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Results 201 - 250 of 1800
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Lee Yongho - - 2008
The interaction of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (CXCL12) and its receptor CXCR4 may play an important role in the regulation of anterior pituitary function. In this study, we investigated the expression of CXCL12 and CXCR4 and their role in normal rat pituitary and GH-producing GH3 tumor cell line. RT-PCR ...
Smith Jeremy T - - 2009
In recent years, the Kiss1 gene has been cast into the reproductive spotlight. In the short period since the discovered link between kisspeptins, the encoded peptides of Kiss1, and fertility, these peptides are now known to be critical for the neuroendocrine control of reproduction. Kisspeptin producing cells in the hypothalamus ...
Suzuki H - - 2009
Immunohistochemical techniques were employed to examine orexin-like immunoreactivities in the pituitary of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Rabbit anti-orexin-A serum and mouse anti-orexin-B monoclonal antibodies were used as primary antibodies. Orexin-B immunoreactive cells corresponded to luteinizing hormone (LH)- or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-containing cells, and all LH- and TSH-containing cells were ...
Conway-Campbell Becky L - - 2008
The presence of GH receptor (GHR) in the cell nucleus correlates with cell division, and targeting the GHR to the nucleus results in constitutive proliferation and transformation because of increased sensitivity to autocrine GH. Here we have sought additional mechanisms that might account for the enhanced proliferation seen with nuclear ...
Ogasawara Hideki - - 2008
Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a 36-amino acid member of the pancreatic polypeptide family, was found to be present by immunohistochemistry in the bovine adenohypophysis. NPY mRNA expression was confirmed in the adenohypophysis by RT-PCR. NPY immunoreactivity was present in about 38% of adenohypophyseal cells in the pars distalis. However, NPY immunoreactive ...
Egashira Noboru - - 2008
Prophet of Pit-1 (Prop1) is an early transcription factor that delays the appearance of gonadotropin in the developing pituitaries. Prop1 transgenic (Tg) mice have been shown to generate pituitary tumors that either produce TSH or are non-hormone producing. In our series of Prop1 Tg mice, only 5 out of 9 ...
Scheithauer Bernd W - - 2008
A 13-month-old Korean female presented with Cushing disease and diabetes insipidus. On MRI, a 3.5-cm, focally cystic, contrast-enhancing, sellar and suprasellar mass was noted. Aside from blood adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and cortisol elevation, other pituitary hormone blood levels were normal or markedly reduced. The subtotally resected lesion consisted of synaptophysin-immunoreactive lobules ...
Jurkevich Alexander - - 2008
Research in mammals has demonstrated a variety of regulatory effects of vasopressin and oxytocin on endocrine functions of the anterior pituitary gland. Less evidence is available regarding the hypophysiotropic action of arginine vasotocin (AVT) comprising vasopressic and oxytocic activities in birds. Some hypophysiotropic effects of AVT may result from its ...
Heinzlmann Andrea - - 2008
The presence of folliculostellate cells in the anterior pituitary was described 49 years ago. These cells give about 10% of the whole cell population and through their long processes they provide intrahypophyseal communication. The folliculostellate cells contain S-100 protein. Its immunostaining was used to identify these cells. It was previously ...
Kaminska Barbara - - 2008
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ACTH, phytoestrogens (genistein, daidzein, biochanin A and coumestrol), and animal estrogens (estradiol and estrone) on corticosterone secretion by isolated adrenocortical cells of the ganders in breeding (April) and nonbreeding seasons (July). ACTH stimulated corticosterone output in the breeding season. ...
Devnath S - - 2008
Folliculo-stellate cells (FS-cells) are star-shaped and follicle-forming cells in the anterior pituitary gland that were first identified by electron microscopy as non-endocrine agranular cells. Light microscopy has revealed many of their cytophysiological features and the FS-cell is known to be positive for S-100 protein, a marker for FS-cells. So far, ...
Sacewicz Małgorzata - - 2008
Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GH-RH) can stimulate not only growth hormone (GH) secretion by anterior pituitary gland but also proliferation of many cancer cell lines in vitro and in xenografts tumor models in vivo. Several antagonists of GH-RH have been shown to inhibit several cancer growths, but the role of GH-RH ...
