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Mandegary A - - 2010
Experimental and preclinical observations have indicated that combination therapy with all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO) may strongly enhance their therapeutic effects in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Whilst dexamethasone (Dex) is routinely used for the control of APL- differentiation syndrome, its effect on the pharmacodynamics of ...
Mamillapalli Ramanaiah - - 2010
The calcium-sensing receptor (CaR or CASR as listed in the MGI Database) is a G protein-coupled receptor that binds and signals in response to extracellular calcium and other polycations. It is highly expressed on parathyroid and kidney cells, where it participates in the regulation of systemic calcium homeostasis. It is ...
Kocsis Zsuzsa S - - 2010
Recent immunohistochemical studies of the rat adenohypophysis identified type-2 vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT2), a marker for glutamatergic neuronal phenotype, in high percentages of adenohypophysial gonadotrophs and thyrotrophs. The presence and molecular identity of amino acid neurotransmitters in the remaining hormone producing cell types are unknown. In the present study we ...
Xie Wenjie - - 2010
A mimic of phosphorylated prolactin (S179D PRL) inhibits mouse normal mammary HC11 cell proliferation through the upregulation of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and p21. Here, we investigated whether S179D PRL also inhibited growth of human breast cancer MCF7 cells via VDR and p21. Western blots showed that S179D PRL ...
Metz Hillery - - 2010
Mutant mouse lines have been used to study the development of specific neuronal populations and brain structures as well as behaviors. In this report, single- and double-mutant mice were used to examine the lineage of GnRH-1 cells. GnRH is essential for vertebrate reproduction, with either GnRH-1 or GnRH-3 controlling release ...
van Rijn S J - - 2010
Pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism (PDH), which is caused by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenomas, is a common endocrinopathy in dogs. Dogs with non-enlarged pituitaries harboring a microadenoma have a better prognosis than those with enlarged pituitaries. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of the proliferation markers Ki-67 and ...
Guerra Montserrat - - 2010
The pars tuberalis (PT) is the only pituitary region in close contact with the medial-basal hypothalamus and bathed by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Although PT has long been recognized as an endocrine gland, certain aspects of its structure remain obscure. The present investigation has been designed to gain information concerning (1) ...
Soñez M C - - 2010
The aim of this work was to determine the effects of cGnRH I pulse frequencies on FSH and LH release and the changes in features and number of cultured laying hen FSH-cells and LH-cells in vitro. Primary adenohypophyseal cell cultures taken from laying hens were stimulated by four 5 min ...
Stevenson Tyler J - - 2009
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-I (GnRH-I) cells are localized primarily to the septopreoptic area (POA) and are responsible for regulating gonadotropin release from the anterior pituitary. Some songbird species exhibit dramatic seasonal variation in the number of detectable GnRH-I immunoreactive cells, with higher numbers being observed during the breeding season. Here we investigated ...
Horiguchi Kotaro - - 2010
Folliculo-stellate (FS) cells in the anterior pituitary gland appear to possess multifunctional properties. Recently, the development of transgenic rats (S100b-green fluorescent protein (GFP) rats) that express GFP specifically in FS cells in the anterior pituitary gland has allowed us to distinguish and observe living FS cells in other kinds of ...
Pazos Yolanda - - 2009
Obestatin, the ghrelin-associated peptide, showed to activate MAPK signaling with no effect on Akt nor cell proliferating activity in rat tumor somatotroph cells (growth cells, GC). A sequential analysis of the obestatin transmembrane signaling pathway indicated a route involving the consecutive activation of G(i), PI3k, novel PKCepsilon, and Src for ...
Tanaka Mio - - 2009
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH)-containing neurons directly innervate the adenohypophysis in the teleost pituitary. We examined immunohistochemically the relationship between MCH-containing nerve fibres or endings and somatolactin (SL)-producing cells in the goldfish pituitary. Nerve fibres or endings with MCH-like immunoreactivity were identified in the neurohypophysis in close proximity to the adenohypophysial cells ...
Fan Qing - - 2009
Glycoprotein L (gL) is one of four glycoproteins required for the entry of herpes simplex virus (HSV) into cells and for virus-induced cell fusion. This glycoprotein oligomerizes with gH to form a membrane-bound heterodimer but can be secreted when expressed without gH. Twelve unique gL linker-insertion mutants were generated to ...
