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Results 251 - 300 of 1798
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Paes-de-Oliveira Vagner T - - 2008
The effect of topical application of juvenile hormone (JH) over the lifetime of worker bees was evaluated in Apis mellifera, by measuring the area of the two cell types, trophocytes and oenocytes, found in the fat body. Topical application of 1 microl of a 1 microg/microl solution of JH in ...
Luziga Claudius - - 2007
Megalin/the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-2 (LRP-2) is expressed in a variety of epithelia and mediates endocytosis of numerous substances. Megalin is also shown to bind clusterin with high affinity. In the pituitary gland, clusterin is localized in endocrine cells, folliculostellate (FS) cells and colloids. The present study examines the ...
Sorenson Robert L - - 2007
A recent report provides new evidence for the presence of glucokinase (GK) in the anterior pituitary. In the present study, immunohistochemistry was used to identify the cells containing GK in the pituitary of rats and monkeys. In rats, GK was detected as a generalized cytoplasmic staining in a discrete population ...
Rittierodt Marion - - 2007
The clinically silent premorbid conditions of the pituitary, in particular preneoplastic features, were morphologically and statistically investigated within a control population at autopsy. A higher percentage of premorbid states were found, which was speculated to be a basis of possible later clinical lesions. They were as follows in 228 pituitary ...
Sharif Nadder - - 2007
The somatostatin [somatotropin release-inhibiting factor (SRIF)] receptor subtypes sst(2A) and sst(5) are frequently coexpressed in SRIF-responsive cells, including endocrine pituitary cells. We previously demonstrated that sst(2A) and sst(5) exhibit different subcellular localizations and regulation of cell surface expression, although they have similar signaling properties. We investigated here whether sst(2A) and ...
Itakura Eisuke - - 2007
Folliculo-stellate (FS) cells are known to act as sustentacular cells or scavenger cells in the anterior lobe. However, the precise function and origin of FS cells are still under discussion. Like brain astrocytes, FS cells contain S-100beta protein, and FS cells can be detected immunocytochemically using antibodies for S-100beta protein ...
Navratil Amy M - - 2007
The secretion of LH is cued by the hypothalamic neuropeptide, GnRH. After delivery to the anterior pituitary gland via the hypothalamic-pituitary portal vasculature, GnRH binds to specific high-affinity receptors on the surface of gonadotrope cells and stimulates synthesis and secretion of the gonadotropins, FSH, and LH. In the current study, ...
Walters Kathryn - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to determine the possible role of the processed peptide of LHRH, LHRH-(1-5), in regulating growth of endometrial cancer cells. STUDY DESIGN: An endometrial cancer cell line, the Ishikawa cell line, was cultured under standard conditions and treated in a dose-dependent manner with 1 ...
Lechan Ronald M - - 2007
Tanycytes comprise a heterogeneous population of specialized cells of glial origin that line the floor and ventrolateral walls of the third ventricle between the rostral and caudal limits of the hypothalamic median eminence. While morphologic and ultrastructural features suggest a role as barrier cells, creating separate compartments between the cerebrospinal ...
Nakamura Nobuki - - 2007
Laser capture microdissection (LCM) can be used to obtain single cells or a homogeneous population of cells for molecular analysis. This approach becomes even more powerful when it is combined with immunocytochemical staining using specific antibodies to label the cells of interest before LCM (referred to as immuno-LCM). These techniques ...
Rubakhin Stanislav S - - 2007
Cell-to-cell chemical signaling plays multiple roles in coordinating the activity of the functional elements of an organism, with these elements ranging from a three-neuron reflex circuit to the entire animal. In recent years, single-cell mass spectrometry (MS) has enabled the discovery of cell-to-cell signaling molecules from the nervous system of ...
Waugh Michael S - - 2007
This is the first report of a silent corticotroph cell pituitary adenoma arising in a struma ovarii. The patient, a 79-year-old woman, was found to have an asymptomatic left-sided adnexal mass confirmed by vaginal sonography to be a complex cystic and solid tumor. Pathological analysis demonstrated an 8-cm partially cystic ...
