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Results 301 - 350 of 1797
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Yeung Chung-Man - - 2006
The anterior pituitary is made up of a number of cell types that are essential for such physiological processes as growth, development, homeostasis, metabolism, and reproduction. These include the hormonal cells corticotropes, thyrotropes, gonadotropes, somatotropes, lactotropes and a small population of mammosomatotropes, together with a non-hormonal cell type called the ...
Yamashita Michiko - - 2006
Horvath et al. called relatively small ACTH-immunoreactive (ACTH-IR) cells observed in basophil invasion "proopiomelanocortin (POMC) cells," and these cells were supposed to be different from larger ACTH-IR cells in human adenohypophysis. To clarify the existence of "anterior POMC cells," we examined 21 autopsy cases taking note of follicular cells (FCs). ...
Potapov Anatolij - - 2006
EndoNet is a new database that provides information about the components of endocrine networks and their relations. It focuses on the endocrine cell-to-cell communication and enables the analysis of intercellular regulatory pathways in humans. In the EndoNet data model, two classes of components span a bipartite directed graph. One class ...
Mousa Shaaban A - - 2006
In the present study, we investigated the distribution and activities of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) immunoreactive (ir) cells in the brain and pituitary of Liza ramada during ovarian maturation, seawater acclimation, and induction of spawning. Using immunohistochemistry, we detected that CRF-ir cell bodies exist in different brain ...
Bolander Franklyn F FF - - 2005
In mammary epithelial cells, prolactin (PRL) activates at least two signaling pathways: Jak/Stat and nitric oxide (NO). The former induces differentiation as measured by alpha-lactalbumin accumulation, while experiments with sodium nitroprusside (SNP) show that NO inhibits differentiation. In order to resolve this apparent contradiction, the kinetics, inducibility, and cellular localization ...
González-Hernández Tomás - - 2006
Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are constitutively expressed in hypothalamic cells. However, phenotypic and functional aspects of these cells remain unknown. We have studied the expression pattern of these two molecules in hypothalamic cells expressing corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and arginin-vasopressin (AVP), two major regulatory peptides in the hypothalamus-pituitary ...
Kontogeorgos George - - 2006
Treatment of patients with prolactin (PRL)-producing pituitary adenomas with dopamine agonists has proved successful for most cases. Dopamine agonists inhibit PRL secretion, suppress cell proliferation, and may induce apoptosis to adenoma cells. Dopamine agonists induce striking morphologic changes in the majority of treated PRL-producing adenomas. To date, these morphologic effects ...
Pompolo S - - 2006
Kisspeptin is a peptide that has been implicated in the regulation of GnRH cells in the brain. Immunohistochemical studies were undertaken to examine the distribution of kisspeptin-immunoreactive (IR) cells in the ovine diencephalon and determine the effect of ovariectomy in the ewe. We report that kisspeptin colocalizes to a high ...
Carretero José - - 2006
VIP is a peptide synthesised in the pituitary gland and is involved in the stimulation of prolactin secretion. However, to date it has not been determined whether VIP is able to regulate the proliferation of pituitary prolactin-producing cells, like other factors involved in the regulation of prolactin such as estradiol ...
Bonnefont Xavier - - 2005
Pituitary growth hormone (GH)-secreting cells regulate growth and metabolism in animals and humans. To secrete highly ordered GH pulses (up to 1,000-fold rise in hormone levels in vivo), the pituitary GH cell population needs to mount coordinated responses to GH secretagogues, yet GH cells display an apparently heterogeneous scattered distribution ...
Liu Jiali - - 2005
Although Islet-1 expression in the pituitary gland of early mouse embryo has been previously described, there are no reports concerning the correlation of Islet-1 expression with lineage restrictions in cell types at the later stages of pituitary development. The role of Islet-1 in chickens is also unknown. The purpose of ...
Kwon Ja-Young - - 2005
This report suggests the possibility that a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist initiates apoptosis not only by causing a sex hormone deficit by inhibiting GnRH secretion in the pituitary gland, but also by acting directly on leiomyoma cells promoting apoptosis.
Ghisari Mandana - - 2005
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are widespread in the environment and suspected to interfere with the function of thyroid hormones (THs). We investigated the TH disrupting activity of different classes of EDCs including plasticizers (bisphenol A, bisphenol A dimethacrylate), alkylphenols (4-n-nonylphenol, 4-octylphenol), pesticides (prochloraz, iprodion, chlorpyrifos), PCB metabolites (OH-PCB 106, OH-PCB ...