Schaaf C - - 2009
Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is the active ingredient of the spice plant Curcuma longa and has been shown to act anti-tumorigenic in different types of tumours. Therefore, we have studied its effect in pituitary tumour cell lines and adenomas. Proliferation of lactosomatotroph GH3 and somatotroph MtT/S rat pituitary cells as well as ...
Hartviksen M B - - 2009
One of the main gastrointestinal hormones, cholecystokinin (CCK), was studied in order to advance understanding of the control of the digestive process in Atlantic cod Gadus morhua larvae after onset of first feeding. Larvae were fed either natural zooplankton or enriched rotifers in similar rearing systems and sampled from hatching ...
Hong Dun - - 2009
Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and its metabolite mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) have been classified as toxicants to the reproductive system at the testis level and DEHP may also impair reproductive axis function at the pituitary levels. However, MEHP is 10-fold more potent than DEHP in toxicity and little is known about the ...
Hikake Tamiki - - 2009
IGF1 knockout (IGF1KO) mice show a reduced number of prolactin (PRL) producing cells (PRL cells); however, the role of IGF1 in PRL cell proliferation and differentiation in immature mice is unclear. In this study, ontogenic changes in the percentages of PRL cells, GH producing cells (GH cells), and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled ...
Bazina Mirna - - 2009
Development and differentiation of the human pituitary gland was investigated in 6 human conceptuses 6-9 postovulatory weeks old, using immunohistochemical technique to investigate appearance of different developmental factors, and immunofluorescent double staining technique with Ki-67 to investigate proliferation. In the developing human pituitary gland, different developmental factors appeared in temporally ...
Weiss S - - 2009
The ability to isolate and propagate adult stem/progenitor cells from the human brain opens novel avenues for cell replacement therapy. This will also apply to the pituitary gland, i.e., following tumor induced endocrine deficiency. Herein, we examine autopsy derived pituitaries to unravel a putative stem/progenitor cell population in humans. In ...
Monahan Pamela - - 2009
The pituitary is an endocrine gland responsible for the release of hormones, which regulate growth, metabolism, and reproduction. Diseases such as hypopituitarism or pituitary adenomas are able to disrupt pituitary function leading to suboptimal function of the entire endocrine system. Growth of the pituitary during development and adulthood is a ...
Chauvet Norbert N Département d'Endocrinologie, Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle, 141 Rue de la Cardonille, 34094 Montpellier Cedex 05, - - 2009
Our view of anterior pituitary organization has been altered with the recognition that folliculo-stellate (FS) and somatotroph cell populations form large-scale three-dimensional homotypic networks. This morphological cellular organization may optimize communication within the pituitary gland promoting coordinated pulsatile secretion adapted to physiological needs. The aim of this study was to ...
Nolan L A - - 2009
Rapid but often transient changes in mitotic and apoptotic activity are important components of the pituitary response to changes in the hormonal environment. For example, bilateral adrenalectomy and orchidectomy each result in a wave of increased mitosis lasting approximately 1 week, mediated by the same population of trophically active and, ...
Kowarik M - - 2010
Homo- and heterodimers of platelet-derived growth factor-A (PDGF-A) and PDGF-B chains are involved through PDGF alpha- and beta-receptors in the growth regulation of multiple normal and tumoural cell types as well as in tumour neovascularization. Since little information is available on the impact of PDGF/PDGF receptors in normal and adenomatous ...
Ferrandino Ida - - 2009
The cytotoxic effects of cadmium (Cd) on the pituitary gland were studied in the lizard Podarcis sicula. Adult lizards were treated intraperitoneally with a single injection of CdCl(2) at the dose of 2 mg/kg. A morphological study was performed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) technique and ...
Veenstra Jan A - - 2009
Endocrine cells in the larval midgut of Drosophila melanogaster are recognized by antisera to seven regulatory peptides: the allatostatins A, B, and C, short neuropeptide F, neuropeptide F, diuretic hormone 31, and the tachykinins. These are the same peptides that are produced by the endocrine cells of the adult midgut, ...
