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Results 451 - 500 of 1495
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Grimm Thomas - - 2006
The nucleolar PeBoW-complex, consisting of Pes1, Bop1 and WDR12, is essential for cell proliferation and processing of ribosomal RNA in mammalian cells. Here we have analysed the physical and functional interactions of Pes1 deletion mutants with the PeBoW-complex. Pes1 mutants M1 and M5, with N- and C-terminal truncations, respectively, displayed ...
Cahill Anne L - - 2006
BACKGROUND: SNAP-25 is a synaptic protein known to be involved in exocytosis of synaptic vesicles in neurons and of large dense-core vesicles in neuroendocrine cells. Its role in exocytosis has been studied in SNAP-25 knockout mice, in lysed synaptosomes lacking functional SNAP-25 and in cells after treatment with botulinum toxins ...
Vats Divya - - 2005
Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored molecules such as cell surface Gal/GalNAc lectin and proteophosphoglycans of the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica are thought to be involved in pathogenesis. Here, we report the identification of genes that may be involved in the GPI biosynthetic pathway of E. histolytica by use of bioinformatic tools applied to ...
Takao Koichi - - 2006
The polyamines are essential for cellular growth and differentiation. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), which catalyses the first step in the biosynthesis of the polyamines, has a very fast turnover and is subject to a strong feedback control by the polyamines. In the present study, we show that overexpression of a metabolically ...
Chan Amanda Y - - 2005
Members of the Rho family of small GTPases have been shown to be involved in tumorigenesis and metastasis. Currently, most of the available information on the function of Rho proteins in malignant transformation is based on the use of dominant-negative mutants of these GTPases. The specificity of these dominant-negative mutants ...
Zaitsu Masafumi - - 2006
The human basophilic cell line KU812 that is an established tool for studying the function of human basophils, is differentiated into mature basophils by interleukin (IL-3) or other agents. However, whether leukotrienes (LTs)-synthesis is affected by cytokines in KU812 cells remains unknown. KU812 cells were incubated with IL-3, IL-4, IL-6, ...
Adams A M - - 2005
RNA interference (RNAi) has rapidly developed into one of the most widely applied technologies in molecular and cellular research, and although young, is now an essential experimental tool. The versatility of RNAi, especially in mammalian species, lends to its potential applications in a wide array of fields. Without having to ...
Murata Jun - - 2005
The Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) produces the well known and remarkably complex anticancer dimeric alkaloids vinblastine and vincristine, which are derived by the coupling of vindoline and catharanthine monomers. Recent data from in situ RNA hybridization and immunolocalization suggest that combinatorial cell factories within the leaf are involved in vindoline ...
Chattopadhyay Manas K - - 2005
Methylthioadenosine is formed during the biosynthesis of spermidine and of spermine and is metabolized by methylthioadenosine phosphorylase, an enzyme missing in several tumor cell lines. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this enzyme is coded by the MEU1 gene. We have now studied the effect of the meu1 deletion on polyamine metabolism in ...
Audhya Anjon - - 2005
Cytokinesis completes cell division and partitions the contents of one cell to the two daughter cells. Here we characterize CAR-1, a predicted RNA binding protein that is implicated in cytokinesis. CAR-1 localizes to germline-specific RNA-containing particles and copurifies with the essential RNA helicase, CGH-1, in an RNA-dependent fashion. The atypical ...
Pledgie Allison - - 2005
The induction of polyamine catabolism and its production of H2O2 have been implicated in the response to specific antitumor polyamine analogues. The original hypothesis was that analogue induction of the rate-limiting spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) provided substrate for the peroxisomal acetylpolyamine oxidase (PAO), resulting in a decrease in polyamine pools through ...
Jansen Ralf-Peter - - 2005
RNA localization and translational control are crucial for cellular fine-tuning of gene expression in space and time. A recent meeting in Tucson, Arizona pointed out mechanisms conserved across different species and cell types that contribute to the establishment of cell polarity and cell migration. Furthermore, it is becoming increasingly clear ...
Ware D - - 2005
Polyamines such as putrescine are small, ubiquitous polycationic molecules that are required for optimal growth of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. These molecules have diverse effects on cell physiology and their intracellular content is regulated by de novo synthesis and uptake from the environment. The studies presented here examined the structure ...
