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Smith Yarery C - - 2006
Human bladder 5637 cells cultivated under microgravity conditions formed organoids that displayed characteristics of in vivo tissue-specific differentiation. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strain CP9 colonized and penetrated the organoids and induced alpha-hemolysin-mediated exfoliation of uroepithelial cells. We propose these uro-organoids as models that simulate the interactions between UPEC and terminally ...
Diao Jinpian - - 2006
We have developed a prototype three-channel microfluidic chip that is capable of generating a linear concentration gradient within a microfluidic channel and is useful in the study of bacterial chemotaxis. The linear chemical gradient is established by diffusing a chemical through a porous membrane located in the side wall of ...
Park Yang-Nim - - 2005
Candida albicans strains that are homozygous at the mating type locus (MTLa or MTLalpha) can spontaneously switch from the normal round-to-oval yeast cell morphology to an elongated, so-called opaque cell form that can mate with opaque cells of the opposite mating type. In response to environmental signals, C. albicans also ...
Agladze Konstantin - - 2005
Using fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis, we previously observed that cells within Escherichia coli biofilm are organized in nonrandom or periodic spatial patterns. Here, we developed a gravity displacement assay for examining cell adherence and used it to quantitatively monitor the formation of two distinct forms of cell attachment, temporary ...
Hajmeer Maha - - 2006
Abundant literature information is available on sodium chloride, NaCl, as an antimicrobial and a preservative, however, information on NaCl effects on bacterial cell morphology is lacking. The effect of NaCl, on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus cells individually grown in a laboratory medium was examined using transmission electron microscopy ...
Svensson Ingrid - - 2005
Concentrated conditioned medium (CM) fractions from Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 and Trichoplusia ni cells, eluting from a gel filtration column at around 10 kDa, were found to exhibit strong antibacterial activity against Bacillus megaterium and Escherichia coli. The B. megaterium cells incubated in the CM fraction from Sf9 cells rapidly lost ...
Looser V - - 2005
The key to optimizing productivity during industrial fermentations is the ability to rapidly monitor and interpret the physiological state of single microbial cells in a population and to recognize and characterize different sub-populations. Here, a flow cytometry-based method for the reproducible detection of changes in membrane function and/or structure of ...
Harrison Joe J - - 2005
Bacterial cultures produce subpopulations of cells termed 'persisters', reputedly known for high tolerance to killing by antibiotics. Ecologically, antibiotics produced by competing microflora are only one potential stress encountered by bacteria. Another pressure in the environment is toxic metals that are distributed ubiquitously by human pollution, volcanic activity and the ...
Hamamoto Tomoki - - 2005
We have established an efficient method for enzymatic production of cytidine 5'-monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-NeuAc) from inexpensive materials, N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and cytidine 5'-monophosphate (CMP). The Haemophilus influenzae nanE gene encoding GlcNAc 6-phosphate (GlcNAc 6-P) 2-epimerase and the Campylobacter jejuni neuB1 gene encoding N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc) synthetase, both of whose products are ...
Belas Robert - - 2005
Proteus mirabilis is a urinary tract pathogen that differentiates from a short swimmer cell to an elongated, highly flagellated swarmer cell. Swarmer cell differentiation parallels an increased expression of several virulence factors, suggesting that both processes are controlled by the same signal. The molecular nature of this signal is not ...
Chary Vasant K - - 2005
During formation of spores by Bacillus subtilis the RNA polymerase factor sigma(G) ordinarily becomes active during spore formation exclusively in the prespore upon completion of engulfment of the prespore by the mother cell. Formation and activation of sigma(G) ordinarily requires prior activity of sigma(F) in the prespore and sigma(E) in ...
Jordan Pamela - - 2005
We report the creation of permanent 3D configurations of cells, at predefined positions, within a gelatin matrix. The technique used holographic optical tweezers to manipulate individual E. coli within a solution comprising monomer precursors. The matrix was then set and after the laser beam was removed, we were able to ...
Crane John K - - 2005
We previously reported that enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) infection triggered a large release of ATP from the host cell that was correlated with and dependent on EPEC-induced killing of the host cell. We noted, however, that under some circumstances, EPEC-induced ATP release exceeded that which could be accounted for on ...
