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Zeng Youjia - - 2012
Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation pathway that is essential for cell survival and tissue homeostasis. However, limited information is available about autophagy in aristolochic acid (AA) nephropathy. In this study, we investigated the role of autophagy and related signaling pathway during progression of AAI-induced injury to renal tubular epithelial cells ...
Idda Maria Laura - - 2012
In certain vertebrates such as the zebrafish, most tissues and organs including the heart and central nervous system possess the remarkable ability to regenerate following severe injury. Both spatial and temporal control of cell proliferation and differentiation is essential for the successful repair and re-growth of damaged tissues. Here, using ...
Dempsey William P - - 2012
Elucidating the complex cell dynamics (divisions, movement, morphological changes, etc.) underlying embryonic development and adult tissue regeneration requires an efficient means to track cells with high fidelity in space and time. To satisfy this criterion, we developed a transgenic zebrafish line, called PhOTO, that allows photoconvertible optical tracking of nuclear ...
Lööv Camilla - - 2012
Clearing of dead cells is a fundamental process to limit tissue damage following brain injury. Engulfment has classically been believed to be performed by professional phagocytes, but recent data show that non-professional phagocytes are highly involved in the removal of cell corpses in various situations. The role of astrocytes in ...
Brasen Jens Christian - - 2012
Micro-anatomical structures in tissues have potential physiological effects. In arteries and arterioles smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells are separated by the internal elastic lamina, but the two cell layers often make contact through micro protrusions called myoendothelial junctions. Cross talk between the two cell layers is important in regulating ...
Roth Sabrina - - 2012
Adult stem cell niches are often co-inhabited by cycling and quiescent stem cells. In the intestine, lineage tracing has identified Lgr5(+) cells as frequently cycling stem cells, whereas Bmi1(+), mTert(+), Hopx(+) and Lrig1(+) cells appear to be more quiescent. Here, we have applied a non-mutagenic and cell cycle independent approach ...
Sountoulidis Alexandros - - 2012
Signaling by Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMP) has been implicated in early lung development, adult lung homeostasis and tissue-injury repair. However, the precise mechanism of action and the spatio-temporal pattern of BMP-signaling during these processes remains inadequately described. To address this, we have utilized a transgenic line harboring a BMP-responsive eGFP-reporter ...
Vaněček Václav - - 2012
The transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) is currently under study as a therapeutic approach for spinal cord injury, and the number of transplanted cells that reach the lesioned tissue is one of the critical parameters. In this study, intrathecally transplanted cells labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were guided ...
Pless-Petig Gesine - - 2012
Primary hepatocytes are of great importance for basic research as well as cell transplantation. However, their stability, especially in suspension, is very low. This feature severely compromises storage and shipment. Based on previous studies with adherent cells, we here assessed cold storage injury in rat hepatocyte suspensions and aimed to ...
Wu Junfang - - 2012
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) induces secondary tissue damage that is associated with astrogliosis and inflammation. We previously reported that acute upregulation of a cluster of cell-cycle-related genes contributes to post-mitotic cell death and secondary damage after SCI. However, it remains unclear whether cell cycle activation continues more chronically and ...
Ravin Rea - - 2012
Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury (bTBI) describes a spectrum of injuries caused by an explosive force that results in changes in brain function. The mechanism responsible for primary bTBI following a blast shockwave remains unknown. We have developed a pneumatic device that delivers shockwaves, similar to those known to induce bTBI, ...
Peyton Kelly J - - 2012
Bilirubin is a heme metabolite generated by the concerted action of the enzymes heme oxygenase and biliverdin reductase. Although long considered a toxic byproduct of heme catabolism, recent preclinical, and clinical studies indicate the bilirubin exerts beneficial effects in the circulation. In the present study, we determined whether local administration ...
Whitlock Jonathan R - - 2012
Areas encoding space in the brain contain both representations of position (place cells and grid cells) and representations of azimuth (head direction cells). Previous studies have already suggested that although grid cells and head direction cells reside in the same brain areas, the calculation of head direction is not dependent ...