Salam, Md. Abdus
Juveniles of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) held at high population density were apparently smaller than those held at medium and low population densities. The effects of high population density on pituitary growth hormone (GH) cells in juvenile chum salmon were examined using immunocytochemical and in situ hybridization techniques. The ratio ...
Salam, Md. Abdus
Pituitary hormones regulate various physiological functions during spawning migration in salmonid. Cytological features of pituitary cells were therefore immunocytochemically examined by use of antisera against homologous hormones in pre-spawning chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) caught from Ishikari Bay and the Chitose River in October, 1996. Immunoreactivity and sizes of pituitary cells ...
Roser Janet F - - 2008
It is well established in many mammalian species, including the horse that normal testicular function is dependent upon a functional hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT) axis, which involves classic feedback mechanisms. The major HPT hormones involved in the stallion are gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone (T), estrogens ...
Dutta Sunit S Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, NICHD, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, - - 2008
The vertebrate pituitary gland is a key endocrine control organ that contains six distinct hormone secreting cell types. In this study, we analyzed the role of direct cell-to-cell Delta-Notch signaling in zebrafish anterior pituitary cell type specification. We demonstrate that initial formation of the anterior pituitary placode is independent of ...
Jaroenporn Sukanya - - 2008
In this study, using the H295R cell line as a model system, we investigated the role of prolactin (PRL) and steroid hormones in the growth regulation and cortisol release of adrenocortical cells. H295R cells were treated with increasing doses (10(-13)-10(-6) M) of PRL, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), 17beta-estradiol (E(2)), progesterone (P(4)), ...
Filippa Verónica - - 2008
The physiology and behavior of viscacha vary along the year according to the modifications of environmental signals such as the photoperiod length, temperature, rainfall pattern, food composition, and social interactions. The pituitary pars distalis thyrotrophs (TSH cells) of male viscacha were immunohistochemically identified, and the morphometric parameters: percentage of immunopositive ...
Legardinier Sébastien - - 2008
Recombinant equine LH/chorionic gonadotropin (eLH/CG) was expressed in the baculovirus-Sf9 insect cell system either as a single-chain with the C-terminus of the beta-subunit fused to the N-terminus of the alpha-subunit or as non-covalently linked heterodimers with or without a polyhistidine tag at various locations. All these non-covalently linked eLH/CG variants ...
Ogasawara Hideki - - 2008
The present study was carried out to detail the cellular localization of leptin (Lep) and the leptin receptor (LepR) in the bovine adenohypophysis. Lep immunoreactivity (Lep-ir) was found in about 30% of adenohypophysial cells in the gland. Immunochemistry of Lep and specific hormones using serial sections revealed that Lep-ir was ...
Pals K - - 2008
Fourteen-day-old rat pituitary tissue represents an attractive model for studying cell population dynamics, particularly of gonadotrophs. Prolonged three-dimensional culture in serum- and hormone-free medium causes a striking decline in somatotroph abundance but a several-fold rise in monohormonal LH beta-positive cell number, whereas bihormonal gonadotrophs almost disappear. In the present study, ...
Robin E - - 2008
In order to better understand the cellular mechanisms underlying LH and FSH secretion, we have addressed the contribution of lipid rafts to the secretion of gonadotropins. We used methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MbetaCD), a cholesterol-sequestering agent, on an LbetaT2 murine gonadotroph cell line and on primary cultures of ovine pituitary cells. We found ...
Heinzlmann Andrea - - 2008
In this work the expression of PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide) in rat anterior pituitary was demonstrated for the first time using in situ hybridization. The number of cells showing PACAP signal in intact male rats was negligible similarly to that of diestrous rats. In proestrous rats sacrificed at ...
Johansson Inger - - 2008
Progenitor cells in the subgranular zone of the hippocampus may be of significance for functional recovery after various injuries because they have a regenerative potential to form new neuronal cells. The hippocampus has been shown to express the GH secretagogue (GHS) receptor 1a, and recent studies suggest GHS to both ...