Miki Makoto - - 2005
Polypteriform fish constitutes the most primitive living descendent of the ancient bony fish. In polypteriform fish, only proopiomelanocortin (POMC) has been identified so far in the adenohypophysis, which is surprising in view of their evolutionary importance. In the present study, distribution of immunoreactive adenohypophysial hormones was examined in juvenile individuals ...
Enomoto Masahiro - - 2006
GnRH was first identified as the hypothalamic decapeptide that promotes gonadotropin release from pituitary gonadotropes. Thereafter, direct stimulatory and inhibitory effects of GnRH on cell proliferation were demonstrated in a number of types of primary cultured cells and established cell lines. Recently, the effects of GnRH on cell attachment, cytoskeleton ...
Kageyama Kazunori - - 2006
Hypothalamic CRF stimulates synthesis and secretion of ACTH via CRF receptor type 1 (CRFR1) in the anterior pituitary gland. After agonist-activated stimulation of receptor signaling, CRFR1 is down-regulated and desensitized. Generally, it is thought that G protein-coupled receptors may be desensitized by G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs). However, the role ...
Hugo Eric R - - 2006
Adipose tissue is an integral component within the endocrine system. Adipocytes produce numerous bioactive substances, and their dysregulation has serious pathophysiological consequences. We previously reported that human adipose tissue from several depots produces significant amounts of prolactin (PRL). To study locally produced PRL, we sought an acceptable in vitro model. ...
Pállinger Eva - - 2005
Five hormones in lymphatic cells from the spleen and thymus of newborn rats were measured using flow cytometry and confocal microscopic immunofluorescence. Immunoreactive histamine, serotonin and triiodothyronine (T(3)) were present in the cells. However, growth hormone and insulin were not observed, except for low levels of insulin in a few ...
Porter Tom E - - 2006
Incubation of eggs by birds and lactation in mammals are regulated by pituitary prolactin (PRL) and associated with an increase in pituitary PRL-producing cells or lactotrophs. However, the mechanisms controlling this increase in lactotroph numbers are not known. PRL secretion in birds is regulated by vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). This ...
Senovilla Laura - - 2005
Anterior pituitary (AP) is formed by five different cell types, each one producing a different AP hormone whose secretion is regulated by a specific hypothalamic-releasing hormone (HRH). On the other hand, a significant number of AP cells express multiple HRH receptors (multiresponsive cells). Plastic changes in expression of HRH receptors ...
Iqbal Javed - - 2005
Various neuropeptides and neurotransmitters affect GH secretion by acting on GHRH and somatostatin (SRIF) cells. GH secretion is also affected by alteration in adiposity, which could be via modulation of GHRH and SRIF cells. We quantified colocalization of neuropeptides in GHRH and SRIF cells and afferent projections to these cells ...
Claudius Luziga - - 2005
Clusterin is shown to contain putative amphipathic alpha-helices that mediate hydrophobic interactions with numerous types of molecules and may be involved in clearance of cellular debris caused by cell injury or death. To assess this function in vivo, we have cloned the full-length cDNA encoding guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) clusterin ...
Pals, Katrien
During the early postnatal period, there is a rapid expansion of all pituitary cell types. This expansion, however, varies considerably between cell types. The protagonists that control these growth processes are thought to be the hypothalamic releasing/inhibiting hormones and peripheral hormones. in the present study we examined the trophic effects ...
Allaerts Wilfried - - 2005
Historically, the study of folliculo-stellate (FS) cells of the anterior pituitary dates back to the onset of electron microscopical observation of the pituitary gland. The morphological and electrophysiological characteristics, topographical distribution and contribution to intercellular junctions of these FS cells have been instrumental to the understanding of their putative function. ...
Filippa V - - 2005
The gonadotropes, LH and FSH cells, were immunohistochemically identified in the pituitary pars distalis of the adult male viscacha (Lagostomus maximus maximus) using specific antibodies against hLHbeta and hFSHbeta with the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase complex. The distribution, size and percentage immunopositive area of these cells were analyzed by image analysis in viscachas ...