Liu Yali - - 2009
Recent studies have identified leptin and leptin receptors in the pituitary of different species, which suggest that there may be endocrine and paracrine regulatory roles between leptin-producing cells and cells with leptin receptor in pituitary, including growth and secretion of GH cells. The aim of this study was to investigate ...
Sangeetha S R - - 2009
Pituitary adenomas, which account for 15-20% of intracranial tumors, are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, due in part, to hormone hypersecretion and mass effects following increased proliferation. Radiotherapy and surgery remain frontline treatment options; however, adverse side effects and surgical limitations to treat invasive tumors necessitate the need for ...
Dutta Amrita - - 2010
Previous studies in our laboratory have demonstrated that reducing the availability of zinc with the extracellular metal chelator DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetate) enhances, rather than inhibits, the thyroid hormone induction of growth hormone mRNA in GH3 rat anterior pituitary tumor cells. To understand the actions of the chelator on cellular zinc status, ...
Kikuchi Motoshi - - 2009
Cadherins are a family of transmembrane glycoproteins that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion in solid tissues and have been reported to regulate not only morphogenesis but also cell motility, proliferation, and function by activating intracellular signaling pathways. We recently found that primordial cells in the developing rat adenohypophysis co-expressed E- and N-cadherins, ...
Winczyk Katarzyna - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: Rosiglitazone (RGZ) belongs to thiazolidinediones - new class of antidiabetic drugs which are PPARgamma agonists. It was shown that tumoral tissue, including the pituitary adenomas, posses PPARgamma receptors. The activation of PPARgamma receptors inhibits tumour growth in rodents and induces the oncostatic effect on human cancer cell lines. The ...
Liu Yingchao - - 2009
Laser capture microdissection (LCM) technology combined with immunohistochemistry (immuno-LCM) is a valuable tool to obtain specific target cell populations and therefore this technique enables more accurate proteomic profile. In this study, we optimized the regular immuno-LCM technique to isolate and stain pure prolactin cells from either normal human pituitary (n=6) ...
M.M. Alkaisi, J.J. Muys, ...
Atomic Force Microscopy has been used to investigate and characterise endometrial cancer cells and LH-secreting cells, namely gonadotrophs, of the pituitary. Using nanoscale resolution of the AFM features associated with exocytosis events in each cell type are imaged and presented as foundation for further development and understanding of exocytosis process. ...
Penaloza Carlos - - 2009
Sexual dimorphisms are typically attributed to the hormonal differences arising once sex differentiation has occurred. However, in some sexually dimorphic diseases that differ in frequency but not severity, the differences cannot be logically connected to the sex hormones. Therefore, we asked whether any aspect of sexual dimorphism could be attributed ...
Zárate S - - 2009
It is now accepted that estrogens not only stimulate lactotrope proliferation but also sensitize anterior pituitary cells to proapoptotic stimuli. In addition to their classical mechanism of action through binding to intracellular estrogen receptors (ERs), there is increasing evidence that estrogens exert rapid actions mediated by cell membrane-localized ERs (mERs). ...
Nyberg Fred - - 2009
Early studies have shown that the abuse of alcohol, central stimulants, and opiates such as heroin destroys brain cells, reducing attention span and memory. However, new research has suggested that there may be a way to regain some of the lost attention and recall. It has recently been shown that ...
Watanabe Soichi - - 2009
In teleost fish, prolactin (PRL) has important actions in the regulation of salt and water balances in freshwater (FW) fish. Consistent with this role, the release of PRL from the pituitary of the Mozambique tilapia is stimulated as extracellular osmolality is reduced. Stretch-activated calcium-permeant ion channels appear to be responsible ...
Strom, Chrisitna Nelson
The euryhaline tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, has the ability to live in both freshwater (FW) and saltwater (SW) environments. Prolactin (PRL) is the most critical hormone to promoting life in FW, and without it tilapia loses the capacity to osmoregulate in hypotonic environments. Consistent with PRLâs actions in FW adaptation, pituitary ...
