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Junne Stefan - - 2010
The time-dependent development of cell polarizability and length in Escherichia coli batch fermentations were observed at-line with electrooptical measurements. While using a measurement system with fully automated sample preparation, the development of these properties can be observed with a comparable high frequency (six measurements per hour). The polarizability as well ...
Wang Ping P FAS Center for Systems Biology, Harvard University, 52 Oxford St, Cambridge, MA 02138, - - 2010
The quantitative study of the cell growth has led to many fundamental insights in our understanding of a wide range of subjects, from the cell cycle to senescence. Of particular importance is the growth rate, whose constancy represents a physiological steady state of an organism. Recent studies, however, suggest that ...
Zhang Hui - - 2010
The characterization of a pharmaceutical microemulsion system with glycerol monolaurate as oil, ethanol as cosurfactant, Tween 40 as surfactant, sodium diacetate and water, and the antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium expansum have been studied. The influence of ethanol and sodium ...
Darnton Nicholas C - - 2010
When vegetative bacteria that can swim are grown in a rich medium on an agar surface, they become multinucleate, elongate, synthesize large numbers of flagella, produce wetting agents, and move across the surface in coordinated packs: they swarm. We examined the motion of swarming Escherichia coli, comparing the motion of ...
Thurman Jill - - 2010
This study examined whether two ciliates could discriminate between equally-sized bacterial prey in mixture and if so, how selectivity might benefit the ciliate population. Live Klebsiella aerogenes, K. ozaenae and Escherichia coli, expressing different coloured fluorescent proteins, were cultured in such a way as to provide populations containing equally-sized cells ...
Vikram Amit - - 2010
Limonoids are important constituents of the grapefruit and other citrus fruits. Research on health benefits suggests that citrus limonoids may act as anti-cancer, cholesterol lowering, anti-HIV and anti-feedant compounds. However, antimicrobial activities of citrus limonoids are not reported. In the present investigation, limonoids were purified from grapefruit seed and evaluated ...
Robert Lydia - - 2010
The lactose operon regulation in Escherichia coli is a primary model of phenotypic switching, reminiscent of cell fate determination in higher organisms. Under conditions of bistability, an isogenic cell population partitions into two subpopulations, with the operon's genes turned on or remaining off. It is generally hypothesized that the final ...
Godin Michel M Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, - - 2010
We used a suspended microchannel resonator (SMR) combined with picoliter-scale microfluidic control to measure buoyant mass and determine the 'instantaneous' growth rates of individual cells. The SMR measures mass with femtogram precision, allowing rapid determination of the growth rate in a fraction of a complete cell cycle. We found that ...
Schüller Stephanie - - 2010
Advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) have greatly benefited from the use of human epithelial cell lines under aerobic conditions. However, in the target site of EHEC infection, the human intestine, conditions are microaerobic. In our study we used polarized human colon carcinoma cells ...
Moritz Tobias J - - 2010
Laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS) was used to characterize the Raman fingerprints of the metabolic states of Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells and to determine the spectral changes associated with cellular response to the antibiotic Cefazolin. The Raman spectra of E. coli cells sampled at different time points in the ...
Cho Min - - 2010
The objective of this study was to elucidate dominant mechanisms of inactivation, i.e. surface attack versus intracellular attack, during application of common water disinfectants such as ozone, chlorine dioxide, free chlorine and UV irradiation. Escherichia coli was used as a representative microorganism. During cell inactivation, protein release, lipid peroxidation, cell ...
Wang Yingying - - 2010
The present study reports the disinfection effects of chemically and electrochemically dosed chlorine on two models for typical water-borne bacteria (Escherichia coli and Legionella beliardensis) by plating and flow cytometry (FCM) in combination with different fluorescence dyes. The residual effect on various cell functions, including cultivability, esterase activity, membrane polarization, ...
Uchiyama Junji - - 2010
The Escherichia coli pgsA3 mutation, which causes deficiency in acidic phospholipids, leads to a significant accumulation of sigma(S). This accumulation is partly accounted for by the higher transcription level of rpoS; however, it has also been suggested that the cells accumulate sigma(S) post-transcriptionally. We found that the level of the ...