Oliver James D - - 2005
We examined the effects of chlorine disinfection on Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium in secondary-treated wastewater to determine whether such treatment might induce these bacteria into the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state. In this state, cells lose culturability but retain viability and the potential to revert to the metabolically active ...
Takeuchi Shoji - - 2005
This paper describes a technique for growing filamentous cells of Escherichia coli with defined shapes, including crescents, zigzags, sinusoids, and spirals. The procedure begins with the fabrication of embossed microchambers in agarose. Cells are trapped in the chambers by placing a flat, flexible "ceiling", either a slab of agarose or ...
Das Margaret - - 2005
Uropathogenic and diarrheal Escherichia coli strains expressing adhesins of the Dr family bind to decay-accelerating factor, invade epithelial cells, preferentially infect children and pregnant women, and may be associated with chronic or recurrent infections. Thus far, no fimbrial domain(s) that facilitates cell invasion has been identified. We used alanine scanning ...
Sherman Michael P - - 2005
Paneth cells are specialized epithelia in the small bowel that secrete antimicrobial proteins. Paneth cells are vital to the innate immunity of the small bowel in adult mammals, but their role during neonatal infection of the small bowel is not well established. Dithizone selectively damages Paneth cells, and when dithizone-treated ...
Lagally Eric T - - 2005
We have directly integrated a continuous-flow, electrokinetic method of bacterial cell concentration with room temperature, sequence-specific genetic detection. The system we have developed traps cells from a continuous-flow sample stream via dielectrophoresis, providing a 160-fold increase in cell concentration. PDMS microvalves then define a 100 nL volume around the trapped ...
Narita Junya - - 2006
We have developed a novel Escherichia coli cell surface display system by employing PgsA as an anchoring motif. In our display system, C-terminal fusion to PgsA anchor protein from Bacillus subtilis was used. The enzymes selected for display were alpha-amylase (AmyA) from Streptococcus bovis 148 and lipase B (CALB) from ...
Aoki Stephanie K - - 2005
Bacteria have developed mechanisms to communicate and compete with each other for limited environmental resources. We found that certain Escherichia coli, including uropathogenic strains, contained a bacterial growth-inhibition system that uses direct cell-to-cell contact. Inhibition was conditional, dependent upon the growth state of the inhibitory cell and the pili expression ...
Camara Johanna E - - 2005
Initiation of DNA replication from the Escherichia coli chromosomal origin is highly regulated, assuring that replication occurs precisely once per cell cycle. Three mechanisms for regulation of replication initiation have been proposed: titration of free DnaA initiator protein by the datA locus, sequestration of newly replicated origins by SeqA protein ...
Riber Leise - - 2005
Escherichia coli cells were constructed in which the dnaA gene was moved to a location opposite oriC on the circular chromosome. In these cells the dnaA gene was replicated with significant delay relative to the origin. Consequently, the period where the newly replicated and hemimethylated oriC was sequestered no longer ...
Bullard Brian - - 2005
Moraxella catarrhalis is a human pathogen that causes otitis media in young children and lung infections in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In this study, the role of the surface protein Hag in the adherence of multiple M. catarrhalis strains was examined. The hag genes of four clinical isolates ...
DiLuzio Willow R - - 2005
The motion of peritrichously flagellated bacteria close to surfaces is relevant to understanding the early stages of biofilm formation and of pathogenic infection. This motion differs from the random-walk trajectories of cells in free solution. Individual Escherichia coli cells swim in clockwise, circular trajectories near planar glass surfaces. On a ...
Gawande Purushottam V - - 2005
In this study, we investigated the effect of starvation on cryotolerance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 grown in tryptic soy broth (TSB) and Luria-Bertani broth (LB). Starved cells (cells suspended in water at 37 degrees C for 6 h) and control cells (cells in TSB or LB) were frozen at -18 ...
Demidova Tatiana N - - 2005
Photodynamic therapy involves the use of nontoxic dyes called photosensitizers and visible light to produce reactive oxygen species and cell killing. It is being studied as an alternative method of killing pathogens in localized infections due to the increasing problem of multiantibiotic resistance. Although much has been learned about the ...