Sheynzon Pjotr - - 2005
The pineal hormone melatonin plays an important role in the maintenance of rhythmic functions of the hypophyseal pars tuberalis, which controls the lactotroph cells of the pars distalis. To analyze the effects of melatonin deficiency on the activity state of these cells, we have investigated the levels of Ser133-phosphorylated (p)CREB ...
Iqbal J - - 2005
The growth hormone (GH) axis is sensitive to alteration in body weight and there is evidence that central noradrenergic systems regulate neurones that produce growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin (SRIF). This study reports semiquantitative estimates of the noradrenergic input to neuroendocrine GHRH and SRIF neurones in the sheep of ...
Yamashita Michiko - - 2005
Non-hormone-secreting cells in human adenohypophysis have been designated as either follicular cells (FC) or folliculostellate cells (FSC). They have similarly long cytoplasmic processes, and the difference between FC and FSC remains unclear. An immunohistochemical study for S-100 protein, cytokeratin (CK, detected by AE1/AE3) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was ...
Veyrat-Durebex Christelle - - 2005
Internalization and intracellular trafficking of the growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor (GHRH-R) were studied in rat anterior pituitary and human (h) and rat (r) GHRH-R-transfected BHK cells, with the GHRH agonist, [N(alpha)-5-carboxyfluoresceinyl-D-Ala(2), Ala(8), Ala(15), Lys(22)]hGHRH(1-29)NH(2) (Fluo-GHRH). Time- and temperature-dependent internalization of stimulated GHRH-R was blocked by phenyl arsine oxide (PAO) in ...
Nozaki Masumi - - 2005
The hagfish is considered the most primitive vertebrate known, living or extinct. It remains an enigma whether adenohypophysial hormones similar to those of more advanced vertebrates are present in the hagfish pituitary gland or not. The present study aimed to detect immunoreactive adenohypophysial hormones in the hagfish pituitary gland, using ...
Parhar Ishwar S - - 2005
We have developed a novel single cell real-time quantitative PCR technique, which incorporates harvesting marker-identified single cells using laser-capture. Here, for the first time in a vertebrate species, using this innovative single cell gene profiling technique, we report the presence of G-protein coupled receptors in individual gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons ...
Liu Jiali - - 2005
Estrogen is involved in regulating the development and hormone secretion of the anterior pituitary gland following its binding to estrogen receptors (ERs) expressed on pituitary cells. However, the pituitary is comprised of several cell types, and to date, there is no data about the specific cell types expressing ERs in ...
Parhar Ishwar S - - 2005
The role of multiple gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRH-R) types in the regulation of gonadotropic and nongonadotropic cells remains speculative. To address this issue, we developed a technology integrating laser-captured microdissection of single digoxigenin-labeled pituitary cells coupled with real-time quantitative PCR to examine the expression profiles of three endogenous GnRH-R types ...
Krylyshkina Olga - - 2005
Nestin is an intermediate filament protein that has originally been identified as a marker of neuroepithelial stem/progenitor cells. The present study explored whether nestin immunoreactivity (nestin-ir) is present in the rat pituitary and in which cell type(s). Nestin-ir was observed in scattered cells in the anterior, intermediate, and neural lobes. ...
Mignot Mallory - - 2005
Increasing evidence suggests that multihormonal cells in the pituitary gland may be more commonplace than previously thought. This has forced us to reconsider our classical view of cell populations in the pituitary gland. Studies so far have focused almost exclusively on the rat, and there is a dearth of information ...
Montero, M. M.
Interleukin 1b (IL-1b) stimulates the hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal axis, however the autoparacrine effects of IL-1b¿ on pituitary ACTHproducing cells and the relations among IL-1b and Arg-vasopressin or corticosterone have not yet been analyzed. To address these effects, pituitary monolayer cultures were treated with IL-1b, Arg-vasopressin and corticosterone, either alone or in ...
Zutshi Bela - - 2005
Pesticide (fenthion) which finds its way into water bodies, bring about physiological changes in aquatic animals, via histomorphology and histopathology of various tissues. In fishes, it induces disorders including hyposecretion of gonadotropin in the PPD and regression of gonads. Light microscopic studies were made on control and treated pituitary (gonadotropin ...