Chen Hung-Chi - - 2012
Contact-inhibition ubiquitously exists in non-transformed cells and explains the poor regenerative capacity of in vivo human retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE) during aging, injury and diseases. RPE injury or degeneration may unlock mitotic block mediated by contact inhibition but may also promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) contributing to retinal blindness. Herein, ...
Hasselmo Michael E ME Graduate Program for Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, Center for Memory and Brain, Boston University Boston, MA, - - 2012
Different models have been able to account for different features of the data on grid cell firing properties, including the relationship of grid cells to cellular properties and network oscillations. This paper describes a model that combines elements of two major classes of models of grid cells: models using interactions ...
Wang Yulian Y Women & Infants Hospital of Rhode Island, Alpert Medical School of Brown - - 2012
Mechanical forces generated in utero by repetitive breathing-like movements and by fluid distension are critical for normal lung development. A key component of lung development is the differentiation of alveolar type II epithelial cells, the major source of pulmonary surfactant. These cells also participate in fluid homeostasis in the alveolar ...
Hang Brian I BI Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, - - 2012
Extract prepared from Xenopus eggs represents a cell-free system that has been shown to recapitulate a multitude of cellular processes, including cell cycle regulation, DNA replication/repair, and cytoskeletal dynamics. In addition, this system has been used to successfully reconstitute the Wnt pathway. Xenopus egg extract, which can be biochemically manipulated, ...
Saxena Priyanka - - 2011
Incubation of BMG-1 cells with thallium chloride (201Tl) in the range of diagnostic dose did not show a smooth uptake curve and appeared to have an unsuspected deviation in initial phase. In the present study this unexpected phenomenon was explored, using commonly used radionuclides (viz., 201Tl and 131I). Comparison was ...
Teltschik Zora - - 2011
Liver cirrhosis is associated with bacterial translocation (BT) and endotoxemia. Most translocating bacteria belong to the common intestinal microbiota suggesting a breakdown of intestinal barrier function. Herein, we hypothesised that diminished mucosal antimicrobial host defence could predispose to BT. METHODS: Two rodent models of portal hypertension with increased BT were ...
Saha Prosenjit - - 2011
Glutamine is a major nutrient utilized by the intestinal epithelium and is primarily assimilated via Na-glutamine co-transport (NGcT) on the brush border membrane (BBM) of enterocytes. Recently we reported that B(0)AT1 (SLC6A19) mediates glutamine absorption in villus while SN2 (SLC38A5) does the same in crypt cells. However, how B(0)AT1 and ...
Dutta Pranabesh - - 2011
Two new small molecules with a rigid planar naphtho[1,2-b:5,6-b']dithiophene (NDT) unit were designed and synthesized. Solution processed bulk-hetereojunction organic solar cells based on blends of the small molecules and [6,6]-phenyl-C(71)-butyric acid methyl ester (PC(71)BM) exhibited promising photovoltaic device performance with a maximum power conversion efficiency up to 2.20% under the ...
Ciorba Matthew A - - 2012
The small intestinal epithelium is highly sensitive to radiation and is a major site of injury during radiation therapy and environmental overexposure. To examine probiotic bacteria as potential radioprotective agents in the intestine. 8-week-old C57BL/6 wild-type or knockout mice were administered probiotic by gavage for 3 days before 12 Gy ...
Giri Chandrakant P - - 2011
The mechanism of Cronobacter pathogenesis in neonatal meningitis and potential virulence factors (aside from host cell invasion ability) remain largely unknown. To ascertain whether Cronobacter can invade and transcytose across intestinal epithelial cells, enter into the blood stream and then transcytose across the blood-brain-barrier, we have utilized human intestinal INT407 ...
Vreeburg Robert Am - - 2011
BACKGROUND: The small intestinal epithelium functions both to absorb nutrients, and to provide a barrier between the outside, luminal, world and the human body. One of the passageways across the intestinal epithelium is paracellular diffusion, which is controlled by the properties of tight junction complexes. We used a differentiated Caco-2 ...
Noah Taeko K - - 2011
In this review, we present an overview of intestinal development and cellular differentiation of the intestinal epithelium. The review is separated into two sections: Section one summarizes organogenesis of the small and large intestines, including endoderm and gut tube formation in early embryogenesis, villus morphogenesis, and crypt formation. Section two ...