Morigen - - 2005
In Escherichia coli, three mechanisms have been proposed to maintain proper regulation of replication so that initiation occurs once, and only once, per cell cycle. First, newly formed origins are inactivated by sequestration; second, the initiator, DnaA, is inactivated by the Hda protein at active replication forks; and third, the ...
Choi Jeong-Woo - - 2005
The immobilized cell using self-assembled synthetic oligopeptide was applied to the biological toxicity detection of environmental pollutant. Thin films based on cysteine-terminated synthetic oligopeptides were fabricated for the immobilization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on gold (Au) substrate. Layer formation and immobilization of E. coli O157:H7 were investigated with surface plasmon ...
Wells Mona - - 2005
We demonstrate the use of laser-induced fluorescence confocal spectroscopy to measure analyte-stimulated enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) synthesis by genetically modified Escherichia coli bioreporter cells. Induction is measured in cell lysates and, since the spectroscopic focal volume is approximately the size of one bioreporter cell, also in individual live bacteria. ...
Taguchi Goro - - 2005
Tobacco cells (Nicotiana tabacum L. Bright Yellow T-13) exposed to harmful naphthols accumulate them as glucosylated and further modified compounds [Taguchi et al. (2003a) Plant Sci. 164, 231-240]. In this study, we identified the accumulated compounds to be 6'-O-malonylated glucosides of naphthols. Cells treated with various phenolic compounds accumulated the ...
Kim Sun Young - - 2005
DNA microarray analysis showed that yfiD, yggB, and yggE genes were up-regulated when superoxide dismutase (SOD)-deficient Escherichia coli IM303 (I4) was cultivated under the oxidative stress generated by photoexcited TiO(2), and pYFD, pYGB, and pYGE were constructed by inserting the respective genes into a pUC 19 vector. The content of ...
Fine Daniel H - - 2005
Cells of the gram-negative periodontopathogen Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans express a surface-exposed, outer membrane autotransporter protein, designated Aae, which has been implicated in epithelial cell binding. We constructed a mutant strain of A. actinomycetemcomitans that contained a transposon insertion in the Aae structural gene (aae) and tested the mutant to determine its ...
Ruiz Natividad - - 2005
The Cpx and sigmaE signaling systems monitor the cell envelope in Escherichia coli. When induced, each system triggers a signaling cascade that leads to the upregulation of factors needed to combat envelope damage. Although each system is distinct and can be uniquely induced by certain cues, they also share striking ...
Dainiak Maria B - - 2005
Supermacroporous monolithic columns with Cu(2+)-IDA ligands have been successfully used for chromatographic separation of different types of microbial cells. The bed of monolithic matrix is formed by a cryogel of poly(acrylamide) cross-linked with methylenebis(acrylamide) and has a network of large (10-100 microm) interconnected pores allowing unhindered passage of whole cells ...
Nuntaprasert A - - 2005
The swine interleukin-6 (SwIL-6) cDNA was cloned by RT-PCR and each expression system of recombinant SwIL-6 in Escherichia coli, insect cells, and mammalian cells was developed. Recombinant SwIL-6 produced in bacteria was applied for generation of the polyclonal antibodies. The rSwIL-6 was purified from supernatant of insect cells with a ...
Aronsson Kristina - - 2005
Membrane permeabilization, caused by pulsed electric field (PEF) processing of microbial cells, was investigated by measurement of propidium iodide (PI) uptake with flow cytometry. Inactivation of Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was determined by viable counts, and leakage of intracellular compounds, such as ATP and UV-absorbing substances, was ...
Zorzano M-P - - 2005
A new experimental colonial pattern and pattern transition observed in E. coli MG1655 swarming cells grown on semisolid agar are described. We present a reaction-diffusion model that, taking into account the slime generated by these cells and its influence on the bacterial differentiation and motion, reproduces the pattern and successfully ...
Chen Joseph C - - 2005
Caulobacter crescentus assembles many of its cellular machines at distinct times and locations during the cell cycle. PodJ provides the spatial cues for the biogenesis of several polar organelles, including the pili, adhesive holdfast and chemotactic apparatus, by recruiting structural and regulatory proteins, such as CpaE and PleC, to a ...
