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Results 451 - 500 of 1801
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Inoue K - - 2002
Folliculo-stellate cells (FS-cells) in the anterior pituitary gland are star-shaped cells and form tiny follicles. FS-cells are positive for S-100 protein and produce many cytokines or growth factors, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), basic fibroblastic growth factor (bFGF) and vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF). Therefore, it ...
Tsumori Michihiro - - 2002
It was reported that neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) was expressed only in gonadotrophs and folliculo-stellate cells in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. However, recent studies have demonstrated the occurrence of nNOS in the somatotrophs and lactotrophs. In the present study, we investigated effects of growth hormone-releasing hormone ...
Childs G V GV Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock 72205, USA. - - 2002
The cyclic rise in expression of anterior pituitary gonadotropins coincides with the appearance of cells sharing gonadotropic and somatotropic phenotypes. To learn more about possible factors that regulate the origin of this cell type, we studied the time of appearance of cells that co-expressed growth hormone (GH) and gonadotropins and ...
Peinado Juan R - - 2002
Precise regulation of hormone secretion from endocrine cells is of critical importance for the maintenance of animal homeostasis. This is partly enabled through the ability of endocrine cells to adapt dynamically their secretory activity to the physiological demands through complex functional changes. Such a secretory plasticity results from coordinated adaptive ...
Amanatullah D F - - 2002
Steroid hormones mediate pleiotropic cellular processes involved in metabolism, cellular proliferation, and differentiation. The ability of the cell to respond to its hormonal environment is transduced by nuclear receptors (NRs) that bind both hormone and DNA. Hence, NRs represent a link between the external hormonal milieu and the genes that ...
Cho Sang-Joon - - 2002
Earlier studies in live pancreatic acinar cells identified new cellular structures at the cell plasma membrane called 'pits' and 'depressions', where membrane-bound secretory vesicles dock and fuse to release vesicular contents. In the current study, using atomic force microscopy we identify similar structures at the plasma membrane of GH-secreting cells ...
Diederen Jacques H B - - 2002
The adipokinetic cells are neuron-like unipolar cells, the cell bodies and cell processes of which are intermingled within the glandular part of the corpus cardiacum. In Schistocerca gregaria, they produce two adipokinetic hormones, AKH-I and -II, whereas in Locusta migratoria an additional hormone, AKH-III, is present. The three AKHs are ...
Escamilla-Chimal Elsa G - - 2002
The authors used the reverse hemolytic plaque assay to investigate whether single retinal and optic lobe cells of juvenile and adult crayfish secrete crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) and whether the secretion rate depends on extracellular serotonin (5-HT) concentration. Nearly 25% of individual retinal and optic lobe cells of juvenile and ...
Siawrys G - - 2002
The direct effects of alpha- and beta-adrenergic agents on luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in vitro by porcine pituitary cells and the participation of secondary messengers, adenosine 3'5'-monophosphate (cAMP) and guanosine 3'5'-monophospate (cGMP), in transduction of signals induced by adrenergic agents and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in these cells have been investigated. ...
Bogacka I - - 2002
The objective of this study was to determine whether gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH), oxytocin (OT) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) modulate beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity (beta-END-LI) secretion by dispersed anterior pituitary cells of pigs and in vivo priming with steroid hormones, estradiol benzoate (EB) and progesterone (P(4)), influences the cell reactivity to peptide ...
Pérez, E.
In order to characterize the pituitary cells re a ctive for r-GRF in the adult rat, an immunocytochemicaI and morphometric study was made of the cells immunopositive for r-GHRH and those immunopositive for GH and for GHRH using a double labelling method. The existence of two populations of r- G ...
Mzhavia Nino - - 2002
ProSAAS, a recently discovered granin-like protein, potently inhibits prohormone convertase (PC)1, and might also perform additional functions. In the present study, the processing of proSAAS was compared in two neuroendocrine cell lines overexpressing this protein: the AtT-20 mouse pituitary corticotrophic line and the PC12 rat adrenal phaeochromocytoma line. The processing ...
