports of exosomal RNA transfer in immune and glioblastoma cells. We wished to examine if existing microvesicle ...
Rybak S M - - 2009
Ribonucleases degrade RNA, now considered an important drug target. The parent member of this protein superfamily is bovine pancreatic RNase A that functions as a digestive enzyme. Other physiological roles and activities have been ascribed to more recently discovered members of this superfamily. Angiogenin was isolated by following angiogenic activity ...
Wang Wei-Zhi WZ Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Le Gros Clark Building, Oxford, UK. - - 2009
Laser capture microdissection enables the isolation of single cells or small cell groups from histological sections under direct microscopic observation. Combined with quantitative PCR or microarray, it is a very powerful approach for studying gene expression profiles in discrete cell populations. The major challenge for such studies is to obtain ...
Blouin Edmour F - - 2008
Development of tick vaccines provides new opportunities for control of tick infestations and tick-borne diseases. Recently, the tick-protective protein, subolesin, was identified in a cell line derived from Ixodes scapularis by expression library immunization and a mouse model of tick infestations. While subolesin was conserved among ixodid tick species, the ...
Thomaidis Thomas - - 2009
Anderson-Fabry disease, an inherited deficiency in the lysosomal enzyme alpha-galactosidase A, is characterized by the progressive accumulation of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), also known as CD77. We sought to clarify the pathogenesis of Fabry disease by establishing a cell model of this disorder. The expression of alpha-galactosidase A was transiently silenced by ...
Nocker Andreas - - 2009
This article elaborates on possible future directions for microbial viability assessment using nucleic acid-modifying compounds in combination with DNA- (and potentially RNA-) amplification technologies. Bacteria were traditionally considered viable when they could be cultured, whereas today's viability concept is based on the presence of some form of metabolic activity, responsiveness, ...
Zhao Shi-Yi - - 2009
Cell migration and invasion are triggered by a number of chemoattractants that stimulate intracellular signaling pathways through regulating reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. Rac1, an intracellular signal transducer, regulates a variety of cell functions, including the organization of the cytoskeleton, cell migration, and invasion. However, currently, very little is known ...
Irimia Daniel - - 2009
A major challenge in molecular biology is interrogating the human transcriptome on a genome wide scale when only a limited amount of biological sample is available for analysis. Current methodologies using microarray technologies for simultaneously monitoring mRNA transcription levels require nanogram amounts of total RNA. To overcome the sample size ...
Marshall Lynne - - 2008
RNA polymerase (Pol) III is the largest of the RNA polymerases with seventeen subunits. It is responsible for the production of short, untranslated RNAs that play important roles in determining the biosynthetic capacity of the cell. Pol III transcription is generally elevated in transformed cells and tumours; however, it has ...
Cleveland Beth M - - 2008
Alpha-aminoadipate delta-semialdehyde synthase (AASS) is the bifunctional enzyme containing the lysine alpha-ketoglutarate reductase (LKR) and saccharopine dehydrogenase activities responsible for the first 2 steps in the irreversible catabolism of lysine. A rare disease in humans, familial hyperlysinemia, can be caused by very low LKR activity and, as expected, reduces the ...
Wu Fang - - 2009
Creating transition-state mimics has proven to be a powerful strategy in developing inhibitors to treat malignant diseases in several cases. In the present study, structurally diverse coenzyme-substrate derivatives mimicking this type for pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent human ornithine decarboxylase (hODC), a potential anticancer target, were designed, synthesized, and tested to elucidate the ...
Holst C Martina - - 2008
Polyamine analogue treatment results in growth inhibition and sometimes in cell death. Therefore, polyamine analogues are considered in the treatment of cancer; however, the cellular properties that govern sensitivity are not known. The objective of this study was to elucidate molecular mechanisms behind apoptosis induced by the polyamine analogue N, ...
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