Fischer-Friedrich Elisabeth - - 2010
Self-organization of proteins in space and time is of crucial importance for the functioning of cellular processes. Often, this organization takes place in the presence of strong random fluctuations due to the small number of molecules involved. We report on stochastic switching of the Min-protein distributions between the two cell ...
Matsumoto Ken'ichiro - - 2010
Contributing factors for the antimicrobial activity enhancement of N-terminally engineered mutants of cell-penetrating apidaecins were analyzed based on their cell-penetration efficiency. The flow cytometric analysis of the engineered apidaecins labeled with carboxyfluorescein (FAM) revealed their enhanced cell-penetrating efficiencies into Escherichia coli that should be one of key factors causing the ...
Turner Danielle E - - 2010
Monitoring of sanitation is an essential function of laboratory animal facilities. The purpose of the current study was to assess the ability of an ATP-based system to detect microbes and organic contaminants. Serial dilutions of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Toxocara canis eggs, Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites, epithelial cells, and rodent blood, ...
Stubblefield Bryan A - - 2010
Rationally-assembled multispecies biofilms could benefit applied processes including mixed waste biodegradation and drug biosynthesis by combining complementary metabolic pathways into single functional communities. We hypothesized that the cellular composition of mature multispecies biofilms could be manipulated by controlling the number of each cell type present on newly colonized surfaces. To ...
Rezaeinejad Saeid - - 2011
Assessment of physiological states of individual bacterial cells can be useful in the monitoring of the biotechnological processes. Physiological heterogeneity of Escherichia coli population by respiration activity and membrane potential during growth and starvation in batch cultures was evaluated using 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) and bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid) trimethine oxo (DiBAC(4))(3) ...
Chai Sergio C - - 2010
Methionine aminopeptidase (MetAP) is a promising target for the development of novel antibiotics. However, many potent inhibitors of the purified enzyme failed to show significant antibacterial activity. It is uncertain which divalent metal MetAP uses as its native cofactor in bacterial cells. Herein, we describe a cell-based assay that monitors ...
Ping Liyan - - 2010
Rod-shaped bacteria such as Escherichia coli divide by binary fission. They inherit an old pole from the parent cell. The new pole is recently derived from the septum. Because the chemoreceptor accumulates linearly with time on the cell pole, the old pole carries more receptors than does the new pole. ...
Strömqvist Johan - - 2010
We present a fluorescence recovery after photobleaching-based method for monitoring the progression of septal Z-ring contraction in dividing Escherichia coli cells. In a large number of cells undergoing division, we irreversibly bleached cytosolically expressed Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein on one side of the septal invagination and followed the fluorescence relaxation ...
Hori Mika - - 2010
To assess the functions of the three human MutT-type enzymes, MTH1, MTH2, and NUDT5, mutation induction by an oxidized form of dGTP, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine 5'-triphosphate (8-OH-dGTP; 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine 5'-triphosphate), was examined using human 293T cells treated with their specific siRNAs. Shuttle plasmid DNA containing the supF gene was first transfected into the ...
Braga P C - - 2010
AIM: Gynecological douches may contain various molecules that need to cover and be retained by cutaneous and mucosal cells if they are to act efficaciously in treating local conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of directly visualising the ability of a commercial medical gynecological douche ...
Spesia Mariana B - - 2010
The photodynamic inactivation (PDI) of Escherichia coli and Streptococcus mitis sensitized by cationic phthalocyanines was studied in different media containing blood derivatives. First, the activity of zinc(II) tetramethyltetrapyridino[3,4-b:3',4'-g:3'',4''-l:3''',4'''-q]porphyrazinium (ZnAPc4+), zinc(II) 2,9,16,23-tetrakis[4-(N-methylpyridyloxy)]phthalocyanine (ZnPPc4+) and zinc(II) 2,9,16,23-tetrakis[2-(N,N,N-trimethylamino)ethoxy]phthalocyanine (ZnEPc4+) were compared to photoinactivate these bacteria in saline solutions. After visible light irradiation, a ...