Mogi C - - 2005
In order to study GH cell differentiation, we used the clonal cell lines called MtT/E and MtT/S cells, which were derived from a rat mammotrophic pituitary tumor. Although MtT/E cells are non-hormone-producing ones, Pit-1 protein is present in their nuclei, which suggests that MtT/E cells are progenitor cells of the ...
Rivalland E T A - - 2005
The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is integral to regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and contains cells producing corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), arginine vasopressin (AVP) and enkephalin. We used immunohistochemistry to map these peptides and to resolve the extent of co-localization within PVN cells in intact and gonadectomized male and female sheep. ...
Lloyd Ricardo V - - 2005
The anterior pituitary gland consists of a heterogeneous population of various cell types. To study a single cell type with a homogeneous cell population, one can perform laser capture microdissection (LCM). Because different pituitary cells have unique immunophenotypic profiles, it is possible to perform immunohistochemical staining before LCM (immuno-LCM) for ...
Stilling Gail A - - 2005
Folliculostellate (FS) cells are present in the anterior pituitary and have important regulatory functions including controlling hormone release from other anterior pituitary cells. FS cells do not usually express neuroendocrine genes such as chromogranin A (CgA). We analyzed transcriptional regulation and gene expression in the TtT/GF FS cell line to ...
Brokken L J S - - 2005
Thyrotropin secretion from the anterior pituitary is regulated mainly through TRH and thyroid hormones. Recent findings of a TSH receptor (TSHR) on folliculo-stellate (FS) cells in the human anterior pituitary indicate that TSH secretion might, in addition, be regulated in a paracrine manner via FS cells. In order to elucidate ...
Kordon C - - 2005
The history of GH started with the pioneer clinical and anatomical observations of Pierre Marie, who described the symptoms of acromegaly in 1886. Progressively, histochemical and histophysiological methods made it possible to characterize most cell types responsible for normal or pathological pituitary hormone secretion. Although the methods applied were indirect, ...
Ooi Guck T - - 2004
The pituitary gland is an important component of the endocrine system, and together with the hypothalamus, exerts considerable influence over the functions of other endocrine glands. The hypothalamus either positively or negatively regulates hormonal productions in the pituitary through its release of various trophic hormones which act on specific cell ...
Childs Gwen V - - 2005
Increased pulses of serum GH coincide with rising estrogens during the reproductive cycle, suggesting estrogen regulation. However, there is lack of agreement about estrogen's direct effects on the pituitary. Pituitaries from cycling female rats were dispersed and plated for 24 h in defined media containing vehicle or 0.001-250 nm 17beta-estradiol. ...
Levavi-Sivan Berta - - 2005
The anterior pituitary of teleost fish contains a variety of endocrine cells, which, under control from the hypothalamus, release trophic hormones and thereby play a major role in reproduction, social behavior, and growth. In fish, hypothalamic fibers directly innervate the pituitary. The hypothalamic hormones released from these fibers bind to ...
Ward Robert D - - 2005
Mutations in the PROP1 transcription factor gene lead to reduced production of thyrotropin, GH, prolactin, and gonadotropins as well as to pituitary hypoplasia in adult humans and mice. Some PROP1-deficient patients initially exhibit pituitary hyperplasia that resolves to hypoplasia. To understand this feature and to explore the mechanism whereby PROP1 ...
Viola G - - 2004
The influence of mast cell activation on the secretion of prolactin has been studied in rats receiving lysophosphatidylserine, a natural occurring phospholipid with secretagogue activity in these cells. After the i.v. injection of lysophosphatidylserine (10 mg/kg) a plasma prolactin peak correlates with an increased blood histamine level. Following the secretory ...
Villalobos Carlos - - 2004
The existence of bihormonal anterior pituitary (AP) cells co-storing growth hormone and either prolactin (mammosomatotrope) or gonadotropins (somatogonadotrope) has been described. These cells have been proposed to be involved in "paradoxical" secretion [secretion of an AP hormone induced by a non-related hypothalamic releasing factor (HRH) and transdifferentiation (a phenotypic switch ...
Polkowska Jolanta - - 2004
The present study was designed to demonstrate whether genistein, a synthetic phytoestrogen, infused into the third ventricle of the brain could affect the gonadotrophic cells regarding the presence of oestrogen receptor-alpha immunoreactivity and gonadotrophin subunit mRNA hybridising reaction in the ewe. Ewes (n=7), aged 2 years, in early anoestrous season ...
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