Lincoln Gerald A GA Centre for Reproductive Biology, University of Edinburgh, Queen's Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, Scotland. - - 2006
Many species express endogenous cycles in physiology and behavior that allow anticipation of the seasons. The anatomical and cellular bases of these circannual rhythms have not been defined. Here, we provide strong evidence using an in vivo Soay sheep model that the circannual regulation of prolactin secretion, and its associated ...
Kum S - - 2006
The aim of the present study was to investigate histochemically the localization of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) cells and the number of TSH cells in adenohypophysis of ovariectomized adult females, intact females at estrous and diestrous phase of sexual cycles and castrated and non-castrated adult male rats. TSH cells, distributed throughout ...
LeBaron M J - - 2007
To identify cell populations directly responsive to prolactin (PRL), GH, erythropoietin, or granulocyte-colony stimulating factor within the physiological setting of an intact mammal, we combined in situ detection of hormone-activated signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat)-5 in rats with high-throughput tissue array analysis using cutting-edge matrix assembly (CEMA). Inducible ...
Raetzman Lori T - - 2007
Rathke's pouch contains progenitor cells that differentiate into the endocrine cells of the pituitary gland. It gives rise to gonadotrope, thyrotrope, somatotrope, corticotrope and lactotrope cells in the anterior lobe and the intermediate lobe melanotropes. Pituitary precursor cells express many members of the Notch signaling pathway including the downstream effector ...
Kikuchi Motoshi - - 2006
In the rat anterior pituitary gland, folliculo-stellate cells aggregate preferably to form pseudofollicles, and each type of hormone-producing cell shows adhesive affinity with particular types of heterologous hormone-producing cells. Distribution of cadherin types in the rat anterior pituitary was examined immunohistochemically to clarify the unique cell arrangements caused by homologous ...
Long Yu - - 2006
The histological and ultra-structure of the pituitary in diploid red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.), triploid crucian carp and allotetraploid hybrids within and after the breeding season were comparatively studied. The result showed that there were six endocrine cell types in the pituitary of these three kinds of fishes, ...
Solomon G - - 2006
Expression plasmids containing DNA sequences optimized for expression in Escherichia coli were prepared encoding human pituitary (hGH-N 20K) and placental (hGH-V 20 and 22K) growth hormones. The proteins were expressed in bacteria, refolded and purified to homogeneity by anion-exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose according to a unique protocol developed for each ...
Turgeon Judith L - - 2006
Manipulation of endogenous progesterone receptor (PR) does not produce equivalent physiological effects in mouse and rat pituitary cells. To test whether this may be due in part to difference in PR isoform expression, we examined hormonally regulated pituitary PR-A and PR-B mRNA levels using quantitative real-time PCR. The LbetaT2 mouse ...
Nolan L A - - 2006
The male rat anterior pituitary responds highly reproducibly to specific hormonal stimuli in terms of the extent and timing of mitotic and apoptotic (trophic) activity. The principal objective of the present study was to define the contribution of hormonally identifiable cells to the trophic responses to bilateral gonadectomy and bilateral ...
Aganna Ebun - - 2006
The requirement for Ca(2+) to regulate hormone secretion from endocrine cells is long established, but the precise function of Ca(2+) sensors in stimulus-secretion coupling remains unclear. In the current study, we examined the expression of calpain and synaptotagmin in INS-1 pancreatic and GH3 and AtT20 pituitary cells, and investigated the ...
Asa Sylvia L - - 2006
Hormone secretion is dependent on intracellular and extracellular regulation of hormone synthesis and release, including classical endocrine and paracrine mechanisms and transcription factors that determine cell differentiation and hormone gene transcription. Recent research has identified direct cell-cell communication in a three-dimensional network of pituitary growth hormone-secreting cells connected by adherens ...
Schulz Laura C - - 2007
In addition to effects on metabolism and appetite, leptin is a reproductive hormone produced and secreted by the placenta of many, but not all mammalian species. In mice, in which the placenta does not secrete leptin, exogenously added leptin stimulates invasiveness of early (but not late)-gestation trophoblast cells. We report ...