Kussell Edo - - 2005
The persistence phenotype is an epigenetic trait exhibited by a subpopulation of bacteria, characterized by slow growth coupled with an ability to survive antibiotic treatment. The phenotype is acquired via a spontaneous, reversible switch between normal and persister cells. These observations suggest that clonal bacterial populations may use persister cells, ...
Couñago Rafael - - 2005
Thermophilic bacteria are of great value for industry and research communities. Unfortunately, the cellular processes and mechanisms of these organisms remain largely understudied. In the present study, we investigate how the inactivation of adenylate kinase (AK) affects the adenine nucleotide homeostasis of a gram-positive moderate thermophile, Geobacillus stearothermophilus strain NUB3621-R. ...
Kruse Thomas - - 2005
MreB proteins of Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Caulobacter crescentus form actin-like cables lying beneath the cell surface. The cables are required to guide longitudinal cell wall synthesis and their absence leads to merodiploid spherical and inflated cells prone to cell lysis. In B. subtilis and C. crescentus, the mreB ...
Wagner Jennifer K - - 2005
Caulobacter crescentus cells treated with amdinocillin, an antibiotic which specifically inhibits the cell elongation transpeptidase penicillin binding protein 2 in Escherichia coli, exhibit defects in stalk elongation and morphology, indicating that stalk synthesis may be a specialized form of cell elongation. In order to investigate this possibility further, we examined ...
Slovak Peter M - - 2005
MreB is thought to be a bacterial actin homolog that defines the morphology of rod-shaped bacteria. Rhodobacter sphaeroides changes shape, from a rod to coccobacillus, and undergoes extensive cytoplasmic membrane invagination when it switches from aerobic to photoheterotrophic growth. The role of MreB in defining R. sphaeroides shape was therefore ...
Revol-Junelles Anne-Marie - - 2005
Dry poplar wood crates and glass surfaces (bottoms of Pyrex flasks) were contaminated with aqueous suspensions of Escherichia coli Collection de l'Institut Pasteur (CIP) 54.8 cells or Bacillus cereus CIP 78.3 spores. After different periods of storage at 25 degrees C, the number of cells still present on both surfaces ...
Sharma M - - 2005
AIMS: To determine the effectiveness of an alkaline cleaner used in food-processing plants and a lytic bacteriophage specific for Escherichia coli O157:H7 in killing wild type and rpoS-deficient cells of the pathogen in a biofilm. METHODS AND RESULTS: Wild type and rpoS-deficient cells were attached to stainless steel coupons (c. ...
Leung Kam Tin - - 2005
This study examines the effect of carbon starvation on the ability of a Moraxella sp. strain to degrade p-nitrophenol (PNP). Carbon starvation for 24 h decreased the induction time for p-nitrophenol degradation by the bacterium in a minimal salt medium from 6 to 1 h but it did not completely ...
Yazdani Syed Shams - - 2004
A high cell density cultivation method was developed to produce recombinant PvRII, a malaria vaccine candidate, in E. coli for use in vaccine studies. Cells were grown in completely defined media and glucose was fed to achieve a specific growth rate of 0.12 h(-1) until cells reached 55 g dry ...
Wenhua Li - - 2004
Though people had recognized the pivotal function of CaCl(2) during DNA transformation into Escherichia coli, the mechanism of divalent Ca(2+) cation inducing E. coli competence development is still unknowable. Quantum dots (QDs), as a new fluorescent probe, being applied in biology research, had aroused great interest. We explored the penetrability ...
Barany Sandor - - 2004
The regularities, kinetics and mechanisms of flocculation of Escherichia coli and B. thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) cellular suspensions by water-soluble polymers-and first of all cationic polyelectrolytes of different charge density and stiffness of the macromolecule chain have been investigated. The effect of the focculant dose and nature, its charge density, ...
Iwai Noritaka - - 2004
We have previously reported that a novel S-benzylisothiourea derivative, S-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)isothiourea, tentatively named A22, induced spherical cells in Escherichia coli. To elucidate the structural element(s) required for inducing these spherical cells, the biological activity of S-benzylisothiourea derivatives and related compounds toward E. coli cells was investigated. S-(4-Chlorobenzyl)isothiourea revealed spherical cell-inducing activity, ...
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