Kalinin Yevgeniy - - 2010
Escherichia coli chemotaxis has long served as a simple model of environmental signal processing, and bacterial responses to single chemical gradients are relatively well understood. Less is known about the chemotactic behavior of E. coli in multiple chemical gradients. In their native environment, cells are often exposed to multiple chemical ...
Vikram A - - 2010
This study investigated the quorum sensing, biofilm and type three secretion system (TTSS) inhibitory properties of citrus flavonoids. Flavonoids were tested for their ability to inhibit quorum sensing using Vibrio harveyi reporter assay. Biofilm assays were carried out in 96-well plates. Inhibition of biofilm formation in Escherichia coli O157:H7 and ...
Watari Nobuhiko - - 2010
To study the swimming of a peritrichous bacterium such as Escherichia coli, which is able to change its swimming direction actively, we simulate the "run-and-tumble" motion by using a bead-spring model to account for: 1), the hydrodynamic and the mechanical interactions among the cell body and multiple flagella; 2), the ...
Hirooka Kazutake - - 2010
Bacillus subtilis quercetin 2,3-dioxygenase (QdoI) catalyzes the C-ring cleavage of quercetin to yield 2-protocatechuoyl-phloroglucinol carboxylic acid and carbon monoxide. The recombinant QdoI effectively decomposed several flavonols, including quercetin, whereas its activity toward fisetin was low, suggesting that the 5-hydroxyl group at the A-ring is critical for substrate recognition. A B. ...
Nikiyan Hike - - 2010
The effect of a relative humidity (RH) in a range of 93-65% on morphological and elastic properties of Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli cells was evaluated using atomic force microscopy. It is shown that gradual dehumidification of bacteria environment has no significant effect on cell dimensional features and considerably decreases ...
Nie Jing - - 2010
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) modulate cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and the membrane-type MMPs (MT-MMPs) are especially important for pericellular proteolysis. Understanding the activity, regulation, and function of MT-MMPs would provide important insight for ongoing research in many diseases including cancer, fibrosis, and autoimmune diseases. In this chapter, we introduce the methods ...
Yao Lun guang - - 2010
Developing cost-effective methods for high throughput production of recombinant baculoviruses in insect cells is very challenging, because the baculovirus DNA preparation and the following transfection procedure are labour-intensive and time consuming. We developed a new method of introducing recombinant Bacmid DNA from bacteria into insect cells simply using invasive diaminopimelate ...
Zaborske John - - 2010
tRNA aminoacylation, or charging, levels can rapidly change within a cell in response to the environment[1]. Changes in tRNA charging levels in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells lead to translational regulation which is a major cellular mechanism of stress response. Familiar examples are the stringent response in E. coli and ...
Irwin Peter L - - 2010
In the process of developing a microplate-based growth assay, we discovered that our test organism, a native E. coli isolate, displayed very uniform doubling times (tau) only up to a certain threshold cell density. Below this cell concentration (<or= 100 -1,000 CFU mL-1 ; <or= 27-270 CFU well-1) we observed ...
Kuhl Björn D - - 2010
Tetherin (BST-2/CD317/HM1.24) is an interferon (IFN)-inducible factor of the innate immune system, recently shown to exert antiviral activity against HIV-1 and other enveloped viruses by tethering nascent viral particles to the cell surface, thereby inhibiting viral release. In HIV-1 infection, the viral protein U (Vpu) counteracts this antiviral action by ...
Luo Jian-Fei - - 2010
Propidium monoazide can limit the analysis of microbial communities derived from genetic fingerprints to viable cells with intact cell membranes. However, PMA treatment cannot completely suppress polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification when the targeted gene is too short. PMA treatment in combination with two-step nested PCR was designed to overcome ...
Copeland Matthew F - - 2010
This paper describes a new approach for labeling intact flagella using the biarsenical dyes FlAsH and ReAsH and imaging their spatial and temporal dynamics on live Escherichia coli cells in swarming communities of bacteria by using epifluorescence microscopy. Using this approach, we observed that (i) bundles of flagella on swarmer ...
Bollenbach Tobias - - 2009
In this issue of Molecular Cell, Davies et al. (2009) work out a sequence of active cellular events that lead to the death of Escherichia coli in the presence of the drug hydroxyurea.