Kontogeorgos George - - 2002
The aim of this study was to localize various growth factors and cytokines in paragangliomas and pheochromocytomas in order to understand their possible autocrine or paracrine functions, and to compare sustentacular cells of the adrenal medulla with pituitary stellate cells. Thirteen resected tumors, 11 paragangliomas and 2 pheochromocytomas of the ...
Pu Hsiao-Fung - - 2002
Although it is well known that plasma concentration of prolactin (PRL) increases during aging in rats, how the anterior pituitary (AP) aging per se affects PRL secretion remains obscure. The objectives of this study were to determine if changes in the pituitary PRL responsiveness to acetylcholine (ACh; a paracrine factor ...
Mohammad Y N - - 2002
The aetiology of neuroblastoma remains obscure, although a number of neuropeptides have been implicated in its pathogenesis. Using the mouse neuroblastoma cell line Neuro2a as a model, we have investigated the mitogenic actions of prolactin (PRL) and two hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal stress axis hormones, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and corticosterone. Using established polyclonal ...
Roncaroli Federico - - 2002
Corticotroph adenomas rarely show Crooke's hyaline change in neoplastic cells, a feature similar to that of normal corticotroph cells exposed to excess cortisol. Crooke's cell adenomas are usually associated with Cushing's disease. Nonfunctioning examples are uncommon. We report two clinically silent corticotroph adenomas featuring extensive Crooke's hyalinization in neoplastic cells. ...
Jiménez-Reina L - - 2002
Growth hormone (GH) is secreted in the anterior pituitary gland by the somatotroph cells. Secretion is regulated by growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin. Morever, GH secretagogues (GHS) can exert a considerable effect on GH secretion. In order to determine the effects of chronic treatment with the GHS Ipamorelin ...
Chowdhury V S - - 2002
The goal of this study was to determine whether tissue rejuvenation of the anterior pituitary with cell proliferation and apoptosis occurs during inhibition and resumption of egg-laying. White Leghorn laying hens were subjected to inhibition of laying by feed withdrawal. Feeding was resumed on the fourth day of egg-laying cessation. ...
Enomoto M - - 2001
In this study, cell proliferation was examined at low and high cell densities, using HHUA and Jurkat cell lines as experimental models for the antiproliferative and proliferation-enhancing effects of GnRH agonist, Buserelin, respectively. For efficient evaluation of Buserelin activity at low cell density, the colony-forming efficiency assay was adopted. Buserelin ...
Revskoy S - - 2001
The prepro-thyrotropin-releasing hormone (ppTRH)-derived peptide, ppTRH178-199, has been proposed to inhibit ACTH release at the level of the pituitary and attenuate prolactin and behavioral responses to stress as well. The objective of this study was to elucidate a possible link between the effects of ppTRH178-199 and glucocorticoids on the inhibition ...
Furuta K - - 2001
When premetamorphic larvae of the salamander Hynobius retardatus were treated with potent goitrogens, or subjected to thyroidectomy, their metamorphosis was completely arrested. The pituitary gland of the arrested larvae consisted mostly of the hypertrophied Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) cells that are called "thyroidectomy cells". The development and dynamics of the ...
Iqbal J - - 2001
Leptin, a hormone secreted from the adipose tissue, is involved in the regulation of food intake and neuroendocrine function, by modulation of the expression and/or function of various neuropeptides in the hypothalamus. The long isoform (OB-Rb) is the major signaling form of the leptin receptor in the hypothalamus. We have ...
Guild S B - - 2001
The effect of over-expressing neuronal calcium sensor 1 (NCS-1) upon stimulated adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) secretion was studied in AtT-20 cells. Stably-transfected AtT-20 cell lines over-expressing NCS-1 were obtained and compared to wild type AtT-20 cells. Corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF-41)-stimulated ACTH secretion from NCS-1 over-expressing cells was significantly reduced from that obtained ...
Rajendren G - - 2001
The decapeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays a pivotal role in reproduction and is synthesized by GnRH-producing cell bodies in the basal forebrain. Experiments were designed to investigate whether GnRH cells projecting outside the blood brain barrier or those projecting within the brain are activated during the steroid-induced LH surge or ...