Lin Gui-Ting - - 2005
AIM: To identify proteins that are differentially expressed in cells derived from normal and diseased tunica albuginea (TA) as related to Peyronie's disease (PD). METHODS: Cells with characteristics of fibroblasts were isolated from two tissue sources. Those from the plaque of patients with PD were designated as PT cells, and ...
Nasizadeh Sima - - 2005
Polyamines are organic cations, which are considered essential for normal cell cycle progression. This view is based on results from numerous studies using a variety of enzyme inhibitors or polyamine analogues interfering with either the metabolism or the physiological functions of the polyamines. However, the presence of non-specific effects may ...
Carmen Herranz Ma - - 2005
The movement protein (MP) of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) is required for cell-to-cell movement. MP subcellular localization studies using a GFP fusion protein revealed highly punctate structures between neighboring cells, believed to represent plasmodesmata. Deletion of the RNA-binding domain (RBD) of PNRSV MP abolishes the cell-to-cell movement. A mutational ...
Friedrich Inbar - - 2005
Activated double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-dependent protein kinase PKR is a potent growth inhibitory protein that is primarily activated in virally infected cells, inducing them to die. We have recently shown that PKR can be selectively activated in cancer cells, by in situ generation of dsRNA following introduction of antisense RNA complementary ...
Chang Jinhong - - 2005
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) genome replication requires the virus-encoded small delta protein (deltaAg). During replication, nucleotide sequence changes accumulate on the HDV RNA, leading to the translation of deltaAg species that are nonfunctional or even inhibitory. A replication system was devised where all deltaAg was conditionally provided from a separate ...
Duxbury Mark S - - 2005
SID-1 is a transmembrane protein that mediates systemic RNA interference in Caenorhabditis elegans. Here we show that the mammalian SID-1 homologue FLJ20174 localizes to the cell membrane of human cells and enhances their uptake of small interfering RNA (siRNA), resulting in increased siRNA-mediated gene silencing efficacy. This is the first ...
Kaur Navneet - - 2005
Dihydromotuporamine C (4) and its 4,4-triamine analogue (5) were synthesized in good yield using ring-closing metathesis (RCM) methods. Comparison of their biological activities (Ki determinations in L1210 cells and IC50 determinations in L1210, CHO, and CHO-MG cells) revealed that the motuporamine derivatives do not use the polyamine transporter (PAT) for ...
Vara Dina S - - 2005
To date no reliable method has been developed for the isolation of RNA from cells seeded onto cylindrical vascular grafts. This study was performed in order to develop a reliable methodology for isolating RNA from cylindrical conduits made from poly(carbonate-urea)urethane (PU). Human umbilical vein EC were seeded onto PU vascular ...
Wheeler Douglas B - - 2005
The recent development of cell microarrays offers the potential to accelerate high-throughput functional genetic studies. The widespread use of RNA interference (RNAi) has prompted several groups to fabricate RNAi cell microarrays that make possible discrete, in-parallel transfection with thousands of RNAi reagents on a microarray slide. Though still a budding ...
Ashman Neil - - 2005
Pure albumin stimulates proximal tubular epithelial cell (PTEC) proliferation, and may have a role in homeostasis in health, as well as in disrupted PTEC turnover in proteinuric nephropathies. We investigated a role for arginine and its metabolites, the polyamines, in this process, given the ability of polyamines to trigger proliferation ...
Mei Huang - - 2005
A fast and simple procedure to screen target sites for RNA interference by using RNA in a cell-free system of Hela cells, and then evaluating the efficiency by Northern blotting, is described. This procedure produces results with an identical reliability compared to those described previously but which are more time-consuming ...
Haindl Markus - - 2005
The plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum harbors billions of synchronized nuclei in a single cell of complex structure. Due to its synchrony and extreme size, it is used as a model to study events on a single cell level, such as cell cycle and differentiation. We show here for the first ...