Horiguchi Kotaro - - 2008
Folliculo-stellate (FS) cells in the anterior pituitary gland have been speculated to possess multifunctional properties. Because gap junctions (GJ) have been identified between FS cells, FS cells may be interconnected electrophysiologically by GJ and serve as signal transmission networks to modulate hormone release in the anterior pituitary gland. But whether ...
Kwong Anna K Y - - 2009
In many euryhaline fish, prolactin (PRL) plays a key role in freshwater adaptation. Consistent with this function, the present study showed a remarkable reduction in pituitary PRL content of silver sea bream abruptly transferred to low salinity (6ppt). This reduction in pituitary PRL content followed closely the temporal changes in ...
Nguyen Nhu - - 2009
Prolactin is a multifaceted hormone that is capable of modulating hundreds of physiological processes in adult vertebrates. However, the physiological functions of prolactin in embryonic development are still controversial. One of these biological functions of prolactin is to promote survival of the cells. Almost all studies on the anti-apoptotic action ...
Quereda Victor - - 2009
The pituitary gland regulates diverse physiological functions, including growth, metabolism, reproduction, stress response, and ageing. Early genetic models in the mouse taught us that the pituitary is highly sensitive to genetic alteration of specific cell cycle regulators such as the retinoblastoma protein (pRB) or the cell cycle inhibitor p27(Kip1). The ...
Himes Ashley D - - 2009
In the pituitary, the transition from proliferating progenitor cell into differentiated hormone producing cell is carefully regulated in a time-dependent and spatially-restricted manner. We report that two targets of Notch signaling, Hes1 and Prop1, are needed to maintain progenitors within Rathke's pouch and for the restriction of differentiated cells to ...
Skinner Donal C - - 2009
The pars tuberalis (PT) is a distinct subdivision of the anterior pituitary gland that plays a central role in regulating seasonal prolactin release. In sheep, there is compelling evidence that seasonal changes in light, transformed into a melatonin signal, are interpreted by the PT to modulate the release of a ...
Ogasawara Kiyomoto - - 2009
The developmental process of prolactin (PRL) cells in the fetal pituitary gland was studied in mice. Although PRL cells were hardly detectable in the pituitary gland of intact fetuses, a treatment with 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) in vitro induced a number of PRL cells that varied drastically in number depending on the ...
Etoh Sachise - - 2009
The cellular localization of D: -alanine (D: -Ala) in the rat pituitary gland, the tissue containing the highest amount of D: -Ala, has been clarified for the first time by enantioselective visualization of D: -Ala using our own established mouse monoclonal antibody against D: -Ala. D: -Ala immunopositive cells were ...
Tam Q - - 2009
The ultrastructure of the cells of the digestive system of Argulus japonicus is described with the use of transmission electron microscopy. Specimens of Argulus japonicus were collected from the Vaal Dam in South Africa and fixed in Todd's fixative. The samples were post fixed in osmium tetroxide and embedded in ...
Borella M I - - 2009
The adenohypophysis (AH) of juvenile pirarucu (Arapaima gigas), a representative species of the Osteoglossomorpha (bonytongue fishes, one of the oldest living groups of the teleosts), was studied using histochemical and immunocytochemical methods. The AH is comprised of the pars distalis (PD), without a clear distinction between rostral pars distalis (RPD) ...
Lee Yongho - - 2008
The interaction of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (CXCL12) and its receptor CXCR4 may play an important role in the regulation of anterior pituitary function. In this study, we investigated the expression of CXCL12 and CXCR4 and their role in normal rat pituitary and GH-producing GH3 tumor cell line. RT-PCR ...
Smith Jeremy T - - 2009
In recent years, the Kiss1 gene has been cast into the reproductive spotlight. In the short period since the discovered link between kisspeptins, the encoded peptides of Kiss1, and fertility, these peptides are now known to be critical for the neuroendocrine control of reproduction. Kisspeptin producing cells in the hypothalamus ...
Suzuki H - - 2009
Immunohistochemical techniques were employed to examine orexin-like immunoreactivities in the pituitary of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Rabbit anti-orexin-A serum and mouse anti-orexin-B monoclonal antibodies were used as primary antibodies. Orexin-B immunoreactive cells corresponded to luteinizing hormone (LH)- or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-containing cells, and all LH- and TSH-containing cells were ...
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