Haslam I S - - 2011
Intestinal secretory movement of the fluoroquinolone antibiotic, ciprofloxacin, may limit its oral bioavailability. Active ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters such as breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) have been implicated in ciprofloxacin transport. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that BCRP alone mediates intestinal ciprofloxacin secretion. The involvement ...
Günther Claudia - - 2011
Dysfunction of the intestinal epithelium is believed to result in the excessive translocation of commensal bacteria into the bowel wall that drives chronic mucosal inflammation in Crohn's disease, an incurable inflammatory bowel disease in humans characterized by inflammation of the terminal ileum. In healthy individuals, the intestinal epithelium maintains a ...
Gabner Simone - - 2011
Quantification of immunohistochemical results constitutes an important tool in the analysis of cells and tissue that is not readily replaced by other techniques. For reliable quantification, it is essential to consider factors such as tissue fixation and tissue sampling. We report a study on the model of the intestine of ...
Droy-Dupré Laure - - 2012
γ-secretase inhibitors (GSIs) have been recently proposed as chemopreventive agents in gastrointestinal neoplasia, because they lead, through inhibition of the Notch signaling pathway, to goblet cell conversion in some intestinal adenomas of the Apc(Min) mice, and halt epithelial cell proliferation. In this study, we examine in depth, in normal mice, ...
Khanal Tilak - - 2011
A possible role for metabolism by the human intestinal microflora in arbutin-induced cytotoxicity was investigated using human hepatoma HepG2 cells. When the cytotoxic effects of arbutin and hydroquinone (HQ), a deglycosylated metabolite of arbutin, were compared, HQ was more toxic than arbutin. Incubation of arbutin with a human fecal preparation ...
Hannezo E - - 2011
We study theoretically the shapes of a dividing epithelial monolayer of cells lying on top of an elastic stroma. The negative tension created by cell division provokes a buckling instability at a finite wave vector leading to the formation of periodic arrays of villi and crypts. The instability is similar ...
Tamaki Kumiko - - 2012
Increasing incidence of small intestinal ulcers associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has become a topic with recent advances of endoscopic technology. However, the pathogenesis and therapy are not fully understood. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of Rikkunshito (TJ-43), a traditional herbal medicine, on expression ...
Vereecke Lars - - 2011
The intestinal epithelium is the largest surface area of the body in contact with the external environment. This specialized single cell layer is constantly renewed and is a physical barrier that separates intestinal microbiota from underlying tissues, preventing bacterial infiltration and subsequent inflammation. Specialized secretory epithelial cell types such as ...
Erenpreisa Jekaterina - - 2011
'Neosis' describes the process whereby p53 function-deficient tumour cells undergo self-renewal after genotoxic damage apparently via senescing ETCs (endopolyploid tumour cells). We previously reported that autophagic digestion and extrusion of DNA occurs in ETC and subsequently revealed that self-renewal transcription factors are also activated under these conditions. Here, we further ...
Fre Silvia - - 2011
Notch signaling has been recently shown to have a fundamental role in stem cell maintenance and control of proper homeostasis in the intestine of different species. Here, we briefly review the current literature on Notch signals in the intestine of Drosophila, Zebrafish and the mouse, and try to highlight conserved ...
Kuhara Tetsuya - - 2011
PURPOSE: Orally administered bovine lactoferrin (bLF) exerts an anti-inflammatory effect on hepatitis and colitis animal models. To investigate the mechanism underlying the action of bLF, we explored the expression of inflammation-related factors in the intestine of a hepatitis mouse model after the oral administration of bLF and in several human ...
Oliares Marta - - 2011
Celiac disease is an enteropathy caused by an abnormal immune response to cereal gluten proteins (gliadin). To unravel the possible role of the interactions between gliadin peptides and specific intestinal bacteria, the response of intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells to gliadin subjected to gastrointestinal digestion in the presence or absence of ...
Fenyvesi Ferenc - - 2011
Intestinal absorption and bioavailability of taxol are limited by its low solubility and P-glycoprotein (Pgp) activity. Methylated β-cyclodextrins (CDs) effectively form complexes with paclitaxel but randomly methylated β-cyclodextrin (RAMEB) is cytotoxic in high concentrations. Second-generation derivatives containing monoamino (MaRAMEB) and succinylated (SuRAMEB) ionic substituents with similar inclusion capacity but less ...