Kittler Ralf - - 2005
The emergence of RNA interference (RNAi) technology has revolutionized functional genomic analyses in cell biology, including the study of cell division. In particular, the introduction of short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) has facilitated loss-of-function studies in mammalian cell lines. We have pioneered the rapid and cost-efficient ...
Short Kurt W - - 2005
Raman spectra of cells and nuclei from cultures in the plateau (nonproliferating) and exponential (proliferating) phases of growth were measured and show that Raman spectroscopy can monitor changes due to cell proliferation. A simple fitting routine was developed using a basis set (lipid, protein, DNA, RNA) to estimate the relative ...
Krüger A - - 2005
We have recently identified a protein, RP59, in bone marrow cells and young osteoblasts, in cells involved in bone repair and in young erythroblasts and megakaryocytes. Here, we report immunohistochemical data at the light- and electron-microscope level indicating that RP59 is also present in newly secreted tooth enamel of the ...
Guo Xin - - 2005
Occludin is an integral membrane protein that forms the sealing element of tight junctions and is critical for epithelial barrier function. Polyamines are implicated in multiple signaling pathways driving different biological functions of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC). The present study determined whether polyamines are involved in expression of occludin and ...
Russell Jackie J Division of Gene Regulation and Expression, Wellcome Trust Biocentre, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland, - - 2005
In the extensive network of interdependent biochemical processes required for cell growth and division, there is mounting evidence that ribosomal DNA transcription by RNA polymerase I (pol I) not only drives cell growth via its direct role in production of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) component of the protein-synthesis machinery, but ...
Mayeur Camille - - 2005
Putrescine, spermidine and spermine are low molecular polycations that play important roles in cell growth and cell cycle progression of normal and malignant cells. Agmatine (1-amino-4-guanidobutane), another polyamine formed through arginine decarboxylation, has been reported to act as an antiproliferative agent in several non-intestinal mammalian cell models. Using the human ...
Ishibashi Toru - - 2005
8-Oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoGua) is produced in cells by reactive oxygen species normally formed during cellular metabolic processes. This oxidized base can pair with both adenine and cytosine, and thus the existence of this base in messenger RNA would cause translational errors. The MutT protein of Escherichia coli degrades 8-oxoGua-containing ribonucleoside di- ...
Fink Ludger - - 2005
Microdissection techniques have become an important tool to link histomorphology and pathophysiological events using modern methods of molecular biology. They allow isolation of cell clusters or even single cells precisely under optical control from complex tissue structures for further analysis of DNA, RNA, and proteins. In particular, the fragile RNA ...
Micke Patrick - - 2005
Laser-assisted microdissection has enabled the collection of morphologically defined cell populations from a tissue section. The PALM Robot MicroBeam laser microdissection system provides a robust system for the retrieval of specified cells (including single cells). Due to the fragile nature of DNA, and in particular RNA, robust protocols are required ...
Chaudhuri J D - - 2005
We investigated parvalbumin (PV) and calretinin (CR) containing interneurons in the rat entorhinal cortex. RNA amplification following single cell dissection of immunohistochemically labeled cells from layers II to VI revealed that PV cells, in contrast to CR cells, express the m2 muscarinic receptor (M2AchR) protein. Double immunostaining to confirm the ...
Wójcik Cezary - - 2005
RNA interference (RNAi) is a form of posttranscriptional gene silencing in which the presence within the cell of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) leads to the specific degradation of mRNA with a complimentary sequence. RNAi is a natural phenomenon that can be exploited as a powerful tool to study gene function by ...
Hu S-P - - 2005
This paper attempts to determine an optimal fixation protocol for stabilizing RNA during microdissection so as to obtain high-quality RNA from specific cell populations procured from esophageal carcinoma specimens, and to develop a manual microdissection that can facilitate the procurement. The special features of our protocol include one-step dehydration of ...
Fujii Makoto - - 2005
Over 30 inositol polyphosphates are known to exist in mammalian cells; however, the majority of them have uncharacterized functions. In this study we investigated the molecular basis of synthesis of highly phosphorylated inositol polyphosphates (such as inositol tetrakisphosphate, inositol pentakisphosphate (IP5), and inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6)) in rat cells. We report ...