Melisi Daniela - - 2006
Nitric oxide (NO) is critical for the normal physiological regulation of the nervous system and other tissues. L-Arginine, but not D-arginine, is the natural substrate for nitric oxide synthase (NOS), for it is enzymatically converted to NO and L-citrulline. However, recent evidence suggests that D-arginine can also produce NO and ...
Hossain Monwar - - 2006
The steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) initiates insect molting and metamorphosis through binding with a heterodimer of two nuclear receptors, the ecdysone receptor (EcR) and ultraspiracle (USP). Expression of the specific isoforms EcR-A and EcR-B1 governs steroid-induced responses in the developing cells of the silkworm Bombyx mori. Here, analysis of EcR-A ...
Falls H Douglas - - 2006
Ghrelin, a 28 amino acid, octanoylated peptide, is an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). In addition to various endocrine functions, including stimulation of GH release, ghrelin has been characterized as an important regulator of energy homeostasis. Ghrelin administration has been shown to increase adiposity in rodents ...
Lepore Diana A - - 2006
Recently, we described a rare cell type within the adult murine pituitary gland with progenitor cell hallmarks (PCFCs). PCFCs are contained exclusively within a subpopulation of cells that import fluorescent beta-Ala-Lys-Nepsilon-AMCA (7-amino-4-methylcoumarin-3-acetic acid). Herein, we investigate the utility of cell surface molecules angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1) ...
Seki T - - 2006
We have investigated the in vivo effect of PACAP on rat Müller cells that are the predominant glial element in the retina. Müller cells were treated with PACAP38, either alone or in the presence of the PACAP-selective antagonist, PACAP6-38. Cellular proliferation was determined by measuring the incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine, while ...
Zelent Dorothy - - 2006
Enzymatic activity of glucokinase was demonstrated, quantitated, and characterized kinetically in rat and mouse pituitary extracts using a highly specific and sensitive spectrometric assay. A previously proposed hypothesis that the glucokinase gene might be expressed in the pituitary corticotrophic cells was therefore reexamined using mRNA in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical ...
Suszko Magdalena I - - 2006
Members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) family control diverse cellular responses including differentiation, proliferation, controlled cell death and migration. The response of a cell to an individual ligand is highly restricted yet the signaling pathways for TGFbeta, activin and bone morphogenic proteins share a limited number of receptors and ...
Choi Jung-Hye - - 2006
Although gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) has been shown to play a role as an autocrine/ paracrine regulator of cell growth in ovarian surface epithelium and ovarian cancer, the factors which regulate the expression of GnRH and its receptor in these cells are not well characterized. In the present study, we employed ...
Fliers Eric - - 2006
A major change in thyroid setpoint regulation occurs in various clinical conditions such as critical illness and psychiatric disorders. As a first step towards identifying determinants of these setpoint changes, we have studied the distribution and expression of thyroid hormone receptor (TR) isoforms, type 2 and type 3 deiodinase (D2 ...
Ren Song-Guang - - 2006
Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP), a bioactive form of pyridoxine, dose-dependently (10-1000 microm) inhibited cell proliferation in rat pituitary MMQ and GH3 cells and in mouse AtT-20 cells. After 4 d, MMQ cell numbers were reduced by up to 81%, GH3 cell numbers were reduced by up to 64% (P < 0.05), ...
Hrabovszky Erik - - 2006
Immunocytochemical studies of the rat adenohypophysis identified a cell population that exhibits immunoreactivity for type-2 vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT2), a marker for glutamatergic neuronal phenotype. The in situ hybridization detection of VGLUT2 mRNA expression in adenohypophysial cells verified that VGLUT2 immunoreactivity is due to local synthesis of authentic VGLUT2. Dual-immunofluorescent ...
Buurman Hilke - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine pituitary adenomas in a series of postmortem pituitaries by use of modern technologies of immunostaining, to classify the adenomas according to the current WHO classification and to analyse the possible associations to the available clinical data. METHODS: In this study, pituitaries ...
Omer Selma - - 2006
Annexin 1 (ANXA1), a 37-kDa protein, is a member of the superfamily of Ca(2+)- and phospholipid-binding annexin proteins. In the anterior pituitary, ANXA1 is expressed mainly by folliculostellate (FS) cells and mediates the early delayed feedback inhibition exerted by glucocorticoids on the release of ACTH and other pituitary hormones. It ...