Silverman Philip M - - 2010
F-pili are thin, flexible filaments elaborated by F(+) cells of Escherichia coli. They belong to the class of Gram-negative pili that function in horizontal gene transfer. F-pili are initially required to establish contacts between DNA donor and recipient cells. Beyond that, F-pilus function, and that of other conjugative pili, has ...
Shigematsu Megumi - - 2009
Colicin D is a plasmid-encoded antibacterial protein that specifically cleaves the anticodon loops of four Escherichia coli tRNA(Arg) species. Here, we report that the catalytic domain of colicin D, which is expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, impairs cell growth by cleaving specific tRNAs. DNA microarray analysis revealed that mating-related genes were ...
Bot Corina Teodora - - 2010
The presence of the resting membrane potential has a strong effect on the dielectric behavior of cell suspensions. Using this observation and a well-established theoretical model, the low frequency dielectric dispersion curves of E. coli cell suspensions are de-convoluted to obtain the resting membrane potential of E. coli cells at ...
Chen Hui - - 2010
Prefoldin is a hexameric chaperone that has been identified in eukaryotic cells and in Archaea. E. coli cells over-expressing the prefoldin gene from the hyperthermophilic, archaeum, Pyrococcus furiosus, grew well at 48 degrees C while control cells were unable to grow above 46 degrees C. The isolated and purified Pfu-prefoldin ...
Sharaf Naima G NG Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, - - 2010
The inside of the cell is a complex environment that is difficult to simulate when studying proteins and other molecules in vitro. We have developed a device and system that provides a controlled environment for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments involving living cells. Our device comprises two main parts, an ...
Kuczy?ska-Wi?nik Dorota - - 2010
The development of Escherichia coli biofilm requires the differential expression of various genes implicated in cell signalling, stress responses, motility and the synthesis of structures responsible for cell attachment. The ibpAB operon is among the stress-response genes most induced during growth of the E. coli biofilm. In this study we ...
Morgunova Ekaterina - - 2009
The sliding clamp proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) plays vital roles in many aspects of DNA replication and repair in eukaryotic cells and in archaea. Realising the full potential of archaea as a model for PCNA function requires a combination of biochemical and genetic approaches. In order to provide a ...
de la Rica Roberto - - 2009
The risk of infectious diseases has compelled some industries to establish a zero-tolerance standard for the presence of microorganisms in a given sample. Here, we address this issue with a novel reverse-phase immunoassay on impedimetric transducers for the specific detection of extremely low numbers of pathogens (less than 10 cells). ...
Kim Hyunjung N - - 2010
The role of extracellular macromolecules on Escherichia coli O157:H7 transport and retention was investigated in saturated porous media. To compare the relative transport and retention of E. coli cells that are macromolecule rich and deficient, macromolecules were partially cleaved using a proteolytic enzyme. Characterization of bacterial cell surfaces, cell aggregation, ...
Huang Li-Yun - - 2009
Toll-like receptor (TLR)-expressing cells, for the first time, detected and identified a microbial contaminant in a product made in Escherichia coli using an old manufacturing process. It was suspected of having a microbial contaminant(s) because, although it tested negative by standard pyrogen assays, it was associated with adverse events in ...
Balasundaram B - - 2009
Cell engineering to enable step change improvements in bioprocessing can be directed at targets other than increasing product titer. The physical properties of the process suspension such as viscosity, for example, have a major impact on various downstream processing unit operations. The release of chromosomal DNA during homogenization of Escherichia ...
Chen Yen-Lin - - 2009
Microorganisms can complex and sequester heavy metals, rendering them promising living factories for nanoparticle production. Glutathione (GSH) is pivotal in cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticle formation in yeasts and its synthesis necessitates two enzymes: gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS) and glutathione synthetase (GS). Hereby, we constructed two recombinant E. coli ABLE C strains ...
Morita-Ishihara Tomoko - - 2009
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 induces the formation of filamentous, actin-rich, pedestal-shaped structures beneath bacterial cells that have attached to intestinal epithelial cells. Pedestal formation requires the translocation of EHEC O157:H7 type III effectors. One of these type III effectors, EspFu, consists of an N-terminal signal sequence, which is necessary ...
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