Reyes R - - 2008
A histological and immunochemical study of adenohypophysis development in two bird species: chicken (Gallus gallus) and Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) was carried out, focussing firstly morphologically on the origin of its different lobes, then secondly on the differentiation of hormone-producing cells from the adenohypophysial anlage and their involvement in ...
Polkowska Jolanta - - 2008
The present study was designed to determine the changes in the synthesis, storage and release of luteinising hormone (LH) and growth hormone (GH) in the hypophyseal cells by investigating the presence of oestrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) in developing prepubertal female lambs. The experiment was carried out on 14 prepubertal (17-week-old) and ...
Senovilla Laura - - 2008
The anterior pituitary (AP) is made of five different cell types. The relative abundance and phenotype of AP cells may change in different physiological situations as an expression of pituitary plasticity. Here, we analyze in detail the phenotype of mouse corticotropes and the effects of acute cold stress on AP ...
Levy Andy - - 2008
We still do not understand the pathogenesis of the majority of pituitary adenomas or why, once formed, their behaviour tends to be so benign. Understanding trophic activity in the normal pituitary may be the key. Despite the fact that changes in indices of cell division and programmed cell death that ...
La Rosa Stefano - - 2008
c-kit (CD117) is a tyrosine kinase receptor involved in the proliferation, differentiation, and secretory functions of various cells. In experimental animal models, c-kit has been detected in the pars intermedia of the normal pituitary gland and in alpha-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-positive adenomas and it has been suggested that it plays a role in ...
Aida Masato - - 2008
Beard worms (Siboglinidae, Polychaeta), which lack a mouth and a digestive tract, harbor thioautotrophic or methanotrophic bacteria in special cells called bacteriocytes. These endosymbionts have been considered to be trapped at a specific larval stage from the environment. Although many species of beard worms have been discovered in various abyssal ...
Dong Fumin - - 2008
Environmental pollutants may affect the activities of many cellular enzymes. The effect on the proteome of enzymatic inhibitors can be determined using two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis. In neuroendocrine cells, proprotein convertases 1 and 2 (PC1 and PC2) mediate the proteolytic activation of many precursors to peptide hormones and neuropeptides. Enzymatic ...
Mikami Shuji - - 2008
Gangliocytomas of the pituitary gland are rare lesions that often occur in combination with pituitary adenomas, which are frequently associated with the hypersecretion of pituitary hormones, particularly growth hormones. We report a case of combined gangliocytoma and prolactinoma of the pituitary gland. A 49-year-old male presented with vertigo. Radiological examination ...
Dönitz Jürgen - - 2008
EndoNet is an information resource about intercellular regulatory communication. It provides information about hormones, hormone receptors, the sources (i.e. cells, tissues and organs) where the hormones are synthesized and secreted, and where the respective receptors are expressed. The database focuses on the regulatory relations between them. An elementary communication is ...
Soin Thomas - - 2008
During insect development, ecdysteroids and juvenile hormones (JHs) interact to regulate larval growth, metamorphosis and reproduction but the molecular mechanisms by which both hormones influence each other's activity remain unknown. Because of their ease of use and straightforward genetic manipulation, insect cell lines often have been used to clarify the ...
Hatcher Nathan G - - 2008
The anatomical organization of many neuroendocrine systems implies multiple sites of hormone release in areas mediating multiple aspects of physiology and behavior, yet this neurosecretory complexity has not often been verified. Here we probe the well-characterized hormonal model, the reproductive bag cell neuroendocrine system of the sea slug Aplysia californica. ...
Janssens, Kristel
The two major effectors of the stress-response system are the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the autonomous nervous system that upon activation result in increased glucocorticoid and (nor)epinephrine production which are the driving forces for the so-called fight-or-flight reactions. In the present study we focussed on the action of these two signalling ...
González Miriam - - 2008
Estradiol is a critical factor in the anterior pituitary secretory activity of mammalian females. Previous reports have demonstrated the presence of oestrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and beta (ERbeta) in specific anterior pituitary cells from ovariectomized rats, as well as in the whole anterior pituitary at particular stages of the rat ...
Suzuki H - - 2007
Immunohistochemical techniques were employed to investigate orexin-A-like and orexin receptor 1 (OX1R)-like immunoreactivities in the Xenopus pituitary gland. Orexin-A-immunoreactive cells were mainly scattered in the posterior half of the pars distalis. They corresponded to thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-containing cells and so far have not corresponded to other types of pituitary adenocytes. ...