Iwamoto Taku - - 2011
Small and large intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) lines were established from adult murine intestinal crypts. Both established small and large IECs line (named aMoS7 and aMoC1 respectively) expressed epithelial markers. Similarly to IECs isolated from adult mouse intestines, the expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules was induced ...
Sharma Krishna V - - 2011
The resistance of pigmented human melanomas over their unpigmented counterparts to a number of therapies has suggested that the presence of intracellular melanin plays a role in rendering these cells less susceptible to cell death probably through the ability of this pigment to act as an intracellular antioxidant thus neutralising ...
Magnitsky S - - 2011
Slowly cycling cells are believed to play a critical role in tumor progression and metastatic dissemination. The goal of this study was to develop a method for in vivo detection of slowly cycling cells. To distinguish these cells from more rapidly proliferating cells that constitute the vast majority of cells ...
Deleyrolle Loic P - - 2011
Individual tumour cells display diverse functional behaviours in terms of proliferation rate, cell-cell interactions, metastatic potential and sensitivity to therapy. Moreover, sequencing studies have demonstrated surprising levels of genetic diversity between individual patient tumours of the same type. Tumour heterogeneity presents a significant therapeutic challenge as diverse cell types within ...
Das Umashankar - - 2011
Novel 3,5-bis(benzylidene)-1-[3-(2-hydroxyethylthio)propanoyl]piperidin-4-ones (3a-e) display potent cytotoxicity and a preferential lethality toward various neoplasms compared to some normal cells. The corresponding sulfonic acid analogues 5a-e and an isostere 4 demonstrated substantially lower activity. The leads 3d and 3e possess very high activity against colon cancer and leukemia cell lines, caused DNA ...
Baljinnyam Erdene - - 2011
Our previous report suggested the potential role of the exchange protein directly activated by cyclic AMP (Epac) in melanoma metastasis via heparan sulfate (HS)-mediated cell migration. In order to obtain conclusive evidence that Epac1 plays a critical role in modification of HS and melanoma metastasis, we extensively investigated expression and ...
Cimini A - - 2011
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumour in adults, with a median survival of ∼12-18 months post-diagnosis. GBM usually recurs within 12 months post-resection, with poor prognosis. Thus, novel therapeutic strategies to target and kill GBM cells are urgently needed. The marked difference of tumour cells with ...
Mannal Patrick W - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Melanoma continues to be a therapeutic challenge for the medical community owing to the scarcity of effective agents available to treat the disease. Honokiol, a traditional Chinese herb, has been proven to have anti-cancer effects in various cell types, therefore we hypothesized it may have similar cytotoxic capabilities against ...
Tomasoni Romana - - 2011
Mutations in genes encoding either hamartin [TSC1 (tuberous sclerosis complex 1)] or tuberin (TSC2) result in a multisystem disorder characterized by the development of benign tumours and hamartomas in several organs. The TSC1 and TSC2 proteins form a complex that lies at the crossroad of many signalling pathways integrating the ...
McCormack Devin R - - 2011
We tagged melanoma cells with gold nanoparticles to show their viability for increasing sensitivity in a photoacoustic detection system. Ultimately, this study models the detection of circulating tumor cells, which are an important prognostic factor in the progress of melanoma. A Q-switched, tunable Nd:YAG laser was used to irradiate cells ...
Das Satya N - - 2011
Cyclin D1 has been strongly implicated in cell proliferation particularly in the G1/S checkpoint of the cell cycle, and prognoses in human malignancies. We investigated the correlation between cyclin D1 overexpression and clinicopathological features as well as cell cycle parameters to understand its clinical significance in patients with tobacco-related oral ...
Bauer Karin - - 2011
Slits are a group of secreted glycoproteins that act as molecular guidance cues in cellular migration. Recently, several studies demonstrated that Slit-2 can operate as candidate tumour suppressor protein in various tissues. In this study, we show Slit-2 expression in basal cell layers of normal oral mucosa colocalized with P-cadherin ...
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