McManus Dan C - - 2004
Stable expression of short-hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) directed against the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) resulted in the generation of three MDA-MB-231 cell lines (XIAP shRNA cells) with reductions in XIAP mRNA and protein levels > 85% relative to MDA-MB-231 cells stably transfected with the U6 RNA polymerase III promoter alone ...
Wheeler Douglas B - - 2004
RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated loss-of-function screening in Drosophila melanogaster tissue culture cells is a powerful method for identifying the genes underlying cell biological functions and for annotating the fly genome. Here we describe the development of living-cell microarrays for screening large collections of RNAi-inducing double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) in Drosophila cells. The ...
Lu P K - - 2004
Polyamines, such as putrescine, spermidine and spermine, are essential for the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation in most organisms. Spermidine synthase catalyzes the transfer of the aminopropyl group from decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine to putrescine in the biosynthesis of spermidine. In this study, spermidine synthase of Helicobacter pylori has been overexpressed ...
Vaidya Rajiv J - - 2005
We previously showed that polyamines are required for proliferation and migration both in vivo and in a cultured intestinal epithelial cell (IEC-6) model. Wounding of the IEC-6 monolayer induced transient ERK activation, which was further enhanced by EGF. EGF stimulated migration in control and polyamine-depleted cells, but the degree of ...
Colton C A - - 2004
Our data suggest a novel mechanism whereby pathological-length polyglutamine (polyQ) proteins promote the spermine synthetic pathway, increasing polyQ-aggregation and cell death. As detected in a cell-free turbidity assay, spermine promotes aggregation of thio-polyQ62 in a dose-dependent manner. Using a stable neuronal cell line expressing pathological-length [polyQ57-yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) (Q57)] ...
Manjeshwar Sharmila - - 2004
The prohibitin 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) belongs to a novel class of non-coding regulatory RNAs. It arrests cell cycle progression by blocking G1-S transition in breast and other cancers. Our previous studies comparing MCF7 derived clones constitutively expressing a common allelic form of prohibitin RNA (UTR/C) to various controls demonstrated ...
Kohl Alain - - 2004
Artificial minigenomes are powerful tools for studying the replication and transcription of negative-strand RNA viruses. Bunyamwera virus (BUN; genus Orthobunyavirus, family Bunyaviridae) is an arbovirus that shows fundamental biological differences when replicating in mammalian versus mosquito cells. To study BUN RNA synthesis in mosquito cells, we developed a bacteriophage T7 ...
Morozkin Evgeniy S - - 2004
Investigation of the kinetics of nucleic acid release by HeLa (human cervical carcinoma cell line) and A431 (human squamous carcinoma cell line) cells is presented. The released DNA and RNA were shown to accumulate in culture medium and at the cell surface. A portion of cell surface bound RNA can ...
Johnson Kyle L - - 2004
During infection of both vertebrate and invertebrate cell lines, the alphanodavirus Nodamura virus (NoV) expresses two nonstructural proteins of different lengths from the B2 open reading frame. The functions of these proteins have yet to be determined, but B2 of the related Flock House virus suppresses RNA interference both in ...
Unnamalai Narayanan - - 2004
We have used cationic oligopeptide polyarginine-12mer (POA) to deliver double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), prepared in vitro, to tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) suspension cells. POA interacts electrostatically with dsRNA to form a complex. When dsRNA for the GUS or NPTII gene was delivered into cells carrying the same genes, the corresponding mRNA was ...
Bacchi Cyrus J - - 2004
The uptake, biosynthesis and catabolism of polyamines in the microsporidian parasite Encephalitozoon cuniculi are detailed with reference to the effects of oligoamine and arylamine analogues of polyamines. Enc. cuniculi, an intracellular parasite of mammalian cells, has both biosynthetic and catabolic enzymes of polyamine metabolism, as demonstrated in cell-free extracts of ...
Minocha Rakesh - - 2004
We determined: (a) the physiological consequences of overproduction of putrescine in transgenic poplar (Populus nigra x maximoviczii) cells expressing an ornithine decarboxylase transgene; and (b) effects of variation in nitrogen (N) concentration of the medium on cellular polyamine concentration in transgenic and non-transgenic cells. Cells grown in the presence of ...
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