Fujiwara Ken - - 2008
Prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP) was recently isolated from bovine hypothalamus. PrRP is the natural ligand for an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor, hGR3, and directly stimulates prolactin secretion from the anterior pituitary in vitro and in vivo. It has also been reported that PrRP plays an important role as a neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator ...
Ferrandino Ida - - 2008
An electron microscopic study was performed on the pituitary gland of the Mediterranean teleost fish Diplodus sargus to analyse the morphological characteristics of the pituicytes. In this class of vertebrates, the pituicytes have, like other astroglial cells, a trophic and support function, but they may also play an active role ...
Kitahashi Takashi - - 2007
The role of steroid/thyroid hormones in the regulation of endocrine cells at the level of the pituitary has remained unclear. Therefore, using single-cell quantitative real-time PCR, we examined absolute amounts of transcripts for nuclear receptors [estrogen receptors (ERs) alpha, beta, and gamma; androgen receptors (ARs) a and b; glucocorticoid receptors ...
Erdmann Sabine - - 2007
In the corpus luteum (CL), blood vessels develop, stabilize, and regress. This process depends on the ratio of pro- and antiangiogenic factors, which change during the ovarian cycle. The present study focuses on the possible roles of 23,000 (23K) prolactin (PRL) in the bovine CL and its antiangiogenic NH(2)-terminal fragments ...
Min Hye Sook - - 2007
Pituitary adenoma is a rare neoplasm in childhood, with prolactin and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting adenomas predominating in this age group. Herein is reported a case of an ACTH-producing macroadenoma with an unusual histology that occurred in a 2-year-old girl. Because of the patient's age and the macroadenoma's suprasellar location and ...
Nozaki Masumi - - 2008
Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), melanotropins (MSHs), growth hormone (GH) and gonadotropin (GTH) have been identified or cloned from the pituitary gland of sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus). The present study was designed to gain insights into the functional significance of these hormones through a description of changes in the occurrence and distribution of ...
Reyes R - - 2007
This study assesses the action of hypercortisolism on the hormone and peptide periadenoma region of removed ACTH-producing microadenoma. Our findings show that cortisol excess affects both ACTH and GH production, with no immunoreaction for these hormones. The remaining pituitary hormones (TSH, FSH and PRL) and POMC-derived peptides (betaEnd, alphaMSH and ...
Won Je Lee
1984 <i>Acanthocorbis apoda</i><br> Cells are 4-6 microns in length, with a truncated anterior, and the posterior end may be pointed. Lorica 13-18 microns long with a constricted posterior chamber, and 12-16 projections protruding from the wider anterior chamber. A single transverse costa in the anterior chamber, formed of overlapping strips, ...
1989 <i>Mantoniella antarctica</i> Marchant<br>Monadoid cell spherical to slightly ovoid (length 2.8-5 µm) with the two lateral flagella arising from the anterior part of the cell, one 8.6-21.3 µm long, the other rarely more than 1 µm long. Body and flagella covered with flat, approximately circular scales.
Jenkins S A - - 2007
Treatment of fetal rats and embryonic chickens with exogenous glucocorticoids induces premature GH cell differentiation. However, it is unknown whether the developing adrenal gland is capable of mounting this response autonomously. The present study determined whether stimulation of the adrenal gland in developing chicken embryos through administration of ACTH could ...
Ishida Maho - - 2007
The mitogenic action of estrogen on estrogen-responsive tissues is suggested to be mediated by paracrine growth factors secreted from neighboring estrogen receptor-positive cells. Using pituitary lactotrophs in primary culture, on which estrogen exerts both mitogenic and antimitogenic actions in a cell context-dependent manner, we investigated whether a paracrine cell-to-cell interaction ...
Kidane Adhanet H - - 2007
The neuropeptides, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) are implicated in the regulation of gene expression and hormone secretion in mammalian melanotrope cells and a mammalian pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-producing tumor cell line, but the physiological relevance of this regulation is elusive. The purpose of the present study ...
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