Shibaya Masami - - 2006
Prolactin (PRL) is known to be synthesized not only in the anterior pituitary, but also in other organs including the ovary. Among its various functions, PRL is regarded as the most important constituent of the luteotropic complex in rodents and pigs. The purpose of the present study was to determine ...
Round inflated vegetative cells that can be more than 1 mm in diameter. Cells are unarmoured and bear one flagellum and a tentacle. No distinct anterior and posterior parts are discernible. This species can form extensive blooms which can lead to fish kills.
Martínez-Fuentes Antonio J - - 2006
CONTEXT: In Cushing's disease, ACTH hypersecretion by pituitary corticotrope adenoma cells and resulting hypercortisolism is accompanied by a severely blunted GH secretory response. Interestingly, in Cushing's disease, ghrelin markedly increases plasma ACTH, whereas its stimulatory action on GH secretion is reduced. Although the reported expression of ghrelin receptors (GHS-R) in ...
Pals K - - 2006
In the present study, we used a three-dimensional pituitary cell culture system from early postnatal rats to examine the in vitro developmental potential of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH). Cell types were identified at the hormone mRNA level by single-cell reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and any change in abundance ...
Shukuwa Keiko - - 2006
Diethylstilbestrol (DES) has been implicated in mammalian abnormalities. We examined the effects of DES on follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and prolactin (PRL) cells in the pituitaries of male mice treated with various doses of DES for 20 days. DES reduced the density of FSH and LH cells in ...
Nica Gabriela - - 2006
The homeodomain transcription factor Six1 and its modulator, the protein phosphatase Eya1, cooperate to promote cell differentiation and survival during mouse organ development. Here, we studied the effects caused by loss of eya1 and six1 function on pituitary development in zebrafish. eya1 and six1 are co-expressed in all adenohypophyseal cells. ...
van Rosmalen Jos W G - - 2006
The cellular form of prion protein (PrPC) is anchored to the plasma membrane of the cell and expressed in most tissues, but predominantly in the brain, including in the pituitary gland. Thus far, the biosynthesis of PrPC has been studied only in cultured (transfected) tumour cell lines and not in ...
Nakatani Masayoshi - - 2006
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) is known to regulate not only neurons but also astrocytes. Here, we investigated, both in vitro and in vivo, the effects of PACAP38 on rat Müller cells, which are the predominant glial element in the retina. Müller cells isolated from juvenile Wistar rats were treated ...
Sakamoto Tatsuya - - 2006
Prolactin is an important regulator of multiple biological functions in vertebrates, and has been viewed as essential to ion uptake as well as reduction in ion and water permeability of osmoregulatory surfaces in freshwater and euryhaline fish. Prolactin-releasing peptide seems to stimulate prolactin expression in the pituitary and peripheral organs ...
Frederick, Karen
Dr. Tami Steveson, Advisor Exposure to the ubiquitous, environmental contaminant, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), by humans and animals has resulted in these industrial chemicals becoming a serious health threat. Based on their ability to cause metabolic and endocrine disruption, PCBs have been linked to cancer, thyroid and reproductive dysfunction, behavioral problems, ...
Carretero, J.
IL-1â is an interleukin synthesised in the pituitary gland and is involved in the stimulation of ACTH secretion. However, to date it has not been determined whether IL-1â is able to regulate the proliferation of pituitary ACTH-producing cells, like other regulatory factors involved in the regulation of ACTH such as ...
Candolfi M - - 2006
The anterior pituitary gland undergoes a process of cell renewal during the estrous cycle. Although the occurrence of proliferation and death of anterior pituitary cells at specific stages of the estrous cycle is well known, the underlying mechanisms that regulate these processes are still being uncovered. In spite of the ...
Claudius Luziga - - 2006
The different cell types in the anterior pituitary behave as dynamic populations. The gland maintains a continuous renewal of cells to ensure a dynamic balance between cell division, differentiation, growth arrest and apoptosis. Apoptosis is a frequent event in the anterior pituitary in which unwanted cells are eliminated without affecting ...
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