Kondo T - - 2001
A major oxidative product, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is involved in ageing, carcinogenesis, and different diseases. The expression of 8-OHdG in the human pituitary gland was investigated immunohistochemically using specimens from individuals aged 19-88 years. 8-OHdG was localized at the nuclei of the anterior lobar parenchymal cells of the pituitary gland. The ...
Clarke I J - - 2001
Oestrogen produces a positive feedback effect on the secretion of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) when implanted into the ventromedial/arcuate nucleus of the ovariectomized (OVX) ewe. This has led to the belief that it is in this area of the hypothalamus that oestrogen causes the preovulatory surge ...
Gubkina O - - 2001
The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and its polysialylated isoform (PSA-NCAM) have been shown to influence the proliferation, differentiation and survival of different cell types. Here, we report the pattern of expression of NCAM and PSA-NCAM in the anterior lobe (AL) of the pituitary gland of the adult mouse. We ...
Castro-Caldas M - - 2001
AIMS: Annexin I (ANXA1), a 37kDa member of the annexin family of Ca2+-binding and phospholipid-binding proteins, is particularly abundant in various populations of peripheral blood leukocytes. Since this protein modulates the anti-inflammatory actions of the steroid hormones, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the female ...
Gevrey J C - - 2001
The expression of rab3A and rab3D isoforms in the enteroendocrine, cholecystokinin-secreting, cell lines STC-1 and GLUTag is here demonstrated. In contrast, rab3B is undetectable in these two cell lines, and rab3C is only slightly expressed in GLUTag cells. Using a transient co-transfection system with human growth hormone as reporter protein, ...
Demay F - - 2001
In the rat pituitary gland the mechanism responsible for ERalpha regulation has not been fully elucidated. Using transient transfection assays in alphaT3-1 cells, a cell line of gonadotrope origin, we show that GnRH stimulates estrogen response element-containing promoters in an estrogen-independent manner. This effect was strictly ER and GnRH receptor ...
Fauquier T - - 2001
All higher life forms critically depend on hormones being rhythmically released by the anterior pituitary. The proper functioning of this master gland is dynamically controlled by a complex set of regulatory mechanisms that ultimately determine the fine tuning of the excitable endocrine cells, all of them heterogeneously distributed throughout the ...
Vazquez-Martinez R - - 2001
The intermediate lobe of the pituitary secretes the melanotropic hormone alpha-MSH, which in amphibians plays a crucial role in skin color adaptation. It has been previously demonstrated that, in the frog Rana ridibunda, the intermediate lobe is composed of two distinct subpopulations of melanotrope cells that can be separated in ...
Turgeon J L - - 2001
The progesterone receptor (PR) has a central role in the hypothalamo-pituitary events culminating in the preovulatory LH surge, and mice with genetically ablated PR provide a model for dissecting cellular pathways subserving this role. The aims of this study were to determine 1) whether the GnRH self-priming response and acute ...
Pandolfi M - - 2001
Prolactin, growth hormone and somatolactin constitute a hormone family because they are structurally related and are secreted by acidophilic cells of different regions of the adenohypohyisis. In this work, we report the ontogeny of ir-prolactin, ir-growth hormone and ir-somatolactin cells in the developing pituitary gland of the cichlid fish Cichlasoma ...
Nozaki M - - 2001
Adenohypophysial cell types in the pituitary of adult sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus, was localized by means of immunocytochemical and lectin cytochemical techniques. At least four types of adenohypophysial hormone cells are present in the pituitary of adult sea lampreys. The first type of cell is ACTH-like and occupies most parts ...
Nishioka H - - 2001
AIMS: Although delayed hypopituitarism is a common complication of conventional radiotherapy of sellar tumours, histological changes that may account for it have been rarely reported. To elucidate the changes, hypofunctional pituitary glands following irradiation were studied. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two pituitary glands obtained at autopsy from patients who had been ...
Porter T E - - 2001
Prior research indicates that growth hormone (GH) cell differentiation can be induced prematurely by treatment with glucocorticoids in vitro and in vivo. However, the nature of these responses has not been fully characterized. In this study, the time course of corticosterone induction of GH-secreting cells in cultures of chicken embryonic ...
Kostic T S - - 2001
Nitric oxide (NO)-dependent soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is operative in mammalian cells, but its presence and the role in cGMP production in pituitary cells have been incompletely characterized. Here we show that sGC is expressed in pituitary tissue and dispersed cells, enriched lactotrophs and somatotrophs, and GH(3) immortalized cells, and ...
Jin L - - 2001
Pituitary folliculostellate (FS) cells are usually located between the secretory cells in the anterior pituitary, and they produce many peptides that exert a paracrine effect on hormone-producing pituitary cells. Previous approaches have been unsuccessful in obtaining homogeneous populations of FS cells. We used a combination of immunostaining with S100 protein ...
Pandolfi M - - 2001
The adenohypophysis of the cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus was studied using the avidin-biotin-peroxidase method with antisera raised against piscine pituitary hormones and heterologous antisera against mammalian pituitary hormones. Antiserum raised against rabbit ACTH recognized a group of cells bordering the neurohypophysis (NH) in the rostral pars distalis (RPD). Anti-chum salmon ...
Noronha B E - - 2001
The presence of adenohypophysial tissue in the nasopharynx is no longer disputed. This study was performed in 50 neonatal cadavers subjected to medical autopsy within 6 hours of death. The aim was to study the incidence of extrasellar pituitary tissue in the nasopharynx and its various histologic cell types. The ...
Oguchi A - - 2001
The coexistence of prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) was previously demonstrated in newly hatched bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) tadpoles, whereas in adult bullfrogs, there were no cells containing both PRL and GH. However, a cell blot assay with enzymatically dispersed adult pituitary cells demonstrated the existence of cells secreting both ...
Blanco M - - 2001
Orexins-A and -B are hypothalamic peptides derived from a precursor called prepro-orexin and relationated with the stimulation of food intake. They act on G protein receptors named orexin receptor 1 (OX(1)R) and orexin receptor 2 (OX(2)R), respectively. In the present study, we used RT-PCR and immunohistochemical techniques to detect the ...
Rodríguez-Gómez F J - - 2001
In this paper we report the first complete mapping of the pituitary in a tuna species. The various different adenohypophysis cell types of the bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus L. have been identified and located using different antisera against mammalian and piscine hormones and various histochemical techniques: PAS, Alcian Blue pH ...
Bilezikjian L M - - 2001
1. The anterior pituitary is well documented to be under the control of central and peripheral factors that dynamically interact to affect cell-specific modulation of pituitary functions. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that these extrinsic factors work in concert with a variety of local products that exert autocrine/paracrine control ...
Guerra M - - 2001
The cell types of the pars tuberalis (PT) are the follicular cells, the pars distalis cells and the so-called PT-specific cells. The latter are distinct endocrine cells displaying melatonin receptors. Although the nature of the secretory product(s) of the PT-specific cells has not yet been clarified, the function of these ...
Hashizume T - - 2001
Rates of internalization of the murine GnRH receptor fused via its C-terminus to green fluorescent protein (GnRH-R-GFP) were examined in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO cells) and compared to those of native murine GnRH-R in a clonal murine gonadotroph cell line (LbetaT2 cells). The resulting rates of internalization of murine ...
Denef C - - 2001
1. We describe a novel paracrine control system in the pituitary gland, consisting of peptides derived from the N-terminal fragment of pro-opiomelanocortin (N-POMC), for example POMC(1-74) and gamma3-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). 2. By searching the target cells of these N-POMC fragments, using the rise of intracellular free calcium as a response ...
Vitale M L - - 2001
Because in mammals the anterior pituitary lacks innervation, we investigated whether gap junctions established between selected cells within the gland are part of an intrapituitary mechanism to ensure physiological synchronization of cells involved in the control of hormone secretion. We report here the dynamics of anterior pituitary connexin 43 (Cx43)-gap ...
Davis J R - - 2001
Ablative therapies for pituitary tumors commonly cause irreversible damage to normal pituitary cells. Toxin gene therapy should therefore ideally be targeted to specific cell types to avoid collateral cell damage. To evaluate cell-type-specific adenoviral gene transfer in the intact pituitary gland we have used stereotaxic transcranial delivery of recombinant adenoviruses ...
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